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PresentationofVapourRecoverySystems

ByTiesMulder ProcessandImplementationConsultant June2005

History of Vapour Recovery & Technologies developed Worldwide Emission legislation Closed circuit European recovery system for truck Implementation of Vapour Recovery systems on terminals Recovery product, rate, tax refund
Safety aspects, ATEX, SIL
Presentation VRU - June 2005
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History of Vapour Recovery & Technologies developed Worldwide Emission legislation Closed circuit European recovery system for truck Implementation of Vapour Recovery systems on terminals Recovery product, rate, tax refund
Safety aspects, ATEX, SIL
Presentation VRU - June 2005
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FirstSystems

First systems = thermal destruction (air assisted flare)

Energy consumption : high Destruction : 97 % efficiency Maintenance : low

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FirstRecoverySystems

First recovery systems installed in the United States Flare gas recovery using compression and cooling

Outlet to Flare

Vapour Inlet

Cooler Separator

Energy consumption : high Emissions : 80 % efficiency Maintenance : medium

Compressor

Recovered Liquid

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Adsorptionsystems

Early 70s : first activated carbon / vacuum system (Rheem Brothers - USA)
Clean air outlet

Top product vented to atmosphere

Gasoline supply Glycol Separator

Energy consumption : low Emissions : 80 % efficiency Maintenance : high

Vapour Inlet Activated Carbon Filters

Re-absorber

Vacuum Pump

Gasoline return

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Deepcoolingsystems

Deep cooling systems @ -35C (Edwards - USA)

Clean Air Outlet De-icing heater Cooling Elements

Energy consumption : high Emissions : < 80 g/m3 Maintenance : very high


Chiller

Vapour Inlet

Pure Product

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EvolutionofAdsorptionsystems...

First patent by McGill in 1978 based on Rheem brothers with recycling of absorber top
Clean air outlet

Top product returned to inlet

Energy consumption : low Emissions : 35 g/m3 Maintenance : high


Gasoline supply

Glycol Separator

Vapour Inlet Activated Carbon Filters

Re-absorber

Replacement of deep cooling by adsorption systems in USA

Vacuum Pump

Gasoline return

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EvolutionofAdsorptionsystems

Since 1980 s : Activated carbon / Liquid ring vacuum systems as known today
Clean Air Outlet

Purge

Adsorbers

Energy consumption : high Emissions : < 35 g/m3 Maintenance : high Suppliers patents in several European countries

Vapour Inlet

Absorber

Absorbents Cooler

EG Separator

Vacuum Pump

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Alternativesolutions

Fear of patent infringement Development of alternative solutions in Europe


Cold absorption system : Membrane system : Activated carbon + cold re-absorption : Cogeneration : Absorption / Adsorption / Absorption :

Coolsorption / Kappagi Vaconocore / Preussag Kaldair Petro-Plus (Qlear) / Schwelm Mc Gill

Introduction by Germany and Switzerland of extremely low emissions Development of complex hydride systems

Cold adsorption + Steam regenerated carbon : Coolsorption Membrane + Vacuum regenerated carbon : Vaconocore LRVP + Roots blowers : John Zink Thermal balance adsorption : Ties Mulder
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Coldabsorptionsystem

Clean Air Outlet Absorbents Inlet Vapour Inlet

Cooler

Reabsorber Absorber Heater Absorbents Return Nonane Circuit Chiller Splitter

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Membranesystem

Clean Air Outlet

Evnt. 2 nd Stage

Separator Vapour Inlet Cooler

Membrane

Vacuum Pump Compressor

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ThermalBalanceAdsorption

Clean Air Outlet

Adsorption Filters

Absorber

Vapour Inlet
Condenser

Separator Vac pump

Absorbents
Heat exchanger

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Latestdevelopments

Latest developments : Dry screw pumps systems by CarboVac


Outlet

Energy consumption : low


Emissions : < 10 g/m3 Maintenance : low Replacement of glycol systems by dry systems

Inlet Dry Screw Vacuum Pump P

Activated Carbon Beds

Re-Absorber

Absorbants Circulation

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Actualsituation

Activated carbon = highly favourite solution since 1980 More than 90% of all recovery systems in the world In the USA, destruction by combustion still represents 40% But restrictions are coming due to : New CO2 limitation policies (Kyoto protocol) Adoption by Petroleum Companies (BP, Shell) of internal green policies (engagement to reduce 50% of CO2 emissions) Replacement of destruction by recovery solutions

