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# Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Lecture-10

Analysis and Design of Two-way Slab Systems (Two Way Joist Slabs & Two-way Slab with Beams)
By: Prof Dr. Qaisar Ali Civil Engineering Department UET Peshawar
drqaisarali@nwfpuet.edu.pk
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011 1

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Two-Way Joist Slab
Introduction Behavior Characteristics Basic Steps for Structural Design Example

CE 5115

Fall 2011

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Moment Coefficient Method for Two Way Slab with Beams
Introduction
Cases Moment Coefficient Tables Reinforcement Requirements Steps Example

CE 5115

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CE 5115

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## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Two-Way Joist
Introduction

A two-way joist system, or waffle slab, comprises evenly spaced concrete joists spanning in both directions and a reinforced concrete slab cast integrally with the joists.

Joist

CE 5115

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## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Two-Way Joist
Introduction

Like one-way joist system, a two way system will be called as two-way joist system if clear spacing between ribs (dome width) does not exceed 30 inches.

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Two-Way Joist
Introduction

CE 5115

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## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Two-Way Joist
Introduction

The joists are commonly formed by using standard square dome forms and the domes are omitted around the columns to form the solid heads.

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Two-Way Joist
Introduction

## Standard Dome Data

Generally the dome for waffle slab can be of any size. However the commonly used standard domes are discussed as follows:

30-inch 30-inch square domes with 3-inch flanges; from which 6inch wide joist ribs at 36-inch centers are formed: these are available in standard depths of 8, 10, 12, 14, 16 and 20 inches.

19-inch 19-inch square domes with 2 -inch flanges, from which 5-inch wide joist ribs at 24-inch centers are formed. These are available in standard depths of 8, 10, 12, 14 and 16 inches.

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Two-Way Joist
Introduction

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## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Two-Way Joist
Behavior

The behavior of two-way joist slab is similar to a two way flat Slab system.

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## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Two-Way Joist
Characteristics

Dome voids reduce dead load. Attractive ceiling (waffle like appearance). Electrical fixtures can be placed in the voids. Particularly advantageous where the use of longer spans and/or heavier loads are desired without the use of deepened drop panels or supported beams.

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## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Two-Way Joist
Basic Steps for Structural Design

Step No. 01 (Sizes): Sizes of all structural and non structural elements are decided.

Step No. 02 (Loads): Loads on structure are determined based on occupational characteristics and functionality.

Step No. 03 (Analysis): Effect of loads are calculated on all structural elements.

Step No. 04 (Design): Structural elements are designed for the respective load effects following code provisions.

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Two-Way Joist
Sizes

## Minimum Joist Depth

For Joist depth determination, waffle slabs are considered as flat slab (ACI 13.1.3, 13.1.4 & 9.5.3).

The thickness of equivalent flat slab is taken from table 9.5 (c). The thickness of slab and depth of rib of waffle slab can be then computed by equalizing the moment of inertia of equivalent flat slab to that of waffle slab.

However since this practice is time consuming, tables have been developed to determine the size of waffle slab from equivalent flat slab thickness.
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Two-Way Joist
Sizes

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## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Two-Way Joist
Sizes
Minimum Joist Depth
Slab and rib depth from equivalent flat slab thickness
Table 01: Waffle flat slabs (19" 19" voids at 2'-0")-Equivalent thickness
Rib + Slab Depths (in.) Equivalent Thickness t e (in.) 8+3 8.89 8+4 10.11 10 + 3 10.51 10 + 4 11.75 12 + 3 12.12 12 + 4 13.38 14 + 3 13.72 14 + 4 15.02 16 + 3 15.31 16 + 4 16.64 Reference: Table 11-2 of CRSI Design Handbook 2002. Note: Only first two columns of the table are reproduced here.

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## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Two-Way Joist
Sizes
Minimum Joist Depth
Slab and rib depth from equivalent flat slab thickness
Table 02: Waffle flat slabs (30" 30" voids at 3'-0")-Equivalent thickness
Rib + Slab Depths (in.) Equivalent Thickness te (in.) 8+3 8.61 8+4 9.79 10 + 3 10.18 10 + 4 11.37 12 + 3 11.74 12 + 4 12.95 14 + 3 13.3 14 + 4 14.54 16 + 3 14.85 16 + 4 16.12 20 + 3 17.92 20 + 4 19.26 Reference: Table 11-2 of CRSI Design Handbook 2002. Note: Only first two columns of the table are reproduced here. Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011

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## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Two-Way Joist
Sizes
Minimum Width of Rib
ACI 8.11.2 states that ribs shall be not less than 4 inches in width.

## Maximum Depth of Rib

ACI 8.11.2 also states that ribs shall have a depth of not more than 3 times the minimum width of rib.

## Minimum Slab Thickness

ACI 8.11.6.1 states that slab thickness shall be not less than onetwelfth the clear distance between ribs, nor less than 2 inch.

