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By L. A. De Buys June 2010
By L. A. De Buys
June 2010

Table of Contents

Introduction

1

Timeline

3

Life in The Past

24

Living in the 1600‘s

24

Living in the 1700‘s

25

Living in the 1800‘s

30

Living in the 1900‘s

36

Health and Medicine at the Cape of Good Hope

41

Maternity and Childbirth

42

Diseases and Epidemics

43

Treatments

44

The Slave Lodge Hospital

45

Slavery at the Cape of Good Hope

47

The French Huguenots

51

The De Buys Surname

53

The Infamous Coenraad De Buys

54

Ballade van Coenraad Buys

67

Buyskop

69

The DE BUYS Family

71

First Generation

71

Second Generation

71

Third Generation

71

Fourth Generation

72

Fifth Generation

73

Sixth Generation

77

Seventh Generation

81

Eighth Generation

87

Nineth Generation

91

Tenth Generation

99

Eleventh Generation

103

Twelfth Generation

111

Thirteenth Generation

128

Fourteenth Generation

142

Fifteenth Generation

148

The DODGSON Family

149

First Generation

149

Second Generation

149

Third Generation

149

Fourth Generation

150

Fifth Generation

154

Sixth Generation

158

Seventh Generation

168

Eighth Generation

172

Other Families In The Tree

174

The BRAND Family

174

First Generation

174

Second Generation

175

Third Generation

179

Fourth Generation

186

Fifth Generation

191

The BUSH Family

193

First Generation

193

Second Generation

193

Third Generation

193

Fourth Generation

195

Fifth Generation

196

Sixth Generation

199

Seventh Generation

202

The CROOK Family

203

First Generation

203

Second Generation

203

Third Generation

204

Fourth Generation

205

Fifth Generation

206

Sixth Generation

207

The DE SOUSA Family

208

First Generation

208

Second Generation

208

Third Generation

208

Fourth Generation

210

Fifth Generation

211

The HUNT Family

212

First Generation

212

Second Generation

212

Third Generation

212

Fourth Generation

213

Fifth Generation

216

Sixth Generation

218

Seventh Generation

220

The PERRY Family

222

First Generation

222

Second Generation

222

Third Generation

222

The WRAGG Family

224

First Generation

224

Second Generation

224

Third Generation

225

Our Naval Ties

226

De Oosterland

226

Stirling Castle

229

RHMS Ellinis Chandris

230

Family at War

232

Fourth Frontier War - The Massacre at Zuurberg: 1811

232

The Boer War: 1880 - 1902

233

World War 1: 28 June 1914 11 November 1918

233

World War 2: 1 September 1939 2 September 1945

234

The De Bus Family Crest

242

The Dodgson Family Crest

243

The De Sousa Family Crest

244

DNA Genetic Testing

249

Family Relationship Chart

251

Notes/Thanks

252

Index

253

Table of Figures

Graphical timeline of events in South African history

3

Principal English trade routes about

26

Model of Eli Whitney's Cotton Gin

30

Kommandant Wessels (4th person front row) with General de le Rey on his left in the Boer War

35

Blood letting (breathing a vein) as depicted in an 1804 drawing

42

Plan of the Slave Lodge at the Cape Of Good Hope (1798)

45

An artists impression of Maria Mouton's execution

48

A slave being broken on the wheel

49

The Huguenot Monument in Franschhoek, South Africa

51

Distribution of Huguenots fleeing from France

52

Map of farms granted to French and Dutch Settlers up to 1700

54

Palmiet Valley farmhouse (2008)

59

A piece of the original farm house wall on Palmiet Valley (2009)

59

Coenraad De Buys' signature (25 May 1787 and 21 January 1788)

61

Coenraad De Buys - an artist‘s impression (Hazel Crampton)

62

Coenraad De Buys - a rather funny caricature by Dr. Jack

62

Dr Johannes Van der Kemp

63

Machiel (De) Buys

64

Cover of "Alien Inboorling" by Rian Malan

67

Map of present day South Africa showing Buyskop

69

Union Building, Pretoria, South Africa

69

President Paul Kruger around 1888

70

General Koos De La Rey

93

Brian Albert De Buys in Springs (before 1960)

104

Liz Barrie and her brothers (Around 1545)

104

Coenraad Willem De Buys during World War 2 (About 1941)

105

Emily De Buys (nee Homan) (About 1950)

106

Pieter, Coenraad, Emily (nee Homan), Ione (nee Brand) and Colleen (Around 1965)

107

Hester van den Berg (nee De Buys), Herman, Hendriena, Jacomina De Buys (nee Lewis), Adriaan and Fransiena Tolmay (nee De Buys) (About 1950)

108

Pieter De Buys in Northern Africa/Egypt (1942/1943)

109

Koos with Paulus, Leonard and Eugene De Buys (December 1968)

110

P.W. Botha during his

111

Wife (66) strangled with petticoat - The Mercury (06 May 2004)

115

Lovers jailed 15 year for murder of wife - The Mercury (07 May 2004)

116

Sharon, Deon, Gordon, Shawn, Gertie & Freddie Fermor (Possibly about 1985)

118

Helmin (nee De Kock), Salomé and Adriaan (At) De Buys (About 1993)

120

Hermanus, Salomé and Hester De Buys (nee Brits) at Salomé's graduation (Port Alfred, 2007)

121

Peter De Buys (September 1990)

121

Weekend Argus article on the shootout which led to Peter De Buys' death (12/13 Nov 1994)

123

Paulus De Buys (About 1965)

124

Leonardus De Buys in Lyttleton 81 T.S.D. during 1966

125

Eugene and Pieter at their wedding. Leonard De Buys is beside Pieter

125

Ione De Buys and Alan Foxcroft

126

Colleen, James and baby Michelle (About 1983)

126

The De Buys/Schmidt family (About 1988)

130

Dawid De Buys and his grandson Jason Van Greuning (09 Nov 2008)

131

Michael De Buys (26 December 2007)

138

(From left) Maxine, Tristan and Dameron De Buys (May 2009)

139

Maria and Tony (2007)

139

Dave De Buys in the army at Upington (1992)

140

John Kilian while working at General Motors during 2009

141

Wedding of Harold Dodgson and Marion Bush in late 1920's

151

Walter (Tusky) Dodgson in his home in a village just outside of Tadcaster, UK. The children are Matthew

and David Wragg. (January 1980)

153

Frank Dodgson and Betty (nee Hunt)'s 40th wedding anniversary (1989)

154

"Frank and kids at Froggy Pond" shortly after arriving in South

155

Marlene Dodgson and Ronald Crook's wedding (About July 1954, Bolton-on-Dearne)

156

Basil Turner and Elizabeth (Little Betty) Dodgson, 19 March 1960

157

Heather and Linda while they still lived in England (About 1961)

158

Linda, Frank and Paul Dodgson (About 1959)

159

Killer in Pollsmoor (About 1967)

160

left to right: Paul, Philip, Andrew, Harvey and Richard Dodgson (Late 1993)

161

Leonard De Buys and Kobus Boonzaair in Westlake (1979)

