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Electrical Engineering

SUMMARY

PART 1.

Definitions, Basic Laws

1. Let define the electrical charge, current (current density), voltage, electrical resistance of some material.

2. Through the voltaic (galvanic cell) define the basic electrical circuit.

3. Explain the basic electrical laws: Ohm’s; Kirchoff’s 1-2 laws.

4. Please define the current and voltage flowing through the active (ideal/non ideal voltage/current generators) and passive (resistor, condenser, and coil) elements of an electrical circuit.

5. Please explain the calculation of resultants of active and passive elements of the circuit.

6. Explain the calculation of delta-star, star-delta conversion.

7. Explain the significance of voltage and current division (figures, formulas).

8. What is the real voltage/current generator (figures, output calculation).

9. What is the basis of Norton/Thevenin theorems?

10. Please explain the bases of Superposition, Mesh current and Node potential calculation’s methods of electrical circuits.

11. What are the conditions of maximum power transfer theorem?

PART 2.

R,L,C Circuits, phasors

12. Condenser: capacity, charging, discharging

13. Inductance: self inductance factor, current/voltage across the coil; switch ON/OFF inductance in circuit.

14. AC electrical circuit: Average (mean) value, RMS, instantaneous values, periodic time, frequency.

15. Pure R, L, C in AC circuits: lagging/leading waves;

16. The complex forms of U and I in AC circuits, phasors, impedance, reactance and susceptance.

17. Power consumed by AC circuits: P, S, Q.

18. Serial/parallel RLC circuits (complex impedances).

PART 3.

Poly-phase systems, induction, transformers

19. 3(phase) systems: method of producing, U A , U B , U C voltages, 3,4,5 wire systems.

20. 3connections: delta-Y, line/phase voltages/currents.

21. Power in 3systems: P, Q, S with line/phase components.

22. The magnetic field: Ampére’s empirical law, magnetic induction (B), emf (magnetic force), flux, H, excitation ()

23. Faraday’s law, Lenz’s law,

24. Inductive reactance, induced current.

25. Induction: standstill, kinetic, self, mutual (explanation, output inductance)

26. Transformers: structure and operation (figure, basic equation)

27. Transformations: current, voltage, impedance

28. Equivalent circuit, (figure, explanation)

29. Unloaded, loaded, short-circuited transformers (figures, formulas)

PART 4.

Electrical machines - DC, Universal

30. Classification of rotating electrical machines motors.

31. DC generator: construction, principle of operation, induced voltage, created torque (figure, formula).

32. Comparison of DC motor vs. generator (figures, powers)

33. Architecture of DC machines: stator, rotor, commutator, brushes, poles, …

34. Performance equations: induced voltage, torque equation,

35. Power balance, efficiency: motor/generator.

36. DC machine classification, based on excitation: separately, serial, shunt, compound (characteristics, figures, basic equations)

37. Speed control of DC motors: possibilities, characteristics

38. Starting of DC motors

39. Braking of DC motors: regenerating, dynamic, reverse current

40. Changing the direction of rotation at DC machines possibilities (figures, explanation)

41. Universal motors: definition, universal motor connected to AC: shunt/series excitation. (figure, formulas, explanation)

42. Brushless DC motors: commutation, types,

43. SRM motors: operation, simple/improved switching, power circuitry.

PART 5.

Electrical machines - AC, Stepper motors

44. Asynchronous (inductive) motors: construction (stator, rotor-slip ring, rotor-cage),

45. Principle of operation: rotating magnetic field, n 0 , 0 , slip (s-n characteristic, math. formula),

46. Power balance, adequate circuit and efficiency (diagram, formulas, explanations)

47. The torque of asynchronous motors (formulas)

48. Torque-speed characteristic of asynchronous machines (diagram, explanation)

49. Starting of asynchronous motors: starting of slip ring motors, cage motors, starting with transformers, Y-delta starting, deep bar double-cage motors

50. Speed control of asynchronous motors: slip changing, changing of nr. of poles, frequency changing in stator,

51. Braking of asynchronous motors: regenerate, reverse current, dynamical

52. Single phase asynchronous motors: construction, M-n characteristic,

53. Permanent slip, capacitor-start, capacitor-run asynchronous motors (figures explanations)

54. Synchronous machines: construction (cylindrical, salient pole), operation,

55. The equivalent circuit of synch. motors, M-characteristic, torque, starting

56. Stepper motors: basic architecture (functional diagram),

57. Types of stepper motors: variable reluctance, permanent magnet, hybrid