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## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Two-Way Joist
Sizes
Dimension of solid head on either side of column centerline is equal to l/6. The depth of the solid head is equal to the depth of the combined depth of ribs and top slab.

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## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Two-Way Joist
Floor dead load for two-way joist with certain dome size, dome depth can be calculated from the table shown for two options of slab thicknesses (3 inches and 4 inches).
Table 03: Standard Dome Dimensions and other Data
Dome Size Dome Depth (inches) 8 10 12 14 16 20 8 10 12 14 16 Volume of Void (ft3) 3.98 4.92 5.84 6.74 7.61 9.3 1.56 1.91 2.25 2.58 2.9 Floor Dead Load (psf) per slab thickness 3 inches 71 80 90 100 111 132 79 91 103 116 129 4 inches 90 99 109 119 129 151 98 110 122 134 148 Fall 2011

30 inches

19 inches

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## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Two-Way Joist
Volume of solid: Vsolid = (36 36 11)/1728 = 8.24 ft3 Volume of void: Vvoid = (30 30 8)/1728 = 4.166 ft3 Total Load of joists per dome: wdj = (Vsolid Vvoid) conc = ( 8.24 4.166) 0.15 = 0.61 kips/ dome Total Load of joists per sq. ft: wdj/ (dome area) = 0.61/ (3 3) = 0.0679 ksf = 68 psf 71 psf (from table 03) The difference is because sloped ribs are not considered.
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures

calculated as follows:
3 8

36

30

Plan
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## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Two-Way Joist
Taking a panel out of the system:
l1 wdj + wsh wdj wdj + wsh

a l1 l2 l2 b

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## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Two-Way Joist
If the complete area l1 l2 is assumed to occupy joists alone, then the dead load in the area l1 l2 will be wdj. However since there are solid head regions present, therefore additional dead load due to solid head region shall be:
wdsh = hsolid conc - wdj

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## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Two-Way Joist
Factored load due to joists (wj) wuj = 1.2 wdj + 1.6wL Factored load due to solid head (wsh) wush = 1.2(wdsh wdj) l2 b wsh wj wsh

a l1

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## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Two-Way Joist
Analysis

ACI code allows use of DDM for analysis of waffle slabs (ACI R13.1). In such a case, waffle slabs are considered as flat slabs, with the solid head acting as drop panels (ACI 13.1.3).

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Two-Way Joist
Analysis

## Static moment calculation for DDM analysis:

wush a ln Mosh l2 b wush a ln

wuj ln Moj

Moj = wujl2ln2/8

Mosh = wushba2/2

Mo = Moj + Mosh
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Two-Way Joist
Design

## Design of slab for punching shear

The solid head shall be checked against punching shear. The critical section for punching shear is taken at a section d/2 from face of the column, where d is the effective depth at solid head.

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Two-Way Joist
Design

Design

of

slab

for

punching shear

l1

l2 shall be

d/2

Both

types

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Two-Way Joist
Design

## Design of slab for punching

shear

Total area (At) = l1 l2 Solid head area = Asolid Critical perimeter area = Acp Vu =At wuj + Asolid (wish wuj) Where, wuj = Factored load considering joist alone wsh = Factored solid head dead load l2

l1

d/2

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Two-Way Joist
Design

## Shear Strength of Slab in Punching Shear:

Vn = Vc + Vs Vc is least of:

## 4 (fc)bod (2 + 4/c) (fc)bod {(sd/bo +2} (fc)bod

c = longer side of column/shorter side of column s = 40 for interior column, 30 for edge column, 20 for corner columns

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Two-Way Joist
Design

## Beam Shear Demand

Beam shear is not usually a problem in slabs including waffle slabs. However for completion of design beam shear may also be checked. Beam shear can cause problem in case where larger spans and heavier loads with relatively shallow waffle slabs are used.

The critical section for beam shear is taken at a section d from face of the column, where d is the effective depth at solid head.

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Two-Way Joist
Design

## Beam shear capacity of concrete joist:

Vn = Vc + Vs Vc is least of:

Stirrup

2 (fc)bribd

Vs = Avfy/bribs

For joist construction, contribution of concrete to shear strength Vc shall be permitted to be 10 percent more than that specified in Chapter 11.

If required, one or two single legged stirrups are provided in the rib to increase the shear capacity of waffle slab.

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Two-Way Joist
Design

## Design for Flexure

The design of waffle slab for flexure is done by usual procedures. However, certain reinforcement requirements apply discussed next.

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## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Two-Way Joist
ACI Recommendations on Reinforcement Requirement of Waffle Slab:

## Recommendations for Ribs:

ACI 10.6.7 states that if the effective depth d of a beam or joist exceeds 36 inches, longitudinal skin reinforcement shall be provided as per ACI section 10.6.7.