162

Marie and Michael Greeff at their wedding (13 March 1982)

162

Petro and Philip Dodgson (2006)

163

Andy and Joyce Dodgson (nee Grewe) (Date unknown)

163

Harvey Dodgson in the army (About 1983)

164

Richard, on his way to the army, with Betty Dodgson (About 1981)

164

back, left to right: Rose Strydom and Lizel Strydom; front left to right: Michelle Strydom, Semaine Strydom

165

Mark Whalan, Betty Dodgson (nee Crook) and Stephanie Dodgson

166

David Turner

167

Susan Turner

167

Donovan, Julie and Kathleen (About 2000)

169

Sarah and Donovan in Langebaan, Cape Town (2006)

170

Sean-Paul Dogdson aged 9 months, 3 weeks and 6 days (25 December 1997)

171

Marguerite and Fleetwood Brand taken in 1951

174

Fleetwood Brand, Ione Brand, Pieter De Buys and Leonardus De Buys - Cauvin Road, District Six. (Around 1955)

175

José Rosamond BRAMWELL (date unknown)

176

Louis, Martin and Mattie (About 1965)

176

Ione Brand aged 16 on Signal Hill (Note Table Mountain in the background) (1936)

177

Ambrose John BRAND in Cape

178

Joseph, Anthony and Louis Brand (About 1942)

179

Anthony Colgen Brandt

180

Report of Anthony Colgen Brand's death in The Argus (04/02/1978) (Part 1)

181

Report of Anthony Colgen Brand's death in The Argus (04/02/1978) (Continued)

182

Linnette, Joshuna, Pascal and Louis (Late 1980's)

183

Kevin Brand

185

Dion, Dianne, Alicia and Jacky Brandt (About 1980)

186

Lawrence, Ella, Tim, Natroune, Sunya and Tyrōn at Ella‘s wedding (09 Dec 2006)

187

René and Sheldon (About 2008)

188

Joshua (Josh) Louis Emile Brand

189

Frank Dodgson, Paul Dodgson, Marion Dodgson (nee Bush) and Harold Dodgson on the Stirling Castle in

1962

194

Herbert Bush (seated on the right) with friends. Date and location

195

Harold and Betty's wedding on 4 Sept 1954

203

Bride and Groom - Harold Dodgson and Betty Crook in 1954

204

Francisco De Sousa and bride Augustina in November 1966

209

Anita De Sousa and her son Cainin in 2007

211

Alfie during World War 2

213

Four generations of Bushes, Hunt and Dodgsons (About 1952)

214

Doris (Dot) Dodgson, Alex (A friend of Betty's) and Betty Dodgson at Coldeast (1946)

215

John and Kathy Pointer (nee Hunt) (1981)

216

Dalene and David De Buys (About 2004)

223

Four generations Dodgson/Wragg family (1978)

224

Scale model of De Oosterland

226

The cannons from a vessel which sank in the same storm as that which sank De Oosterland

228

The Stirling Castle in 1943

229

The RHMS Ellinis in Sydney in 1978

230

Map of Italy showing the 6th South African Armoured Brigade's movements during WW2

236

The HMS Theseus (About 1950)

237

The United Nations Service Medal (Korean Clasp) and the British Korean Medal

241

De Bus family crest

242

The signature of Jean De Bus

242

Dodgson family crest

243

Sousa/De Sousa family crest

244

Example of a family tree in the early stages of research

245

An example of a NAAIRS search result entry

246

An example of a folder system used for genealogy research

247

Modern map indicating where the ―Seven Daughters of Eve‖ would have lived

249

All males connected by blue lines have common Y-DNA

250

Introduction

The ―De Buys‖ family and branches such as ―Buys‖ have become one of the fairly common names and, in fact, an integral part of South Africa‘s history without becoming an everyday household name. Stories of bounties on the heads of men, deals with the ruling parties of the day and adventures in strange new lands before the Settlers and Voortrekkers fill our past. The families involved in our tree are now spread far and wide around the planet, continually growing and spreading its branches.

The original French family from which my family descends is the Huguenot family by the name of ―De Bus‖. Other Buys‘s in South Africa are descended from Barend Buys and Francois Gustave Du Bois.

Barend Buys came from Braunschweig, Germany and arrived in the Cape on 9 January 1715, on the ship Risdam. His occupation was listed as ―soldier‖ but he first worked as a stablehand for the Dutch East India Company upon arrival in the Cape. On 26 November 1718 he signed a contract to work as a hand (labourer) for Jacobus van den Heijden. He married in Cape Town on 12 October 1721 to the fifteen year old Alida van den Berg, whose parents were Jacobus van den Berg and Jacomina Carteniers.

On 3 February 1722 he was given a loan farm called Witteklip, just north of Saldahna Bay. He sold the farm Blomkool on 8 October 1722 to Andries Krugel. In 1724 his slave Andries van Ceylon stole brandy out of his seller. A Khoikoi, named Pieter, told Barend about the theft. Barend tied Andries up and hoisted him up to the roof beams of his house. He then beat Andries with a stick. When Andries was lowered and untied Pieter stabbed him with a knife. Andries ran away, but later returned and burnt Barend‘s cellar down. He was caught and sentenced. His hand was chopped off and he was strangled until he lost conciousness. His body was then placed before a fire. Barend later tied Andries on a wheel and left him to die. 1

Barend and Alida had seven daughters and three sons. Barend Buys died about 1742.

Francois Gustave Du Bois was born in Bordeaux, France on 23 April 1818 and came to South Africa around 1838. His parents were Francois Gustave du Bois and Marié Ursula de Lesseps. Francois was a student at the Boston College in America where he achieved the qualification of advocate. Upon his return to France, Francois decided to see more of the world and joined the crew of a French whaling ship. On the way to the whaling waters of New Zeeland, his ship lay at anchor in St. Helena Bay on the West Coast, to take in supplies. During this period, it is told, the captain instructed three crew members to fetch supplies from the local farmers in the area. The three had other ideas and promptly headed inland, abandoning their mission and also abandoning ship.The captain promptly set out after them and, with the help of the local Veldkornet, they were captured and brought back to ship.

Francois was then given the orders to fetch supplies and he and another crewmember, Dominique Novella, set out. The two had the same thoughts as the previous three and also headed inland and abandoned ship. (At this point one can only presume that life aboard this whaler must have been very tough for crew members not used to the harsh conditions) Francois and Dominique managed to hide long enough to escape the captain's search. Francois later found himself on the farm Heuningklip owned by Nicolaas Willem Loubser. He married one of the daughters, Anna Catharina Loubser in 1842 and later settled on the farm Jacobsbaai, halfway between Vredenburg and Saldanha on the West Coast. The couple had five children, four sons and one daughter. Francois and his family actively farmed the land - Jacobsbaai. He never practiced as Advocate in South Africa but many came to him for legal advice. Francois died on the farm Jacobsbaai in 1885 and was buried on the neighboring farm Oranjevlei. Over time, the grave disappeared without trace. We also do not know where his wife was buried.