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History of Vapour Recovery & Technologies developed Worldwide Emission legislation Closed circuit European recovery system for truck Implementation of Vapour Recovery systems on terminals Recovery product, rate, tax refund
Safety aspects, ATEX, SIL
Presentation VRU - June 2005
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VOCeffects

VOC emissions impact on the human health (carcinogenic components) pollution of the troposphere (ozone creation)

In Europe, 17 million tons /year of VOC released in the atmosphere in 1990. Implementation of legislation and several regulations
in particular on emissions in hydrocarbon storage and transfer terminals

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USA1stCleanAirAct

In the 80ies, 1st legislation : Clean Air Act on VOC Emission limit : 80 g/m3 loaded In 1982, emission limit reduced to 35 g/m3 loaded (general case) and locally to 10 or 6 g/m3 loaded. Complex control measurement method to prove compliance. First with balloons and mass balance Later by using CIM and CEM

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Europeanlegislation

European Directive EC94/63


35 g / m3 of air emitted (often 10 g / m3 is desired - Oslo protocol) 3 phases :


1998 : a VRU for all new terminals + terminal > 150 000 tons/year of gasoline 2001 : a VRU for terminal > 25 000 tons/year 2004 : a VRU for terminal > 10 000 tons/year

Application for fuels with RVP > 276 mbar

TA-Luft 01 in Germany, LRV in Switzerland


If emission mass flow > 3 kg/h : 150 mg HC/ m3 of air emitted (20. BImSchG) 5 mg / m3 for benzene Methane is excluded (difficult to recover, only destruction possible by combustion with secondary emissions)
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Emissioncontrol

In USA : emissions measured as a function of loaded gasoline


Complex system required for EPA compliance test

Measurement of the entire volume during 6 hours Measurement of the average hydrocarbon concentration Measurement of the total volume of gasoline loaded during 6 hrs Calculation of the mass emitted/litre loaded averaged over 6 hrs

Continuous measuring system with complex and expensive devices


CIM : Control Inlet Monitoring CEM : Continuous Emissions Monitoring

In Europe : emissions measured as real emission concentration


Simple emissions monitor in the outlet line (infra-red detector)

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Energyconsumptionversusemissions

0,3

Energy consumption (kWh/m3 treated)

TA-Luft Emissions

0,25

0,2

0,15

Israeli Emissions

0,1
EU Emissions

0,05

0 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

Emission limit (g/m3)


N.B : Data based on LRVP Systems

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Recoverychain

Refinery

Losses : 0,1 kg/m3 Emission reduction measures up to 99%

Total efficiency of the recovery chain is never better than the weakest link
Terminal Service-station Car filling
Losses : 1 kg/m3 Emission reduction measures up to 90%

Losses : 1 kg/m3 Emission reduction measures up to 99,99 %

Losses : 1 kg/m3 Emission reduction measures up to 99%

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History of Vapour Recovery & Technologies developed Worldwide Emission legislation Closed circuit European recovery system for truck Implementation of Vapour Recovery systems on terminals Recovery product, rate, tax refund
Safety aspects, ATEX, SIL
Presentation VRU - June 2005
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ECDirective94/63Stage1and2 forfueldistribution...

Stage 1 : Recovery of the vapour from the service-station ground tank to the truck and Recovery of the vapours from truck loading on the terminal. Stage 2 : Recovery of the vapour from the car fuel tank to the ground tank Not ratified by some countries in Europe due to lack of efficiency

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ECDirective94/63Stage1and2 forfueldistribution

At the Service Station

Stage 2

Car

At the Terminal

Stage 1 To VRU

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ImplementationofStage1...

Service-station :

Pressure / vacuum relief valve to be installed in the ground tank vent line Vapour return connection to be installed on the tank vent line

Truck

Truck modified to bottom loading Overfill protection All compartments connected to a central vapour collecting line equipped with 4" API coupler with check valve.

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ImplementationofStage1

Terminal :

Modification from top loading to bottom loading Installation of a Vapour Recovery System Vapour collecting line to the Vapour Recovery System Use of a dedicated gasoline tank for recovered product Installation of floating roof in fixed roof type storage tanks or complete balancing of the vapour space to the VRU Integration of a new process in the terminal and adaptation of operating and safety procedures

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Stage1examplewithfixedrooftanks

Pressure Vacuum Valve Vapours Emitted

Detonation Arrestor

Ventilator
P PT

Tanks Loading Operation


Absorbents

Vapour Recovery Unit

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ImplementationofStage2

Cars :

Installation of small canister in gasoline cars (91/441/CEE) Installation of large canister resisted by automobile industry

Service-station

Installation of vapour balance system between car fuel tank and ground tank
For every litre of gasoline filled into the tank, one litre of vapour

is returned to the ground tank

Efficiency not demonstrated Solutions not promoted by Oil Companies


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Typicalvapour composition
(Truckloading)

During the loading of gasoline and diesel in trucks, the concentration of the vapours may vary between 0 to 50 % Vol. depending of : the nature of the products previously loaded. the loading station (equipped or not acc. to Stage 1 and 2 of the EC Directive)

Theses hydrocarbons are generally composed of :


C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7++ Benzene Toluene 0 0 1.5 37 22 8 1.7 0.26 0.36 0.2 0.45 3.8 50 43 12 5.4 2.6 1.8 % Vol.