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## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Two-Way Joist
ACI Recommendations on Reinforcement Requirement of Waffle Slab:

## Recommendations for Slab:

According to ACI 13.3.2, for cellular or ribbed construction reinforcement shall not be less than the requirements of ACI 7.12.

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## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Two-Way Joist
Other Important Points:

The amount of reinforcement and, if necessary, the top slab thickness can be changed to vary the load capacities for different spans, areas, or floors of a structure.

Each joist rib contains two bottom bars. Straight bars are supplied over the column centerlines for negative factored moment.

Bottom bar

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## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Two-Way Joist
Other Important Points:

For layouts that do not meet the standard 2-feet and 3-feet

## modules, it is preferable that the required additional width be

obtained by increasing the width of the ribs framing into the solid column head.

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## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Two-Way Joist
Other Important Points:

The designer should sketch out the spacing for a typical panel and correlate with the column spacing as a part of the early planning.

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## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Two-Way Joist
Example: Design the slab system of hall shown in figure as waffle slab, according to ACI 318. Use Direct Design Method for slab analysis.

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## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Two-Way Joist
Solution:

A 108 144 building, divided into twelve (12) panels, supported at their ends on columns. Each panel is 36 36.

The given slab system satisfies all the necessary limitations for Direct Design Method to be applicable.

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## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Two-Way Joist
Step No 01: Sizes

Columns

## Let all columns be 18 18.

Slab

Adopt 30 30 standard dome. Minimum equivalent flat slab thickness (hf) can be found using ACI Table 9.5 (c): Exterior panel governs. Therefore, hf = ln/33 ln = 36 (2 18/2)/12 = 34.5 hf = (34.5/33) 12 = 12.45
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## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Two-Way Joist
Step No 01: Sizes

Slab

The closest depth of doom that will fulfill the requirement of equivalent thickness of flat slab equal to 12.45 is 12 in. with a slab thickness of 4 in. for a dome size of 30-in.
Table: Waffle flat slabs (30" 30" voids at 3'-0")-Equivalent thickness Rib + Slab Depths (in.) 8+3 8+4 10 + 3 10 + 4 12 + 3 12 + 4 14 + 3 14 + 4 16 + 3 16 + 4 20 + 3 20 + 4 Equivalent Thickness te (in.) 8.61 9.79 10.18 11.37 11.74 12.95 13.3 14.54 14.85 16.12 17.92 19.26 42

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## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Two-Way Joist
Step No 01: Sizes

## l = 36-0 = 432 Standard module = 36 36 No. of modules in 36-0: n = 432/36 = 12

Planning: First joist is placed on interior column centerline with progressive placing of other joists towards exterior ends of panel. To flush the last joist with external column, the width of exterior joist comes out to be 15 (6+Column size /2) as shown in plan view.

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## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Two-Way Joist
Step No 01: Sizes

Solid head dimension from column centerline = l/6 = 36/6 = 6 Total required length of solid head= 2 6 = 12 As 3 3 module is selected, therefore 4 voids including joist witdh will make an interior solid head of 12.5 12.5. (Length of solid head = c/c distance between rib + rib width )

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Two-Way Joist

## Floor (joist) dead load (wdj) = 109 psf = 0.109 ksf

Dome Size

Table: Standard Dome Dimensions and other Data Floor Dead Load (psf) per slab thickness Volume of Void Dome Depth (in.) (ft3) 3 inches 4 inches 8 10 12 14 16 20 8 10 12 14 16 3.98 4.92 5.84 6.74 7.61 9.3 1.56 1.91 2.25 2.58 2.9 71 80 90 100 111 132 79 91 103 116 129 90 99 109 119 129 151 98 110 122 134 148

30-in

19-in

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## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Two-Way Joist
Floor (joist) dead load (wdj) = 109 psf = 0.109 ksf Solid Head dead load (wsh) = chsh wdj = 0.15 {(12 + 4.5)/12} 0.109 = 0.097 ksf
Wdj+sh wdj Wdj+sh

a l1

a = 5.25 ft b = 12.5 ft
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

l2

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## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Two-Way Joist
wL = 100 psf = 0.100 ksf Load due to joists plus LL (wuj) wuj = 1.2 wdj + 1.6wL = 1.2 0.109 + 1.60.100 = 0.291 ksf Load due to solid head dead load (wush) wush = 1.2wsh = 1.2 0.097 = 0.1164 ksf
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011

wuj

wush a l1

wush a

l2

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## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Two-Way Joist
Step No 03: Frame Analysis (E-W Interior Frame)

l2 = 36

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## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Two-Way Joist
Step No 03: Frame Analysis (E-W Interior Frame)

49

l2 = 36

CE 5115

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## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Two-Way Joist
Step No 03: Frame Analysis (E-W Interior Frame)

## Step 03: Static Moment Calculation

Moj (due to joists) = wojl2ln2/8 = 0.291 36 34.52/8 = 1557.56 ft-kip Mosh (due to solid head excluding joists) = wush ba2/2 = 0.116412.55.252/2 = 20 ft-kip Mo (total static moment) = Moj + Mosh = 1557.56 + 20 = 1577.56 ft-kip

Note: Since normally, Mosh is much smaller than Moj the former can be conveniently ignored in design calculations.