Jacobsbaai today is a pleasant holiday/retirement village. One central road of the village is called ―F Du Bois Street" and there is also a one of the original farm buildings has been renovated and is called ―Du Bois Huis‖. The descendants of Dominique Novella also live on the West Coast in the Vredenburg/Veldrift area. 2

The ―De Buys‖ and ―Buys‖ version of the ―Du Bus‖ name most likely came about due to Dutch influences in the Cape and the infamous renegade, Coenraad Willem Du Buis who began moving around the country and getting involved with the indigenous people of southern Africa (which was wholly unacceptable at the time) Because of Coenraad‘s lawlessness and perhaps his distance from the record keeping offices of the Cape Colony very little was recorded about

2 Ferdie du Bois fdbelec@telkomsa.net

the women he lived with and his children. For this reason tracing linage into the De Bus tree from which he stems was difficult at times. Fortunately I was put in touch with the Human Genomic Diversity and Disease Research Unit (University of the Witwatersrand and the National Health Laboratory Service) who had researched known offspring of Coenraad De Buys and had recorded his DNA through his offspring. Upon testing my DNA they found that our Y chromosome records exactly matched that of Coenraad‘s known offspring who now live in Buyskop. It proved that we are descendants of Jean De Bus who arrived in Cape Town in April 1688 onboard De Oosterland, and inspired me to keep on researching the family tree to find out exactly where we fit into the tree.

The Dodgson name can be traced back to 14th century Britain and Scotland. Unfortunately tracing our particular branch of the Dodgson family did not allow us to go back that far. Charles Lutwidge Dodgson wrote ―Alice in Wonderland‖ and other books under the name Lewis Carroll. Carroll‘s family lived in the Yorkshire area as did our Dodgson family. We have, however, yet to find a link between the two families. Our Dodgson tree branched when Frank Dodgson left England to settle in South Africa. His brother, Harold came to South Africa but later moved back to England and then to Australia where he settled with his family.

Both families in the trees explored in this book were not rich or even "well off" family, yet both have fought their own ―battles‖ and survived and grown into the De Buys' and Dodgson we see today. It seems strange and somewhat poetic that two groups of people arrived by sea to this country to live new lives that their descendants met and married and created many new South African families as well as families in other countries all over the world.

This document outlines the family from as far back as research allows to the current day De Buys and Dodgson family (from the Leonard Anthony De Buys point of view) and explores the ancestors on both sides of his family. I began researching the family history after seeing a family tree written in a large Bible my mother owns. My mother had written the information here and some other family members had already collected, mainly Dodgson information. My mother gave me all the information she had including a single page article on Coenraad De Buys. This sparked my interest in family history and my research began in earnest around February 2007. The ongoing nature of families and genealogy means that my research is by no means complete and is an ongoing task.

L. A. De Buys

Timeline

1690: The Trekboer class emerges 1713: 1734: Smallpox Groot Brak River proclaimed 6 April 1652:
1690:
The Trekboer
class emerges
1713:
1734:
Smallpox
Groot Brak River proclaimed
6 April 1652: Jan Van
epidemic in
the eastern boundary of the Cape
Riebeeck arrives and
the Cape
the VOC governs the
Cape
1640
1660
1680
1700
1720
1740
1760
1694:
19 July 1688:
2 March 1653:
24 October 1761:
Jean De Buis is
Jean De Buis
The first slave,
Coenraad De
awarded Knolle
arrives in the
Abraham, a stowaway
Buys is baptised
Vallei, but is
Cape onboard
from Batavia, is given
only given the
De Oosterland
14 June 1873:
to Van Riebeeck. He is
title deed in
George
sent back to Batavia
1714
Dodgson
three years later
marries Jane
Hall in
1771:
10 January 1805:
Pontefract , UK
Cape boundary extended to
British retake the Cape
the Gamtoos River
1847:
16 December 1880 – 23 March 1881
Colonial boundary
1 March 1803:
First Boer War
extends to the Orange River
Batavia takes the Cape
1780
1800
1820
1840
1860
1880
1839:
1821:
The Great Trek begins
1789:
After Coenraad‘s wife dies
Dutch East India Company
he says goodbye to his
1881:
(VOC) liquidated
family and walks off into
Britain recognizes the
the night – never to be
South African Republic
seen again
(ZAR)
1888:
President Paul
Kruger awards the
28 July 1914 – 11 November 1918
―Buys‖ family a tract
World War 1
29 Jun 1962:
of land now known
About 1928:
Dodgson‘s
11 October 1889 – 31 May 1902
as ―Buyskop‖ for
Harold Dodgson
arrive in the
Second Boer War
services rendered to
marries Marion Bush
Cape
the Transvaal
in Hatfield, UK
Republic
1900
1920
1940
1960 1980
2000
31 May 1910:
10 May 1994:
Union of South
Nelson Mandela
1 September 1939– 2 September 1943
Africa declared
elected President
World War 2
1901:
31 May 1961:
Bubonic plague in Cape
Republic of
Town
South Africa
declared

Figure 1: Graphical timeline of events in South African history

4th century: Bantu speaking groups settle, joining the indigenous San and Khoikhoi people.

1487: The Portuguese explorer Batholemeu Dias sails down the coast to reach southern Angola. He later lands at present-day Walvis Bay and soon after at Lüderitz Bay.

1488: Dias succeeds in circumnavigating the Cape, naming it ―Cabo de Bõa Esperança‖ or the Cape of Good Hope. This is a major breakthrough in the search for discovering a sea-route to India. Dias passes Mossel Bay, named ―Angra dos Vaqueiros‖ - Bay of Cowherds - with reference to Khoikhoi herders seen on shore.

1497: Vasco da Gama rounds the Cape on way to India.

1503: Antonio de Saldanha, leading a Portuguese squadron, enters Table Bay (called Aguada da Saldanha until 1601) owing to a navigational error. They are the first Europeans to climb Table Mountain, which they name Taboa do Cabo (the Table Cape) because of its shape.

1 March 1510: On his way back to Portugal the Viceroy of Portuguese India, Francisco d' Almeida, is killed in a skirmish with Khoi-Khoi, probably due to a misunderstanding arising from barter between the Khoi-Khoi and the Portuguese at the mouth of the Salt River in Table Bay. Thereafter, Portuguese traders tend to bypass the Cape itself, relying on Robben Island for fresh meat and water.

1575: Portuguese mariner and cartographer Manuel de Mesquita Perestrelo explores the south and south-east coast of South Africa on a voyage for this purpose. He gives the first detailed description and draws a map of the coast.

18 June 1580: An English admiral, Francis Drake, rounds the Cape on his voyage round the world in his quest to reach

India for the English Crown. He describes the Cape in the following words: ‗This Cape is a most stately thing, and the fairest Cape we saw in the whole circumference of the earth.‘

4 August 1595: Four ships under Cornelis de Houtman reach São Bras. This is the first contact of the Dutch with the coast of Southern Africa.