C4 and C5 represent around 90% of the hydrocarbons at the inlet vapours

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History of Vapour Recovery & Technologies developed Worldwide Emission legislation Closed circuit European recovery system for truck Implementation of Vapour Recovery systems on terminals Recovery product, rate, tax refund
Safety aspects, ATEX, SIL
Presentation VRU - June 2005
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HowtosizeaVRU

Important data for VRU sizing for truck and rail car loading:
Peak flow rate = max. flow rate generated by the loading facility (i.e max. number of loading points connected simultaneously x flow rate per point)
Determination of the pressure drop of the VRU and the vapour collecting system Determination of the lines size, carbon bed diameter All vapours have to pass through the VRU. Influence on price is small.

Max. throughput per cycle = max. vapour amount generated in 15 minutes (for truck loading) (i.e number of loading bays x volume loaded per cycle or vessel capacity) For continuous throughputs the cycle time is usually fixed at 12 minutes
Determination of the activated carbon volume in the beds

Max. throughput per 4 hour period = evaluation of the intensity of the activities at the terminal during the busiest period
Determination of the required vacuum capacity Determination of the re-absorber and absorbents circulation pumps

Max. daily throughput = evaluation of the loading profile per day


Adjustment of the vacuum capacity

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Typicalcompartmenttruck

Compartment cover serves as pressure safety relief valve Vapour Collector connected to each compartment

4 API Vapour Coupler

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VapourCollectingSystem
TruckloadingApplication

Pressure Vacuum Safety Valve

Vapour Line

Detonation Arrestor

Vapour arm

Level Switch Position Switch Drain valve

VRU

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VapourCollectingSystem
TruckloadingApplication

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Vapour CollectingSystem
TruckloadingApplication

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VapourCollectingSystem
TruckloadingApplication

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AbsorbentCirculationSystem

VRU
P501

P601

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Civilworks

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Civilworks

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Electricalworks:communicationsignals

Gasoline out in

Operations Room PC & interactive keyboard Cabling Control building modem Modem line Open/close Emergency Vent Emergency vent valve position Power Input (start/stop truck loading) Gasoline pump start /stop/running signal Site ESD signal VRU running VRU alarm

Vapour pipe work Nitrogen Water

Vapour Recovery Unit Cabling


Air

Air Compressor (instrument quality)

Foundation drainage

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Electricalworks

Safe Area

Hazardous Area

Control Room

Cables

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Electricalcablesschematics

Electrical Room VRU I Power feed cable J Instrument cables Power cables to Motors
PC

PLC

PC Monitoring Customer signals

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Operationalconnectionschematic

Control Cabinet

CONTROL ROOM Power Cabinet

Modem

VRU SUPPLIER

Instrumentations E-Motors

Modem LOCAL REPRESENTATIVE

Modem

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VRULocation

Important parameters :

Pressure drop of the vapour line


- EU Directive : - Typical P of a 4" API vapour coupler : - Typical P of a vapour arm + hose : - Typical P of an anti-deto FA : - Typical P of a VRU : 55 mbar @ truck coupler 3 mbar 12 mbar 5 mbar 25 mbar

Max available P of vapour line : 10 mbar

Pressure drop of the gasoline circulation lines


- Supply pump : - Return pump : usually close to the tank or in the pump station usually on the VRU foundation

Accessibility for maintenance works Electrical cable routing


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History of Vapour Recovery & Technologies developed Worldwide Emission legislation Closed circuit European recovery system for truck Implementation of Vapour Recovery systems on terminals Recovery product, rate, tax refund
Safety aspects, ATEX, SIL
Presentation VRU - June 2005
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Qualityoftherecoveredproduct
GasolineApplication

Recovered product mostly C4 and C5.