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## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Two-Way Joist
Step No 03: Frame Analysis (E-W Interior Frame)

l2 = 36

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## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Two-Way Joist
Step No 03: Frame Analysis (E-W Interior Frame)

## Longitudinal distribution factors (D.F)L

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115

0.52 0.26

0.35

0.52

l2 = 36

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## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Two-Way Joist
Step No 03: Frame Analysis (E-W Interior Frame)

ML = Mo (D.F)L

820

552

820

l2 = 36

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Units: ft-kip

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## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Two-Way Joist
Step No 03: Frame Analysis (E-W Interior Frame)

## Lateral distribution factors (D.F)Lat

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115

l2 = 36

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## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Two-Way Joist
Step No 03: Frame Analysis (E-W Interior Frame)

## ML,- = 1025 kip-ft

ML,+ = 552 kip-ft
0 328/2 276/2 256/2 221/2 256/2 276/2 328/2 492 410 0 828 769 331 769 828 492 410 0 0

MLat = ML (D.F)Lat

l2 = 36

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## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Two-Way Joist
Step No 03: Frame Analysis (E-W Interior Frame)

## ML,ext+ = 820 kip-ft

ML,int- = 1104 kip-ft ML,- = 1025 kip-ft ML,+ = 552 kip-ft
0 18.22 15.33 14.22 12.3 14.22 15.33 18.22 27.3 22.8 0 46 42.7 18.38 42.7 46 27.3 22.8 0 0

l2 = 36

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## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Two-Way Joist
Step No 03: Frame Analysis (E-W Exterior Frame)

## l2 = 18 + c/2 = 18 + (18/12)/2 = 18.75 c = column dimension

= 0.291 18.75 34.52/8 = 811.78 ft-kip Mosh (due to solid head excluding joists) = wush ba2/2 = 0.116475.252/2 = 12.83 ft-kip Mo (total static moment) = Moj + Mosh = 811.78 + 12.83 = 825 ft-kip

Note: Since normally, Mosh is much smaller than Moj the former can be conveniently ignored in design calculations.

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## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Two-Way Joist
Step No 03: Frame Analysis (E-W Exterior Frame)

## Step 03: Static Moment Calculation.

l2 = 18.75
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011

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## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Two-Way Joist
Step No 03: Frame Analysis (E-W Exterior Frame)

## Longitudinal distribution factors (D.F)L

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115

## 0.52 0.52 0.35 0.26 0.70 0.65 0.65 0.70 0.26

Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011

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## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Two-Way Joist
Step No 03: Frame Analysis (E-W Exterior Frame)

## Step 04: Longitudinal distribution of Total static moment (Mo).

ML = Mo (D.F)L
429 429 289 215 578 536 536 578 215
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115

Units: ft-kip

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## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Two-Way Joist
Step No 03: Frame Analysis (E-W Exterior Frame)

## Lateral distribution factors (D.F)Lat

0.60 0.60 0.60 1.00 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 1.00
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011 61

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Two-Way Joist
Step No 03: Frame Analysis (E-W Exterior Frame)

## ML,ext+ = 429 kip-ft

ML,int- = 578 kip-ft ML,- = 536 kip-ft ML,+ = 289 kip-ft

MLat = ML (D.F)Lat
215 0 257 172 434 402 144 134 173 116 769 402 134 144 257 172 215 0

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## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Two-Way Joist
Step No 03: Frame Analysis (E-W Exterior Frame)

## ML,- = 536 kip-ft

ML,+ = 289 kip-ft

## MLat per foot = Mlat/strip width

23.8 0 28.6 48.2 44.7 19.2 44.7 48.2 28.6 23.8 0

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## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Two-Way Joist
Step No 03: Frame Analysis

Analysis of N-S Interior and Exterior Frame will be same as E-W respective frames due to square panels.

## N-S Exterior Frame l2 = 18-9

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011

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## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Two-Way Joist
Step No 04: Design

## Selective values are used for design.

18.22 15.33 14.22 12.3 14.22 15.33 18.22 27.3 18.38 46 42.7 42.7 46 27.3

22.8 0

22.8 0

l2 = 36

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## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Two-Way Joist
Step No 04: Design

23.8 0

28.6

48.2

19.2 11.89

48.2

28.6 23.8 0

17.64 14.76

14.76 17.64

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## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Two-Way Joist
Step No 04: Design

## W respective frames due to square panels and also for the

reason that davg is used in design.

davg

## = 16.5 (0.75 inch (cover) + inch (Assumed bar

diameter) = 15 inch

This will be used for both directions positive as well as negative reinforcement.