1602: The Dutch East India Company is formed

1647: A Dutch East India Company ship was shipwrecked in Table Bay. Part of the crew was left behind in order to salvage as much of the cargo as they could, to be picked up the following year. Leendert Jansz, after returning to the Dutch Republic, wrote a report about his experience at the Cape.

06 April 1652: The first white settlers, led by Jan van Riebeeck arrive at the Cape on board the Drommedaris. The Cape

is governed by the Dutch East India Company (VOC) until 1795

2 March 1653: The first slave, Abraham, a stowaway from Batavia onboard the Amsterfoort, is given to Van Riebeeck. He works for the Company until sent back to Batavia three years later.

1654: Asian convicts brought to Cape as slaves

1656: Catharina Anthonis, a slave born in Bengal, was the first slave to be freed, because Jan Woutersz wanted to marry her

1657: Slaves imported from Madagascar and Java

21 February 1657: First white free burghers (citizens), nine men received grants of land along the Liesbeeck River

(now Rondebosch)

28 March 1658: 38 male slaves and 37 female slaves from Angola, arrive in Table Bay aboard the Amersfoort

May 1658: 228 slaves from West African coast arrive in Table Bay aboard the Hassell, about 80 are shipped to Batavia

1659: Armed Hottentots (Khoikhoi) begin to resist Dutch seizure of land, leading to the First Dutch-Khoikhoi war

1660: Almond hedge planted to protect the settlement from the Hottentots (Khoikhoi)

1660: First horses arrive at the Cape from Batavia

1660: Expansion of Cape settlement

1661: Rumours noted at Cape concerning "Briqua" - later known to be Tswana

May 1662: Jan van Riebeeck leaves the Cape for Malacca

09 May 1662: Zacharias Wagenaar appointed Governor

1663: Outposts set up at Saldanha Bay and Hottentots Holland

1665: The first Dutch Reformed Church congregation founded at the Cape and the first minister Rev. J van Arkel appointed

24 October 1665: Cornelis van Qualberg appointed Governor

1666: The foundation stones of the Castle, built to replace the existing Fort, in Cape Town were laid. Building is done by slave labour.

1666: Settlements in Saldanha Bay and Vishoek (Fish Hoek)

1666: First Calvinist church built in Cape Town

October 1666: Cornelis van Qualbergen appointed Governor of the Cape

1667: Indians arrive at the Cape

18

June 1668: Jakob Borghorst appointed Governor

02

June 1670: Pieter Hackius appointed Governor

01

December 1671: Coenraad van Breitenbach appointed Governor

23

March 1672: Albert van Breugel appointed Governor

02

October 1672: Yobrand Godske appointed Governor

1673: Second Dutch-Khoikhoi War

1673 - 1677: Third Dutch-Khoikhoi War

02 January 1676: Johan Bax (van Herenthals) appointed Governor

1678: Settlement of Hottentots-Holland

29 June 1678: Hendrik Crulax appointed Governor

1679: Stellenbosch founded

1679: First farmers settle along the Eerste River

1679: Castle in Cape Town is completed

1679: Slave Lodge built to house Company slaves.

14 October 1679: Simon van der Stel appointed Governor of the Cape with orders to expand the colony a task which

ran from 1679 until 1688

1685: Simon van der Stel visits Namaqualand

1685: Commissioner Hendrik van Reede (VOC) decrees that male slaves may buy their freedom for 100 guilders on reaching the age of 25 years, provided that they have been confirmed in the Dutch Reformed Church and can speak Dutch. The same conditions apply to female slaves, who can buy their freedom at age 22 years.

1686: Dutch Reformed Church congregation founded in Stellenbosch (seceded from Cape Town)

1687: Settlements along Berg River (Drakenstein, Paarl)

1688: Approximately 200 French Huguenots arrive at the Cape, settle mostly in Fransch Hoek

1690: Trekboer class emerges

1691: Dutch Reformed Church congregations founded in Drakenstein and Paarl

1698: Settlement of Wagenmaker's Vallei (Wellington)

11 February 1699: Willem Adriaan van der Stel appointed Governor

1700: VOC slave trading in Mozambique, Zanzibar and Madagascar

1700: Settlement in Land van Waveren (Tulbagh)

1701: Cattle raids by Khoisan (Hottentots and San) commence against Dutch

03

June 1707: Johan Cornelis d'Ableing appointed Governor

01

February 1708: Louis van Assenburg appointed Governor

28

December 1711: Willem Helot appointed Governor

1713: Smallpox epidemic in the Cape, introduced from India by visiting ships, decimates Hottentots (Khoisan) and kills many whites

28 March 1714: Maurits Pasques de Chavonnes appointed Governor

1717: System of freehold title to land ends, by which time about 400 farms granted

1717: VOC resolves to keep slaves as main workforce at the Cape.

1720: Western Cape Khoikhoi reduced to labouring class

1722: Groot Constantia is built

08

September 1724: Jan de la Fontaine (provisional) appointed Governor

25

February 1727: Pieter Gysbert Noot appointed Governor

24

April 1728: Jan de la Fontaine (provisional) appointed Governor

1730: First Boers reach George area and trek inland into Langkloof

1730: The VOC imports slaves from Mozambique and Zanzibar

08 March 1730: Jan de la Fontaine appointed Governor

1732: Annual rental of a leningsplaas (loan farm) doubled to 24 Rix dollars

1732: Quitrent system of land tenure introduced

1734: Great Brak River proclaimed eastern boundary of Cape

14 November 1736: Adriaan van Kervel appointed Governor

1737: Short-lived Moravian mission to Khoikhoi

20

September 1737: Daniel van den Henghel appointed Governor

01

April 1739: Hendrik Swellengrebel appointed Governor of the Cape. He was the first South African-born Governor.

His father was a Russian from Moscow, in the service of the VOC, and his mother was Johanna Cruse, born in South

Africa.

1743: First recorded Trekboer loan farms in Roggeveld

1743: Dutch Reformed Church congregations founded in Roodezand (Tulbagh)

1745: Dutch Reformed Church congregations founded in Swartland (Malmesbury) and Swellendam

1746: Swellendam is founded

01

April 1750: Hendrik Swellengrebel appointed Governor

30

March 1751: Ryk Tulbagh appointed Governor of the Cape

1754: First recorded San resistance to Roggeveld area Trekboers

1755: Foundation stone of Old Town house in Cape Town is laid

1755: Smallpox epidemic in the Cape

1760: Jansz, Coetse with Klaas Barends and others cross the Gariep River

1761: Hendrik Hop travels to Gariep River

1765: 112 slaves from Madagascar arrive in Table Bay on board Meermin

1770: Intensive Khoisan resistance to Trekboer occupation. The resistance continues until 1799

1770: Mothibi son of Molehabangwe of Tlhaping born at Nokaneng

1771: Clashes between Trekboers and Xhosa begin as trekkers cross the Gamtoos River in the east

1771: Cape boundary crosses Gamtoos River

12 August 1774: Joachim Ammema, Baron van Plettenberg appointed Governor of the Cape

1774: General Commando mounted against San: 503 killed, 241 captured

1778: Hendrik Jacob Wikar and Robert Jacob Gordon meet Khoikhoi, Geisiqua and Tswana groups along lower and middle Gariep which Gordon names Orange River in honour of the Netherlands Stadtholder

1778: Great Fish River becomes eastern boundary of Cape. Boundary extended to Buffels and Zak Rivers

1780: First Frontier War between Xhosa and whites

1782: First issue of paper Rix dollars, gradually replacing gold and silver coins.

