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Q1. A refrigerator works between -7oC and 27oC. The vapour is dry at the end of adiabatic compression. There is no under cooling and evaporation is by throttle valve. Determine (a) the coefficient of performance (b) power of the compressor to remove 180 kJ/min. The properties of the refrigerant are as under: Temperature oC -7 27 Enthalpy kJ/kg Liquid(hf) Latent (hfg) -30 1298 115 1173 Entropy kJ/kg K liquid Vapour -0.108 4.75 427 4.33

(Ans: COP: 7.57, power: 0.397 kW)

Q2. A refrigeration machine is required to produce ice at 0 oC from water at 20oC. The machine has a condenser temperature of 298K while the evaporator temperature is 268 K. the relative efficiency of the machine is 50% and 6 kg of feron-12 refrigerant is circulated through thesystem per minute. The refrigerant enters the compressor with a dryness fraction of 0.6 specific heat of water is 4.187 kJ/kg-K and the latent heat of ice is 335 kJ/kg. calculate the amount of ice produced in 24 hrs. the table of properties of feron-12 is given below: Temperature (K) 298 268 liquid heat ( kJ/kg) 59.7 31.4 Latent heat (kJ/kg) 138 154 Entropy of liquid ( kJ/kg-K) 0.2232 0.1251

(Ans: COP: 6.82, ice produced: 0.459 kg/min)

Q3. A F-12 vapour compressor refrigeration system has a condensing temperature of 50 oC and evaporating temperature of 0oC. The refrigeration capacity is 7 tones. The liquid leaving the condenser is saturated liquid and compression is isentropic. Determine: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) The refrigeration flow rate The power required to run the compressor The heat rejected in plant COP of the system

Take enthalpy at the end of isentropic compression= 210 kJ/kg. the properties of F-12 are: Temperature (oC) 50 0 Pressure (bar) 12.199 3.086 liquid heat (hf) ( kJ/kg) 84.868 36.022 Vapour (kJ/kg) 206.298 187.397 heat (hg)

(Ans: mass flow rate: 0.266 kg/sec, power: 6.01 kW, heat rejected: 53.28 kW, COP: 4.54).

Q 4. A food storage locker requires a refrigeration capacity of 50 kW. It works between a condenser temperature of 35oC and an evaporator temperature of -100C. The refrigerant is ammonia. It is sub cooled by 5oC before entering the expansion valve and is dry saturated vapour leaving the evaporator. Assuming a single cylinder single acting compressor operating at 1000 r.p.m with stroke equal to 1.2 times the bore.

Determine: (i) the power required (ii) the cylinder dimensions. The properties of ammonia are: saturation Temperature ( oC) Pressur e (bar_ Enthalpy( kJ/kg) Entropy (kJ/kg- K) Sepcific (m3/kg) Liquid(vf ) volume Specific heat (kJ/kg-K) liqui d 4.556 vapou r 2.492 2.903

Liquid( hf) -10 35

Vapour (hg)

Liquid(sf )

Vapour(sg )

Gas(vg) 0.417477 0.095629

2.9157 154.056 1450.22 0.82965 5.755 13.522 366.072 1488.57 1.56605 5.2086 1.7023 (Ans: power: 10.1 kW, cylinder diameter: 0.19 m, length of cylinder: 0.228 m)

Q5. A food storage locker requires a refrigeration system of 2400 kJ/min capacity when evaporator temperature is 263K and condenser temperature is 303K. The system uses Freon-12 as refrigerant with following properties. The refrigerant is sub cooled by 6oC before entering the throttle valve and vapour is superheated by 7oC before entering the compressor (before leaving the evaporator coil). The refrigeration cylinder is two cylinder single acting with stroke equal to 1.25 times bore and operates at 1000 r.p.m. Use following properties: saturation Temperature( oC) Pressure (bar) Specific volume of vapour m3/kg Enthalpy( kJ/kg) Entropy (kJ/kg- K)

Vapour (hg) 263 2.19 0.0767 26.9 183.2 303 7.45 0.0235 64.6 199.6 Take: liquid specific heat =1.235 kj/kgk, vapour specific heat= 0.733 kjkgk. Determine: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) Refrigerating effect per kg Mass of refrigerant to be circulated per minute Theoretical piston displacement Theoretical power required in kW Heat removed through condenser per minute Theoretical bore and stroke of compressor


Liquid(sf) 0.1080 0.2399

Vapour(sg) 0.7020 0.6854

(Ans: 131.14 kJ/kg, 18.3 kg/min, 1.441 m3/min, 6.79 kW, 2807.4 kJ/ min, 0.7205 m3/min, 112.5 mm)

Q6. A Freon-12 refrigerator producing a cooling effect of 20kJ/sec operates on a simple cycle. The vapour leaves the evaporator dry saturated and there is no undercooling. Determine the power required by the machine. Cycle operates with pressure limites of 1.509 bar and 9.607 bar. If the compressor operates at 300 r.p.m and has a clearance volume 0f 3% of stroke volume determine the piton displacement of the compressor. For compressor assumes that the expansion follows the law pv1.13 =constant saturation Temperature( o C) Pressure (bar) Specific volume of vapour m3/kg Enthalpy( kJ/kg) Entropy (kJ/kg- K) Specific heat (kJ/kgK)

Liquid(hf) -20 1.509 0.1088 40 9.607 (Ans: power: 6.29 kW, volume: 0.00477 m3) 17.8 74.53

Vapour (hg) 178.61 203.05

Liquid(sf) 0.073 0.2716

Vapour(sg) 0.7082 0.682 0.747