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## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Two-Way Joist
Step No 05: Detailing (E-W Frames)

## For M = 46 ft-k =46 x12 = 552 in-k d = 15 fy = 60 ksi As = 0.7 in2

#6 @ 12 #6 @ 6 #6 @ 6 #6 @ 12

## #6 @ 18 #6 @ 12 Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115

#6 @ 18 #6 @ 6

#6 @ 18 #6 @ 6

#6 @ 18 #6 @ 12 Fall 2011 68

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## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Two-Way Joist
Step No 05: Detailing (N-S Frames)
#6 @ 12 #6 @ 18 #6 @ 12

#6 @ 6

#6 @ 18

#6 @ 6

#6 @ 6

#6 @ 18

#6 @ 6

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## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Two-Way Joist
Step No 05: Detailing (N-S Frames)

Positive reinforcement
For M = 27 ft-k =27x12 = 324in-k d = 15 fy = 60 ksi As = 0.373 in2 This is per foot reinforcement. For 18 feet col strip, this will

## be equal to 0.373 x 18 = 6.714 in2

There are 6 joists in 18 feet with. Therefore per rib reinforcement = 1.12 Using # 7 bars, 2 bars per joist rib will be provided.

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## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Two-Way Joist
Step No 05: Detailing (E-W Interior Frame)
18-0
#6 @ 6 c/c

## Column Strip (Interior Frame); section taken over support

2 #7 Bars #6 @ 12 c/c

2 #7 Bars
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

## Column Strip (Exterior Frame); section taken over support

CE 5115 Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011 71

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Two-Way Joist
Step No 05: Detailing (E-W Interior Frame)
18-0
#6 @ 18 c/c

## Middle Strip (Interior Frame); Section taken over column line

2 #7 Bars #6 @ 18 c/c

2 #7 Bars
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

## Middle Strip (Exterior Frame); Section taken over column line

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## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Two-Way Joist
Step No 05: Detailing (E-W Exterior Frame)
9-0
#6 @ 6 c/c

2 #7 Bars

## Column Strip (Interior Frame); section over support

#6 @ 12 c/c

2 #7 Bars
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115

## Column Strip (Exterior Frame); section over support

Advance Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures Fall 2011 73

## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Two-Way Joist
Step No 05: Detailing (E-W Exterior Frame)
9-0
#6 @ 18 c/c

2 #7 Bars

## Middle Strip (Interior Frame) ; section over support

#6 @ 18 c/c

2 #7 Bars
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## Middle Strip (Exterior Frame); section over support

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## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

Two-Way Joist
Step No 04: Design

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## Two Way Slabs

Moment Coefficient Method (Introduction)

The Moment Coefficient Method included for the first time in 1963 ACI Code is applicable to two-way slabs supported on four sides of each slab panel by walls, steel beams relatively deep, stiff, edge beams (h = 3hf).

Although, not included in 1977 and later versions of ACI code, its continued use is permissible under the ACI 318-08 code provision (13.5.1). Visit ACI 13.5.1.

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Ma,neg

## Moment Coefficient Method

Moments:
Ma, neg = Ca, negwula2 Mb, neg = Cb, negwulb2

la
Ma,pos Mb,neg Mb,pos Mb,neg

lb

Ma,neg

Ma, pos, (dl + ll) = M a, pos, dl + M a, pos, ll = Ca, pos, dl wu, dl la2 + Ca, pos, ll wu, ll la2 Mb, pos, (dl + ll) = Mb, pos, dl + Mb, pos, ll = Cb, pos, dl wu, dl lb2 + Cb, pos, ll wu, ll lb2

Where Ca, Cb = Tabulated moment coefficients wu = Ultimate uniform load, psf la, lb = length of clear spans in short and long directions respectively.

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## Two Way Slabs

Moment Coefficient Method: Cases
Depending on the support conditions, several cases are possible:
4 spans @ 25-0

3 spans @ 20-0

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## Two Way Slabs

Moment Coefficient Method: Cases
Depending on the support conditions, several cases are possible:
4 spans @ 25-0

3 spans @ 20-0

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## Two Way Slabs

Moment Coefficient Method: Cases
Depending on the support conditions, several cases are possible:
4 spans @ 25-0

3 spans @ 20-0

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## Two Way Slabs

Moment Coefficient Method: Cases
Depending on the support conditions, several cases are possible:
4 spans @ 25-0

3 spans @ 20-0

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## Two Way Slabs

Moment Coefficient Tables:

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## Two Way Slabs

Moment Coefficient Tables:

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## Two Way Slabs

Moment Coefficient Tables:

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## Two Way Slabs

Moment Coefficient Tables:

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## Two Way Slabs

Moment Coefficient Tables:

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## Two Way Slabs

Moment Coefficient Tables:

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## Two Way Slabs

Maximum Spacing and Minimum Reinforcement Requirement:

## Maximum spacing (ACI 13.3.2):

smax = 2 hf in each direction.

