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What’sWhat’s inin aa Barrel?Barrel?

One One Barrel Barrel = =

42 42 gallons gallons

One One Barrel Barrel = = 42 42 gallons gallons Modified from Armentrout, 2002 Gasoline Gasoline

Modified from Armentrout, 2002

GasolineGasoline -- 19.519.5 gallonsgallons

FuelFuel OilOil -- 9.29.2 gallonsgallons

JetJet FuelFuel -- 4.14.1 gallonsgallons

AsphaltAsphalt -- 2.32.3 gallonsgallons

KeroseneKerosene -- 0.20.2 gallonsgallons

LubricantsLubricants -- 0.50.5 gallonsgallons

Petrochemicals, Petrochemicals,

other other products products - - 6.2 6.2 gallons gallons

When When Will Will Peak Peak

Production Production Be Be Reached? Reached?

WorldWorld WideWide byby 20302030

688 688 Billion Billion Barrels Barrels from from EOR EOR

vs. vs.

732 732 Billion Billion Barrels Barrels from from New New Discoveries Discoveries

0

10

20

3

0

40

50

6

0

N 2 & Flue Gas

Hydrocarbon

CO 2 - Miscible

Immiscible Gas

Alkaline/Surfactant/Polymer

Polymer Flooding

Gel Treatments

In situ Combustion

Steam Flooding

Mining

Oil Gravity o API

(Modified from J.J. Taber, F.D. Martin & R.S. Seright, 1997)

CO2CO2 ProjectsProjects

In In the the US US there there are are currently currently

80 80 projects projects using using CO2 CO2 for for EOR. EOR.

They They produce produce 234,000 234,000 barrels barrels per per day, day,

or or 5% 5% of of domestic domestic production. production.

WyomingWyoming OilOil ProductionProduction

Currently Currently about about 800 800 reservoirs reservoirs produce produce

nearly nearly 52 52 million million barrels barrels annually. annually.

The The top top 25 25 reservoirs reservoirs produce produce

approximately approximately 28 28 million million barrels barrels annually annually (54%). (54%).

In In Wyoming Wyoming

51.5 51.5 million million barrels barrels in in 2005 2005

10-15% 10-15% by by EOR EOR

8.5% 8.5% by by CO2 CO2 EOR EOR

TheThe MandateMandate

To To conduct conduct research research to to develop develop new new

EOR EOR

technologies technologies and and to to promote promote EOR EOR

in in the the State State of of Wyoming Wyoming through through transfer transfer

of of new new and and existing existing technologies. technologies.

EOREOR CommissionCommission

Governor Governor Fruedenthal Fruedenthal (Rob (Rob Hurless) Hurless)

Charles Charles Townsend—State Townsend—State Senator Senator

Ron Ron Surdam—State Surdam—State Geologist Geologist

Bern Bern Hinckley—Consultant Hinckley—Consultant

Lynne Lynne Boomgaarden—State Boomgaarden—State Lands Lands

Peter Peter Wold—Wold Wold—Wold Oil Oil

Gail Gail Chenoweth—Marathon Chenoweth—Marathon Oil Oil

Jim Jim Neiman—UW Neiman—UW Trustee Trustee

Eric Eric Nelson—Legal Nelson—Legal Counsel Counsel

Kristi Kristi Wallin—Staff Wallin—Staff Assistant Assistant

TECHNICALTECHNICAL ADVISORYADVISORY BOARDBOARD

Randall Randall Seright—New Seright—New Mexico Mexico Tech Tech

Stephen Stephen Melzer– Melzer– Melzer Melzer Consulting Consulting

Peter Peter Hennings—Conoco Hennings—Conoco Phillips Phillips

Hank Hank True—True True—True Oil Oil

Gary Gary Pope—University Pope—University of of Texas Texas

Charlie Charlie Carlisle—Chemical Carlisle—Chemical Tracers, Tracers, Inc. Inc.

George George Hirasaki—Rice Hirasaki—Rice University University

Paul Paul Willhite—University Willhite—University of of Kansas Kansas

James James Griffin—Texas Griffin—Texas A A & & M M

EconomicsEconomics ofof EOREOR

Cost Cost Side Side

Capital Capital Costs Costs

Operating Operating Costs Costs

Operating Operating Side Side

Prices Prices

Output Output

OtherOther IssuesIssues

Risk Risk

Social Social

Environmental Environmental

IENR IENR Energy Energy Initiative Initiative

Other Other than than technical technical issues, issues, what what are are the the impediments impediments

To To enhanced enhanced oil oil recovery recovery in in Wyoming Wyoming

And And how how can can they they be be overcome? overcome?