1783: Le Vaillant and Van Reenen travel in Namaqualand and north of Orange River

14

February 1785: Cornelis Jacob van de Graaff appointed Governor

1786: Graaff-Reinet founded

1789: Merino sheep imported from Holland

1789-1793: Second Frontier War between Xhosa and whites

1789: French Revolution - republican sentiments spread

1790: In documented raids on "Bosjesmen" 2000 - 3000 Khoisan are killed

29

June 1791: Johannes Isaac Rhenius appointed Governor

02

September 1791: Abraham Josias Sluisken appointed Commissioner under VOC rule

1792: Dutch Reformed Church congregation founded in Graaff-Reinet (seceded from Tulbagh)

1792: Moravian Mission founded at Genadendal

1795: The Rix Dollar (rijksdaalder) is valued at four shillings

1795: Revolt in Swellendam

29 January 1795: The Boer republic of Graaff-Reinet was declared, but on 12 November the British took the town

back by force.

18 June 1795: First Boer revolt against the Dutch East India Company (VOC) the Boer Republic of Swellendam was

declared under Hermanus Steyn, but the British took it back later

September 1795: J. H. Craig appointed Governor. Slaves outnumber European settlers at this time

16 September 1795: First British occupation of the Cape on behalf of the Prince of Orange.

1796: Pieter Pienaar murdered by Jager Afrikaner at Hantam. Afrikaner becomes frontier leader

23 May 1797: Duke (Graaf) van MaCartney appointed Governor of the Cape

1798: First Post Office

1798: Liquidation of Dutch East India Company (VOC)

1798: First mosque in southern Africa established in Dorp Street by Tuan Guru

1798: Dutch Reformed Church congregation founded at Swellendam.

22 November 1798: Lt-Gov Dundas appointed Governor of the Cape

1799: Third Frontier War between the Xhosa and whites

1799: Fort Frederick built in Algoa Bay by British soldiers

1799: First London Missionary Society (LMS) station - to Xam - on Zak River

1799-1802: Eastern Cape Khoikhoi revolt

18 December 1799: Sir G. Young appointed Governor

1800: Succession of frontier wars erupt as Xhosa resist colony's eastward expansion

1800: First printing press in Cape Town

1800: Government Gazette started

1801: Official expedition of Truter, Somerville, Barrow and Daniell, with missionaries Jan Matthys Kok and William Edwards, reaches Dithakong

1801: William Anderson established mission at Aakaap and then Klaarwater (later Griquatown)

1801: Khoisan spelling book printed by LMS

20

April 1801: Lt-Gov Dundas appointed Governor of the Cape

18

February 1802: Jan Willem Janssens appointed Governor under Batavian (Bataafsck) Government??

01

March 1803: Batavian Republic (Netherlands) takes over the Cape from Britain.

A rule which lasts until January

1806

1804: Heinrich Lichtenstein travels to Dithakong

1804: Uitenhage founded

1806: LMS station at Warmbad, Great Namaqualand

1806: First regular inland postal service

08

January 1806: The Battle Of Blaauwberg is waged

10

January 1806: British retake Cape following outbreak of Napoleonic Wars and Sir David Baird appointed Governor

17

January 1807: Lt-Gen Grey appointed Governor of the Cape

1807: British ban slave trade, importation of slaves to the Cape ends - however it is still legal to own slaves.

22 May 1807: Du Pre, Duke (Graaf) of Caledon appointed Governor of the Cape

1808: Clanwilliam founded

1808: Slave rebellion at the Cape led by Louis of Mauritius. British Dragoon‘s caught 326 of the marchers at Salt River. 47 of these were put to trial where nine were found guilty of treason and sentenced to be hanged, including Louis of Mauritius.

1809: Severe drought in eastern frontier

1809: Gola's Xhosa community settles at Pramberg

1810: Montshiwa of Rolong born

1811: William John Burchell travels in the interior

1811: Dutch Reformed Church congregation founded in Caledon

1811: Regular circuit courts introduced

1811: Caledon and George founded

05 July 1811: Lt-Gen Grey appointed Governor

06 September 1811: Sir John Francis Cradock appointed Governor

28

December 1811: The Massacre at Zuurberg, which marked the beginning of the Fourth Frontier War between Xhosa

and whites. The Landdrost Stockenström and about a dozen of his party where killed

1812: Cradock and Grahamstown founded

1812: Molehabangwe of Tlhaping died; succeeded by son Mothibi

1813: Dutch Reformed Church congregation founded in George (seceded from Swellendam)

1813: Revd John Campbell conducts mission inspection in the interior

1813: Adam Kok's people assert the name Griqua

1813: Court proceedings opened to the public

20

February 1813: British Governor introduces a policy of Anglicizing which leads to a Boere Rebellion

02

November 1813: Lord Charles Henry Somerset appointed Governor of the Cape

1814: Mail packet service started between Britain and the Cape

1814: Lord Charles Henry Somerset (1767-1831), becomes first British governor of the Cape Colony

1814: The Cape Colony is formally ceded to Britain

1815: Slagter's Nek Rebellion

1816 - 1826: Shaka Zulu founds and expands the Zulu empire, creates a formidable fighting force.

1816: Missionaries Read and Hamilton, with Hendriks, Kakkerlak and Sedras establish Kuruman Mission (LMS)

1816: Wesleyan Mission to Nama at Leliefontein

1817: Dutch Reformed Church congregation founded in Uitenhage

1817: Approximately 200 Scottish artisan immigrants brought to Cape by Benjamin Moodie

1818-1819: Fifth Frontier War between Xhosa and whites - Grahamstown attacked

1818: Beaufort West founded

1818: Dutch Reformed Church congregation founded in Cradock

1818: Settlement of land beyond Orange River

1819: Dutch Reformed Church congregations founded in Beaufort West and Somerset West

1820: Andries Waterboer elected Griqua Captain at Griquatown

1820-1821: Approximately 5000 British settlers arrive in Algoa Bay as part of the 1820 Settlers immigration scheme and are settled in the Eastern Cape

1820: James Read produces first book in Setswana

1820: Port Elizabeth named by Sir Rufane Donkin

1820: Worcester founded

1821: Dutch Reformed Church congregation founded in Worcester

1821: Robert Moffat, in Namaqualand from 1817, moves to Kuruman

1822: English becomes the official language of the Cape Colony

1823: Approximately 146 Irish settlers brought to the Cape by John Ingram

1823: Difaqane (1820's) Battle of Dithakong - Manthatisi repulsed by Tlhaping with help from Griquas. Tswana to north and east heavily disrupted by Difaqane raids

01 July 1823: Lewis Broadbent born to the wife of the Methodist missionary Samuel Broadbent at Leeudoringstad,

16km from Wolmaranstad. Lewis later became a missionary to India.