## Minimum Reinforcement (ACI 7.12.2.1):

Asmin = 0.0018 b hf for grade 60. Asmin = 0.002 b hf for grade 40 and 50.

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## Two Way Slabs

Special Reinforcement at Exterior Corner of Slab

The reinforcement at exterior ends of the slab shall be provided as per ACI 13.3.6 in top and bottom layers as shown.

The positive and negative reinforcement in any case, should be of a size and spacing equivalent to that required for the maximum positive moment (per foot of width) in the panel.

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## Two Way Slabs

Moment Coefficient Method
Steps
Find hmin = perimeter/ 180 = 2(la + lb)/180 Calculate loads on slab (force / area) Calculate m = la/ lb Decide about case of slab, Use table to pick moment coefficients, Calculate moments and then design. Apply reinforcement requirements (smax = 2hf, ACI 13.3.2)

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## Two Way Slabs

Moment Coefficient Method: Example 1
A 100 60, 3-storey commercial building is to be designed. The grids of column plan are fixed by the architect.

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## Two Way Slabs

Moment Coefficient Method: Example 1
Complete analysis of the slab is done by analyzing four panels
4 spans @ 25-0

Panel I

Panel III

Panel III

Panel I
3 spans @ 20-0

Panel II

Panel IV

Panel IV

Panel II

Panel I

Panel III

Panel III

Panel I

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## Two Way Slabs

Moment Coefficient Method: Example 1
A 100 60, 3-storey commercial building: Sizes and Loads.
Sizes:
Minimum slab thickness = perimeter/180 = 2 (20+25)/180 = 6 However, for the purpose of comparison, take hf = 7 Columns = 14 14 (assumed) Beams = 14 20 (assumed)

Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

S.D.L = Nil ; Self Weight = 0.15 x (7/12) = 0.0875 ksf L.L = 144 psf ; wu = 0.336 ksf
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## Two Way Slabs

Moment Coefficient Method: Example 1
Panels are analyzed using Moment Coefficient Method
4 spans @ 25-0

Mb,neg

Mb,neg

3 spans @ 20-0

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## Two Way Slabs

Moment Coefficient Method: Example 1
Panels are analyzed using Moment Coefficient Method
Case = 4 m = la/lb = 0.8 Ca,neg = 0.071 Cb,neg = 0.029 Ca,posLL = 0.048 Cb,posLL = 0.020 Ca,posDL = 0.039 Cb,posDL = 0.016

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## Two Way Slabs

Moment Coefficient Method: Example 1
Panels are analyzed using Moment Coefficient Method
Case = 4 m = la/lb = 0.8 Ca,neg = 0.071 Cb,neg = 0.029 Ca,posLL = 0.048 Cb,posLL = 0.020 Ca,posDL = 0.039 Cb,posDL = 0.016

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## Two Way Slabs

Moment Coefficient Method: Example 1
Panels are analyzed using Moment Coefficient Method
Case = 4 m = la/lb = 0.8 Ca,neg = 0.071 Cb,neg = 0.029 Ca,posLL = 0.048 Cb,posLL = 0.020 Ca,posDL = 0.039 Cb,posDL = 0.016

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## Two Way Slabs

Moment Coefficient Method: Example 1
Panels are analyzed using Moment Coefficient Method
Case = 4 m = la/lb = 0.8 Ca,neg = 0.071 Cb,neg = 0.029 Ca,posLL = 0.048 Cb,posLL = 0.020 Ca,posDL = 0.039 Cb,posDL = 0.016

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## Two Way Slabs

Moment Coefficient Method: Example 1
Panels are analyzed using Moment Coefficient Method
Case = 4 m = la/lb = 0.8 Ca,neg = 0.071 Cb,neg = 0.029 Ca,posLL = 0.048 Cb,posLL = 0.020 Ca,posDL = 0.039 Cb,posDL = 0.016

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## Two Way Slabs

Moment Coefficient Method: Example 1
Panels are analyzed using Moment Coefficient Method
Case = 4 m = la/lb = 0.8 Ca,neg = 0.071 Cb,neg = 0.029 Ca,posLL = 0.048 Cb,posLL = 0.020 Ca,posDL = 0.039 Cb,posDL = 0.016

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## Two Way Slabs

Moment Coefficient Method: Example 1
Panels are analyzed using Moment Coefficient Method
Case = 4 m = la/lb = 0.8 Ca,neg = 0.071 Cb,neg = 0.029 Ca,posLL = 0.048 Cb,posLL = 0.020 Ca,posDL = 0.039 Cb,posDL = 0.016 Ma,neg = 9.5 k-ft Ma,pos = 6.1 k-ft Mb,neg = 6.1 k-ft Mb,pos = 3.9 k-ft
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