CO2 MMP and Fracture Pressure in Permian Basin Reservoirs (edited from Heller and Taber, SPE15001)

11000 10000 9000 8000 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 MMP (40 API) o
11000
10000
9000
8000
7000
6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
MMP (40 API)
o
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Fracture Pressure
Pressure, psi

Formation Depth, thousand ft

As As a a CO2 CO2 ROR ROR Project Project Proceeds Proceeds

About About 2/3 2/3 of of the the CO2 CO2 is is Recycled Recycled

About About 1/3 1/3 stays stays in in the the reservoir reservoir

The The amount amount of of CO2 CO2 sequestered sequestered is is

6-10 6-10 mcf mcf per per incremental incremental barrel barrel of of oil oil

BUT BUT THIS THIS VARIES VARIES DRAMATICALLY DRAMATICALLY

The The Most Most Efficient Efficient CO2 CO2 Floods Floods

Sequester Sequester About About the the Same Same

Amount Amount of of CO2 CO2 As As Given Given Off Off

by by Combusting Combusting the the

Incremental Incremental Oil Oil Produced Produced

Less Less Efficient Efficient CO2 CO2 Floods Floods Sequester Sequester More More

CO2 CO2 Than Than Is Is Produced Produced by by Combusting Combusting the the

Incremental Incremental Oil Oil Produced Produced

i.e. i.e. “Green “Green Oil” Oil”

Cumulative production Wyoming’s top 25 fields: 4.15 BBO

Remaining Oil, in billion barrels (BBO)

50% of OOIP

60% of OOIP

75% of OOIP

4.15

6.22

12.43

0.16 0.14 West Texas San Andres 0.12 0.10 Wertz Tensleep 0.08 Lost Soldier Tensleep 0.06
0.16
0.14
West Texas San Andres
0.12
0.10
Wertz Tensleep
0.08
Lost Soldier Tensleep
0.06
0.04
0.02
0
-0.02
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2.0

CO2 + Water Injection (HCPV)

Injecting Volume of CO2 based on 1:1 WAG, in trillion cubic feet (TCF) Wyoming’s top 25 fields

1 HCPV WAG

1.5 HCPV WAG

2 HCPV WAG

50%

75%

50%

75%

50%

75%

Remaining

Remaining

Remaining

Remaining

Remaining

Remaining

17

tcf

34

tcf

25

tcf

51

tcf

33

tcf

68

tcf

Preliminary Preliminary CO2 CO2 Demand Demand Analysis Analysis

for for the the Powder Powder River River Basin Basin (PRB) (PRB)

If If additional additional CO2 CO2 were were available available for for EOR EOR in in the the PRB: PRB:

How How big big would would the the potential potential CO2 CO2 demand demand be? be?

What What would would the the potential potential economic economic benefits benefits

be be to to Wyoming? Wyoming?

Powder Powder River River Basin Basin

Study Study Area Area

50 miles
50 miles
Powder Powder River River Basin Basin Study Study Area Area 50 miles

ApproachApproach TakenTaken

Identify Identify “promising” “promising” fields fields

Fields Fields with with >5MMBO >5MMBO cumulative cumulative oil oil production production

Screen Screen for for miscibility miscibility

Estimate Estimate MMP MMP

Miscible Miscible flood flood if if MMP<fracture MMP<fracture pressure pressure

Estimate Estimate CO2-EOR CO2-EOR response response

Scaled Scaled analog analog approach approach (“KM (“KM tool”) tool”)

Screen Screen for for profitability profitability

Powder Powder River River Basin Basin

Study Study Area Area

50 miles
50 miles
Powder Powder River River Basin Basin Study Study Area Area 50 miles

The The Results Results of of This This Analysis Analysis of of the the

Potential Potential for for CO2 CO2 EOR EOR in in the the

Powder Powder River River Basin Basin

Can Can be be Found Found Under Under Research Research at: at:

http://eori.uwyo.edu

SUMMARY SUMMARY

CO2 CO2 Enhanced Enhanced Oil Oil Recovery Recovery Provides: Provides:

Economically Economically Feasible Feasible Sequestration- Sequestration-

Technology Technology Development Development

Carbon Carbon “Neutral” “Neutral” Transportation Transportation Fuels Fuels

Until Until Alternatives Alternatives Exist Exist