1824: First Synod of the Dutch Reformed Church

1824: Mission station at Lovedale founded

1824: Bergenaar rebellion

1824: Construction of road through Fransch Hoek Pass

1824: The Zulu chief Shaka "granted, made over and sold" Port Natal to Farewell and his companions

1824: First lighthouse opened

1824: George Thompson travels inland - naming Augrabies Falls "Cataract of King George"

Circa 1825: The Jubilee Park Cemetery in Uitenhage in use

1825: Second slave rebellion at the Cape led by Galant, a slave from the Koue Bokkeveld.

1825: First steamship in Table Bay

1825: Depreciated Rix dollar converted into British sterling

1825: Dutch Reformed Church congregation founded in Somerset East

1825: The Anglican St. Mary's Collegiate Church started in Port Elizabeth

10 October 1825: Birth of Paul Kruger, President of the Zuid Afrikaansche Republiek

1826: Adam Kok II establishes Philippolis Griqua Captaincy

1826: Dutch Reformed Church congregations founded in Clanwilliam, Colesberg, Durbanville and Tijgerberg

Circa 1828: Union Chapel (London Missionary Society - i.e. Congregational) in Port Elizabeth founded. Records start in 1831

1828: St. Mary's Cemetery started in Port Elizabeth

1830: Road over Sir Lowry's Pass opened

1830: Full civil privileges granted to Roman Catholics in the Cape

1830: Colesberg founded

1830: Moffat's printing press transported to Kuruman by ox wagon

1831: First issue of Grahamstown Journal

1831: Dutch Reformed Church congregation founded in Albany

1831: First publication of De Zuid Afrikaan (ons Land)

1833: Slavery is abolished throughout the British Dominions

1833: Dutch Reformed Church parish in Piquetberg (Piketberg) founded

1833 - 1839: Approximately 750 juveniles brought to the Cape as apprentices

1834: Berlin Mission Society establishes station at Bethulie

1834: "Kommissie" treks from Cape begins

1834: King William's Town founded

1834: The Anglican St. John's Church is built in Bathurst

1834: Port Natal renamed Durban

1834 - 1835: Andrew Smith and artist Charles Davidson Bell travel to the interior

01

December 1834: Slaves officially freed but apprenticed for 4 years

21

December 1834 September 1835: Sixth Frontier War between Xhosa and Whites.

1835: Louis Trichardt, Hans van Rensburg and Andries Potgieter trek north

1836: James Alexander travels through Namaqualand

1836: Potgieter's trekkers defeat Ndebele at the Battle of Vegkop

1836: The Great Trek has reached the Transvaal and the Free State areas

02 December 1836: First Voortrekker-government established under Gerrit Maritz

1837: Louis Trichardt arrives in Lourenco Marques

1837: Andries Potgieter and Piet Uys, helped by Rolong and Griqua tribes, defeat Ndebele at Mosega

1837: Piet Retief publishes his "Manifesto"

1837: Separate administrative districts granted to Port Elizabeth, Cradock and Colesburg

28 March 1837: Piet Retief and his "trek" leaves the Cape Colony

1838: Boers establish the Republiek of Natalia

1838: Pietermaritzburg founded

1838: Russell Road (Hyman's kloof) Cemetery established in Port Elizabeth

1838: The Great Trek

February 1838: Piet Retief and his people are murdered by Dingaan's soldiers at Dingaan's kraal

17 February 1838: Dingaan's Impis (warriors) attacked several laagers, including that of Liebenberg at Moordspruit;

Wynand Bezuidenhout's laager and the Rossouw family's laager. These attacks became known as the Bloukranz

Massacre and the Saailaager Massacre.

01 December 1838: Slaves are freed at the Cape.

04

December 1838: Britain occupies Port Natal

16

December 1838: Battle of Blood River fought. Victory by Boers against the Zulus

22

December 1838: Potchefstroom established

1839: First issue of Grahamstown Journal

1839: Dutch Reformed Church congregations founded in Bredasdorp and Riversdale

1840: The Anglican St. Katherine's Church is founded in Uitenhage

1840 - 1849: Expansion of commercial wool farmers in Karoo transforms colonial economy.

1840: Pedi migrate to work on Cape farms

1840: Dutch Reformed Church congregation founded in Wellington

16 October 1840: Potchefstroom, Winburg and Natalia unifies as a single Boerestaat

Circa 1841: Methodist Church founded in Port Elizabeth

1841: Missionary David Livingstone arrives in South Africa - proceeds to Kuruman before journeying through Central Africa

1841: Trekkers council set up in Potchefstroom

1842 - 1843: War between the British and the Boers in Natal

1842: Dutch Reformed Church parish founded in Prince Albert

1842: Dick King's ride from Durban to Grahamstown

1843: Dutch Reformed Church parish founded in Richmond

1843: Natal annexed as a British Colony

1844: Access to land is changed from leasehold to free hold

1844: Hendrik Potgieter settles at Delagoa Bay

April 1844: Boers from Natal settle at Potchefstroom, after crossing the Drakensberg Mountains

1844: Victoria West established

1845: Mothibi of Tlhaping dies

1845: Dutch Reformed Church congregation founded at Mossel Bay (seceded from George)

1845: Ohrigstad founded

1845: Natal becomes autonomous district of Cape Colony

1845: Battle of Zwartkoppies

1845: Berlin Mission Society establishes station Pniel

1846: Bloemfontein founded

1846 - 1848: Seventh Frontier War between Xhosa and whites. This war was also known as the War of the Axe

1846: Approximately 103 settlers arrive in Port Elizabeth from war-torn Buenos Aires, Argentina

1846: Orange River Sovereignty

1846: Dutch Reformed Church parish founded in Burgersdorp

1847: Districts of Victoria East and British Kaffraria annexed as part of the Cape Colony

1847: East London founded

1847: Rhenish Missionary Christoph Alheit moves to Schietfontein (Carnarvon)

1847: Colonial boundary extended to Orange River

1847: Sugar cane plantations started in Natal

1847: Opening of Montagu Pass

1847: Dutch Reformed Church parish founded in Calvinia

1848: Dutch Reformed Church parish founded in Napier

1848: Boers cross the Vaal River

1848: Battle of Boomplaats

1848 - 1854: The Orange River Sovereignty is declared. The ORS was a short-lived political entity between the Orange

and Vaal rivers in southern Africa. In 1854, it became the Orange Free State, and is now the Free State.

1848: Soutpansberg (later Schoemansdal) founded

03

February 1848: Freestate annexed by British under Sir Harry Smith

23

March 1848: Approximately 163 German settlers, known as the Bergthiel Settlers, arrive in Natal

Circa 1849: The first Jewish Congregation founded in Cape Town

1849: The Byrne Settlers arrive in Natal

1850-1853: Eighth Frontier War.