4 spans @ 25-0

Panel I
Mb,neg

Mb,neg

3 spans @ 20-0

## For slab supported on Spandrals, Mneg,ext = 1/3Mpos

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## Two Way Slabs

Moment Coefficient Method: Example 1
Panels are analyzed using Moment Coefficient Method
Case = 9 m = la/lb = 0.8 Ca,neg = 0.075 Cb,neg = 0.017 Ca,posLL = 0.042 Cb,posLL = 0.017 Ca,posDL = 0.029 Cb,posDL = 0.010 Ma,neg = 10.1 k-ft Ma,pos = 5.1 k-ft Mb,neg = 3.6 k-ft Mb,pos = 3.1 k-ft
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali

4 spans @ 25-0

Panel II

3 spans @ 20-0

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## Two Way Slabs

Moment Coefficient Method: Example 1
Panels are analyzed using Moment Coefficient Method
Case = 8 m = la/lb = 0.8 Ca,neg = 0.055 Cb,neg = 0.041 Ca,posLL = 0.044 Cb,posLL = 0.019 Ca,posDL = 0.032 Cb,posDL = 0.015 Ma,neg = 7.4 k-ft Ma,pos = 5.4 k-ft Mb,neg = 8.6 k-ft Mb,pos = 3.7 k-ft
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115

4 spans @ 25-0

Panel III
Mb,neg

3 spans @ 20-0

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## Two Way Slabs

Moment Coefficient Method: Example 1
Panels are analyzed using Moment Coefficient Method
Case = 2 m = la/lb = 0.8 Ca,neg = 0.065 Cb,neg = 0.027 Ca,posLL = 0.041 Cb,posLL = 0.017 Ca,posDL = 0.026 Cb,posDL = 0.011 Ma,neg = 8.7 k-ft Ma,pos = 4.9 k-ft Mb,neg = 5.7 k-ft Mb,pos = 3.2 k-ft
Prof. Dr. Qaisar Ali CE 5115

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Panel IV

3 spans @ 20-0

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## Two Way Slabs

Moment Coefficient Method: Example 1
Slab analysis summary
9.5 3.9 6.1 6.1 9.5 10.1 3.2 3.6 5.1 10.1 3.6 5.7 3.2 4.9 8.7 5.7 6.1 8.6 3.7 5.4 7.4 8.7 8.6 7.4

4 spans @ 25-0

3 spans @ 20-0

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## Two Way Slabs

Moment Coefficient Method: Example 1
Slab Reinforcement Details
C A B B C A A B C B A B C B C A B C C C

4 spans @ 25-0

3 spans @ 20-0

A= #4 @ 12 B = #4 @ 6 C = #4 @ 4

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## Two Way Slabs

Moment Coefficient Method: Example 1
Load On Beams from coefficient tables
B2

4 spans @ 25-0

Table: Load on beam in panel I, using Coefficients (wu = 0.336 ksf) Width (bs) of Load slab due to Bea Length panel Wa Wb slab, m (ft) support Wwubs ed by (k/ft) beam B1 25 10 0.71 2.39 B2 25 10 0.71 2.39 B3 20 12.5 - 0.29 1.22 B4 20 12.5 - 0.29 1.22

Panel I
B1

3 spans @ 20-0

B1

B2

B4

B3

B3

B3

B4

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## Two Way Slabs

Moment Coefficient Method: Example 1
Load On Beams from coefficient tables
B2

4 spans @ 25-0

Table: Load on beam in panel I, using Coefficients (wu = 0.336 ksf) Width (bs) of Load slab due to Bea Length panel Wa Wb slab, m (ft) support Wwubs ed by (k/ft) beam B1 25 10 0.71 2.39 B2 25 10 0.71 2.39 B3 20 12.5 - 0.29 1.22 B4 20 12.5 - 0.29 1.22

Panel I
B1

3 spans @ 20-0

B1

B2

B4

B3

B3

B3

B4

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## Two Way Slabs

Moment Coefficient Method: Example 1
Load On Beams from coefficient tables
B2

4 spans @ 25-0

3 spans @ 20-0

Table: Load on beam in panel I, using Coefficients (wu = 0.336 ksf) Width (bs) of Load slab due to Bea Length panel Wa Wb slab, m (ft) support Wwubs ed by (k/ft) beam B1 25 10 0.83 2.78 B3 20 12.5 - 0.17 0.714 B4 20 12.5 - 0.17 0.714