Tendency to increase the absorbent s RVP Tendency to increase the absorbent s temperature

Selection of a absorbent tank with a reasonable throughput

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TypicalRecoveredProduct

Hypotheses : Vapour inlet concentration : Average outlet concentration : Average MW : Calculation : Mass of hydrocarbons at inlet per m-3 = 0.4 x 65 22.4 x 10 - 3 = 1160,7 g / m-3 40 % Volume 2g / Nm-3 65 (Gasoline vapours)

Masse of hydrocarbons in the outlet per m-3 inlet = 2 x (1 - 0.4) = 1.2 g / m-3 Masse of hydrocarbons recovered 1159.5 g / m-3 of inlet vapour The recovery rate :

The effective recovery rate is Vapour recovery rate

1.49 litre per m3 99. 9 %.

Inlet vapour

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Tax refund inEurope

Recovered product not easily measured


Recovered product = only a small % of the return absorbent flow Accuracy of the metering devices not sufficient

Agreement between tax authorities and oil companies to

implement a fixed rate equal to 1.4 to 1.5 litre per m3 of gasoline entering the terminal
1.4 litre/ m3 of the gasoline throughput exempted from taxes

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History of Vapour Recovery & Technologies developed Worldwide Emission legislation Closed circuit European recovery system for truck Implementation of Vapour Recovery systems on terminals Recovery product, rate, tax refund
Safety aspects, ATEX, SIL
Presentation VRU - June 2005
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VRUSafety

VRU are installed in environment containing combustible liquid and explosive gases

Risks of fire and explosion with toxic emissions Preventive measures and risk analysis have to be performed :
HAZOP ATEX explosion protection document (EXDOC) SIL safety integrity level risk assessment

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ATEXPhilosophy

Four possible types of equipment :

Assemblies Assemblies with fully specified configuration of parts Assemblies with various configuration Installations Electrical equipment VRU is an assembly with fully specified configuration of parts ( 3.7.1 of the ATEX guideline)

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3.7.1Resume

VRU = assembly of two different pieces of equipment :

Equipment with CE marking (ATEX) :


Manufacturer may presume conformity of these pieces

Equipment without CE marking :


Manufacturer has to cover those parts with his own conformity
assessment of the whole assembly

EC declaration of conformity for the whole unit ( 3.7.1.1)


Manufacturer assumes responsibility for compliance with the directive Manufacturer should provide a conformity assessment of the whole assembly Manufacturer provides clear instructions for assembly / installation / operation / maintenance in the operating manual.
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Presentation VRU - June 2005

VRUSafetyfeatures

Some of the VRU safety features


The whole system is explosion pressure proof to 9 barg All valves with open / closed limit switches Gasoline pumps installed below liquid level High and low level switches on the re-absorber column Temperature monitoring in the activated carbon beds Outlet temperature of the vacuum pump < 50C Detonation arrestor in the inlet Two positive closing valves in each gasoline circulation line etc...

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VRUExplosionproofdesign

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Detonationarrestorininletlineand Valveswithlimitswitches

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Gasolinereturnpump

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Levelcontrolandswitches

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Temperaturesensorsandindicators incarbonbed

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DryVacuumPump TemperatureMonitoring

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Twosafetyvalves ineachgasolinecirculationline

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SafetyIntegrityLevel...
EN615085.2001

Safety integrity level risk assessment of a dry screw VRS : 4 elements to be assessed

Consequence of the risk (C)


Minor Injury Serious Injury or permanent incapacity Fatality or catastrophic incapacity

Frequency of exposure (F)


Rare to more often (0 - 10%) Frequent to permanent (10 - 100%)

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SafetyIntegrityLevel
EN615085.2001

Possibility of avoidance of a hazardous event (P)


Possible under certain conditions Almost impossible

Demand rate (W)


High W3 Low W2 Very low W1

Result of SIL risk assessment is Category a


No special safety requirements

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ResultofSILriskassessment

Consequence of Risk (C) Minor Injury Toxonomy Serious Injury or permanent incapacity Fatality or catastrophic incapacity C1 Frequency of Exposure (F) Toxonomy Rare to more often ( 0 - 10% ) Frequent to permanent ( 10 - 100% ) F1 F2 F1 F2 F1 F2 <1 <=1 1 C2 >1 C3 >10 C4

Possibility of avoidance of a hazardous event (P) Toxonomy Possible under certain conditions Almost impossible P1 P2 P1 P2 P1 P2 P1 P2 P1 P2 P1 P2

Demand Rate (W) High W3 Toxonomy Low W2 Very Low W1 a 1 a 2 1 a 3 2 1 2 1 a 3 2 1 4 3 2 3 2 1 4 3 2 b 4 3

Result of the Risk Reduction Estimation = a, no special safety requirements

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