1850: First Afrikaans book written by an imam (Muslim prayer leader) of slave descent

1850: Wesleyan Settlers arrive in Natal

1850: Dutch Reformed Church parish founded in Namaqualand

1851: Sugar first produced from cane in Natal

1851: Dutch Reformed Church congregation founded in Knysna

1852: Copper mining begins at Springbokfontein (Namaqualand) - migrant labour on small scale

1852: The New Church (Congregational / Presbyterian) established in Port Elizabeth

1852: Dutch Reformed Church parish founded in Middelburg

17 January 1852: Founding of the Transvaal Republic after the signing of the Sand River Convention

26

February 1852: Birkenhead, one of Britain‘s first Iron-hulled ships, wrecked at Gansbaai

16 March 1852: Reconciliation between Andries Pretorius and Hendrik Potgieter

1853: Hopetown established

1853: Nicholas Waterboer succeeds as Griqua Captain

1853: Dutch Reformed Church congregation founded in Oudtshoorn

1853: Settlement of Queenstown and Seymour

1853: Union Steamship Line founded

1854: First elected parliament of Cape Colony

1854: George Grey (1812-1898), Portuguese-born British colonial governor

1854: Boers defeat Ndebele at Makapansgat

1854: Dutch Reformed Church parishes established in Montagu and Queenstown

23 February 1854: The Republic of the Orange Free State established by the signing of the Bloemfontein Convention.

1855: 20 miners arrive to work in the Namaqualand copper mines

1855: Pretoria is founded

1856: Dutch Reformed Church parish founded in Murraysburg

1856: The Anglican St. Paul's Church in Port Elizabeth is founded

1856: Natal becomes a separate colony

1856

- 1857: Self-destruction of Xhosa tribe by cattle-killing

1856

- 1862: Approximately 700 juveniles arrive from Holland

1856: Approximately 3000 Crimean War veterans (German Legionnaires) settled in Kaffraria, later joined by 2700 German civilians

17 December 1856: Founding of the Boererepubliek Lydenburg

1857: Moffat completes Old Testament Bible translation into Setswana

1857: First mail contract with Union Steamship Company for regular mail service between Britain and South Africa

1857: Xhosa enter Karoo following Eastern Cape Cattle Killing

1857: Transvaal Vierkleur hoisted for the first time

1857 - 1862: Assisted immigration schemes bring about 12 000 settlers

1857: Approximately 157 Irish girls arrive on the ship Lady Kennaway, settle in British Kaffraria

1857: First Legislative Council in Natal

06 January 1857: Induction of M W Pretorius, first President of the Zuid Afrikaansche Republiek

23

February 1857: The Orange Free State adopts the Vierkleur flag

Circa 1858: Jewish congregation founded in Port Elizabeth

1858: The Anglican Holy Trinity Church is built in Port Elizabeth

1858: War between Orange Free State and Basotho tribe

1859: Dopper Church leaves the Dutch Reformed Church

1859: First railway in South Africa commenced in Cape Colony

Circa 1860: The first Baptist Church is started in Port Elizabeth

1860: Boer republics north of the Vaal unite South African Republic, Pretoria is chosen as capital

1860: Work began on Table Bay Docks

1860: The Catholic St. Augustine's Church is established in Port Elizabeth

1860: Indians arrive in Natal to work on sugar cane farms as indentured labourers

1860: Between 1860 and 1911 about 52 000 Indians arrive and about 50% stay

1860: Start of penny post in Cape Town

1860: First telegraph service in South Africa, between Cape Town and Simonstown

1861 - 1862: Griqua trek under Adam Kok III from Philippolis to Nomansland

1862: First railway opened in the Cape

1863: The Hill Presbyterian Church is founded in Port Elizabeth

1863: North End Cemetery established in Port Elizabeth

1864: St. George's Cemetery established in Port Elizabeth

1865 1866: Albania Settlement Scheme

1865: War between Orange Free State and Basothos

1865: Economic depression throughout South Africa

1865: Ostriches first domesticated

1866: India officially stops sending Indian labourers to Natal

21 April 1867: 25 carat diamond found near Hopetown

1868 - 1869: Korana War along Orange River

1869: Gold and diamond rush starts

1869: The Star of South Africa diamond discovered

1869: Railway from Port Nolloth to O'Kiep

1870 - 1871: St. Peter's Anglican Church started in Port Elizabeth

1870: Galeshewe of Tlhaping born

1870: Opening of Cape Town Docks

1870: Xam prisoners at Cape Town interviewed by Wilhelm Bleek and Lucy Lloyd

1871: Discovery of diamonds on the farm Vooruitzicht, later to become New Rush and then renamed Kimberley in

1873

1871: Gold discovered in Eastern Transvaal

1871: Britain annexes the diamond fields of Kimberley and Griqualand West

1871: First mail from Cape Town to the diamond fields

1871: Griqua claim to Diamond Fields recognized; Waterboer seeks British protection.

1871: Diamond mining stimulates migrant labour, two thirds of Black workers come from Limpopo valley.

1873: Gold discovered in Lydenburg district of Transvaal

1873: Griqualand West proclaimed as a British colony

1873 - 1875: Approximately 3 300 men, women and children arrive as agricultural settlers or labourers for public works

1874: Railway line opened from Port Elizabeth to Uitenhage

1874: College founded at Stellenbosch (later Victoria College, today University of Stellenbosch)

1875: Black Flag Rebellion by white diggers at Kimberley

14 August 1875: Formation of the Genootskap van Regte Afrikaners at the home of Gideon Malherbe in Paarl

1876: First railway line in Natal

1877: "Native Locations" for Tswana established in Griqualand West

1877: Ninth Frontier War

12

April 1877: Shepstone annexes the ZAR (Transvaal) for Britain

10

May 1877: Paul Kruger leads a deputation to Britain to demand the freedom of the ZAR

1878: Telegraph service between Natal and Transvaal

1878: Walvis Bay proclaimed British territory

1878 - 1879: Griqualand West Rebellion, Korana War and the Tswana Rebellion coincide with similar conflicts elsewhere in South Africa

14

May 1878: Paul Kruger leads second deputation to Britain to demand the freedom of the ZAR

01

September 1879: Zulu War starts, battles at Isandhlwana, Rorke's Drift and Ulundi

1880: Formation of the first branch of the Afrikaner Bond

1880: Griqualand West annexed to Cape Colony

1880: Formation of De Beers Company

1880: First legislative Council in Transvaal

16

December 1880: First shot fired in the Eerste Vryheidsoorlog (First South African War of Independence).