B1

Panel II
B1

B2

B4

B3

B3

B3

B4

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## Two Way Slabs

Moment Coefficient Method: Example 1
Load On Beams from coefficient tables
B2

4 spans @ 25-0

3 spans @ 20-0

Table: Load on beam in panel I, using Coefficients (wu = 0.336 ksf) Width (bs) of Load slab due to Bea Length panel Wa Wb slab, m (ft) support Wwubs ed by (k/ft) beam B1 25 10 0.83 2.78 B3 20 12.5 - 0.17 0.714 B4 20 12.5 - 0.17 0.714

B1

Panel II
B1

B2

B4

B3

B3

B3

B4

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## Two Way Slabs

Moment Coefficient Method: Example 1
Load On Beams from coefficient tables
B2

4 spans @ 25-0
Panel III

3 spans @ 20-0

Table: Load on beam in panel I, using Coefficients (wu = 0.336 ksf) Width (bs) of Load slab due to Bea Length panel Wa Wb slab, m (ft) support Wwubs ed by (k/ft) beam B1 25 10 0.55 1.84 B3 20 12.5 - 0.45 1.89

B1

B1

B2

B4

B3

B3

B3

B4

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## Two Way Slabs

Moment Coefficient Method: Example 1
Load On Beams from coefficient tables
B2

4 spans @ 25-0
Panel III

3 spans @ 20-0

Table: Load on beam in panel I, using Coefficients (wu = 0.336 ksf) Width (bs) of Load slab due to Bea Length panel Wa Wb slab, m (ft) support Wwubs ed by (k/ft) beam B1 25 10 0.55 1.84 B3 20 12.5 - 0.45 1.89

B1

B1

B2

B4

B3

B3

B3

B4

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## Two Way Slabs

Moment Coefficient Method: Example 1
Load On Beams from coefficient tables
B2

4 spans @ 25-0

Table: Load on beam in panel I, using Coefficients (wu = 0.336 ksf) Width (bs) of Load slab due to Bea Length panel Wa Wb slab, m (ft) support Wwubs ed by (k/ft) beam B1 25 10 0.71 2.39 B3 20 12.5 - 0.29 1.22

3 spans @ 20-0

B1

Panel IV
B1

B2

B4

B3

B3

B3

B4

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## Two Way Slabs

Moment Coefficient Method: Example 1
Load On Beams from coefficient tables
B2

4 spans @ 25-0

Table: Load on beam in panel I, using Coefficients (wu = 0.336 ksf) Width (bs) of Load slab due to Bea Length panel Wa Wb slab, m (ft) support Wwubs ed by (k/ft) beam B1 25 10 0.71 2.39 B3 20 12.5 - 0.29 1.22

3 spans @ 20-0

B1

Panel IV
B1

B2

B4

B3

B3

B3

B4

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## Two Way Slabs

Moment Coefficient Method: Example 1
B2

4 spans @ 25-0
2.39 k/ft 1.22 k/ft 2.39 k/ft 1.84 k/ft 1.89 k/ft 1.84 k/ft 2.39 k/ft 1.22 k/ft 1.89 k/ft

1.22 k/ft
B1

3 spans @ 20-0

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B2

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## Two Way Slabs

Moment Coefficient Method: Example 1
B2

4 spans @ 25-0
2.62 k/ft 2.07 k/ft 3.34 k/ft

1.45 k/ft
B1

3 spans @ 20-0

B1

B2

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## Two Way Slabs

Moment Coefficient Method: Example 2
Similarly, slab analysis results of 25 20 structure.
4 spans @ 25-0 Slab thickness = 6

Panel I

Panel III

Panel III

Panel I
3 spans @ 20-0

Panel II

Panel IV

Panel IV

Panel II

Panel I

Panel III

Panel III

Panel I

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## Two Way Slabs

Moment Coefficient Method: Example 2
Slab analysis summary
6.6 2.6 4.2 4.0 6.6 7 1.9 2.5 3.2 7 2.5 3.9 2.0 3.0 6.1 3.9 4.2 6.0 2.4 3.5 5.1 6.1 6.0 5.1

4 spans @ 25-0

3 spans @ 20-0

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## Two Way Slabs

Moment Coefficient Method: Example 3
Similarly, slab analysis results of 20 15 structure.
4 spans @ 20-0 Slab thickness = 6

Panel I

Panel III

Panel III

Panel I
3 spans @ 15-0

Panel II

Panel IV

Panel IV

Panel II

Panel I

Panel III

Panel III

Panel I

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## Two Way Slabs

Moment Coefficient Method: Example 3
Slab analysis summary
4 1.3 2.2 2.5 4 4.1 0.9 1.3 2.0 4.1 1.3 2.1 1.0 1.8 3.6 2.1 2.2 3.4 1.3 2.2 3.2 3.6 3.4 3.2

4 spans @ 25-0

3 spans @ 20-0

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## Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Peshawar, Pakistan

References
CRSI Design Handbook ACI 318 Design of Concrete Structures 13th Ed. by Nilson, Darwin and Dolan.

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The End

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