1881 - 1882: Tswana-Kora wars with white mercenary involvement

1881: Britain recognizes South African Republic (ZAR)

1881: Signing of peace Agreement between ZAR and Britain

28

January 1881: Battle of Laing's Nek

27

February 1881: Boers defeat Britain at Battle of Majuba

21

March 1881: Declaration of peace with Britain at the house of O‘Neill in Northern Natal

1882 - 1883: Stellaland and Goshen mercenary republics declared

1882: Abraham September (a freed slave) begins Orange River irrigation

1882: South End Cemetery in Port Elizabeth started

1882: Use of Dutch recognized in Cape Parliament

1882: Approximately 4645 settlers arrive from Britain

09 May 1882: Induction of Paul Kruger as President of ZAR

1883 - 1890: Germans occupy South West Africa and German East Africa

1883: Rev Gwayi Tyamzashe, last black man to hold a claim in Kimberley mines, loses his claim

1884 - 1885: Warren takes over Stellaland and Goshen, establishes Crown Colony of British Bechuanaland and Bechuanaland Protectorate

1884: The Anglican St. Cuthbert's Church built in Port Elizabeth

1884: Barberton goldfields opened

16 August 1884: Formation of the Republic of Vryheid in Natal

1885: Railway line from Cape Town reaches Kimberley

1886: Discovery of gold bearing rock at Ferreira's camp, later to become Johannesburg

02 June 1887: President Paul Kruger authorises the construction of the railway line to Delagoabay

1888: British South Africa Company founded

1888: ―Rudd concession‖ signed by Lobengula

1888: President Kruger awards the "Buys" family a tract of land now known as "Buyskop" for services rendered to the Transvaal republic

1888: Cecil John Rhodes amalgamates Kimberley mining companies as De Beers Consolidated Mines Ltd

1890: Pioneer Column of Rhodes British South Africa Company departs from Kimberley to occupy Rhodesia

1890: Railway line reaches from Cape to Bloemfontein

1890: First railway line in Transvaal, from Johannesburg to Boksburg

December 1891: Inauguration of the Paardekraal Monument

1892: Railway line to Johannesburg completed with connections from Cape Town, Port Elizabeth and East London

1894: Glen Grey Act passed in Cape to control African labour and land

02 November 1894: Railway line between Lourenco Marques and Johannesburg opened

1895: The Pretoria-Delagoa Bay railway line opened by the South African Republic

1895: British Bechuanaland annexed to Cape Colony

16

December 1895: Railway line opened between Durban and Johannesburg

29

December 1895: Jameson led a force of about 500 men in a raid into the Transvaal. It was resisted by the Boers and

on 2 January 1896, at Doornkop, Jameson surrendered

1896: Rinderpest epidemic spreads through Africa and causes big loss of cattle

1896: Bechuanaland Campaign/Galeshewe's War begins at Phokwane and spreads to Langeberg

1897: Zululand incorporated into Natal

1897: Railway line opened between Cape Town and Bulawayo

18 March 1897: 5000 Boers decide to resist the British Annexation.

1899: Battle of Dundee

1899: Imperial Penny Postage adopted by Cape Colony

11/12 October 1899: First shot of the Second Vryheidsoorlog - by Coetzee at Kraaipanstasie. Over 25 000 people died in the worlds first concentration camps as a result of this war

13

October 1899: Boers invade Natal

14

October 1899: Sieges of Mafikeng and Kimberley started

20

October 1899: Battle of Talana

21

October 1899: Battle of Elandslaagte

30

October 1899: Siege of Ladysmith started

23

November 1899: Battle of Belmont

25

November 1899: Battle of Graspan (Enslin)

28

November 1899: Battle of Modder River (Tweeriviere)

08

December 1899: Battle of Lombard's Kop

10

December 1899: Battle of Stormberg

11

December 1899: Battle of Magersfontein

15

December 1899: Battle of Colenso

1900: Sir Alfred Milner, the governor of the Cape Colony

1900: Amalgamation of Union and Castle Steamship Lines

06

January 1900: Boers attack Ladysmith

23

- 24 January 1900: Battle of Spioen Kop

07

February 1900: Battle of Vaal Krantz

15

February 1900: Relief of Kimberley

18

February 1900: Battle at Paardeberg first great British victory of the war

28

February 1900: Ladysmith relieved

07

March 1900: Battle of Poplar Grove

13

March 1900: Bloemfontein captured by the British

14

April 1900: First Boer Prisoners of War arrive in St. Helena

11

June 1900: Battle of Diamond Hill

July/August 1900: Burning of Boer farms (scorched earth) policy authorized by Lord Kitchener

1901 - 1902: 200 teachers arrive from England to teach in the British concentration camps, followed by 100 teachers from Canada, New Zealand and Australia

1901: Bubonic plague in Cape Town

31

May 1902: Treaty of Vereeniging signed, ending Anglo-Boer War

14

July 1904: Paul Kruger dies from cardiac failure, after a period of illness. He is buried next to his wife, Gezina

Susanna Frederika Wilhelmina, in Pretoria.

1904: Chinese labourers recruited for the Transvaal mines

1907: Asiatic Registration Act passed in Transvaal, Indians oppose it

1908: Second Asiatic Registration Act passed in Transvaal, beginning of passive resistance campaigns

1909: S.S. Waratah lost between Durban and Cape Town

31 May 1910: Union of South Africa established by joining the British colonies and the Boer republics

1910: Louis Botha serves as first Prime Minister of South Africa

1910: Laying of foundation stone of Union Buildings in Pretoria

17 May 1911: Census of population taken

1913: Miners' strikes and riots on Witwatersrand. Indian riots in Natal

1913: March of Natal Indians into Transvaal

1913: Natives Land Act restricts black ownership of land

December 1913: Consecration of the Vrouemonument

28 July 1914: World War 1 commences, South Africa takes part.

15

September 1914: The Maritz Rebellion (also known as the Boer Revolt or the Five Shilling Rebellion) takes place

when several Boers support the recreation of the old Boer republics and rose up against the government of the Union of

South Africa.

20 December 1914: Cmnt Jopie Fourie executed by firing squad

1915: South West Africa and South Africa linked by railway line

1915: Afrikaans becomes the second official language, after English

20

May 1916: First publication of the Huisgenoot

18

July 1918: Rolihlahla Dalibhunga Mandela is born a member of the Madiba clan. His tribal name, "Rolihalah",

means ―pulling the branch of a tree‖ in Xhosa, but colloquially it means ―troublemaker‖. His father gave him this name. He is later given his English name, ―Nelson‖, by a school teacher, Miss Mdingane. Giving African children English

names was a custom among Africans in those days and was influenced by British colonials who could not easily, and often would not, pronounce African names. It is unclear why Miss Mdingane chose the name ―Nelson‖ for Mr Mandela. In South Africa he is often known as Madiba, this is the name of the clan of which Mr Mandela is a member. A clan name is much more important than a surname as it refers to the ancestor from which a person is descended. Madiba was the name of a Thembu chief who ruled in the Transkei in the 18th century.

11 November 1918: World War 1 ends

1918: Spanish Influenza Epidemic "Black October"

1919: Jan Christiaan Smuts (b. 1870 d. 1950) Prime minister of South Africa

May 1919: First publication of the Landbou Weekblad

03 September 1919: General Hertzog leads Freedom deputation to Versailles to demand restoration of the Boer

republics

10 November 1919: Afrikaans used for the first time in Church

1921: Diamond mines closed down in Kimberley due to economic depression

04 October 1922: Inauguration of Witwatersrand University

1923: Platinum discovered in Waterberg district of Transvaal

1924: James Barry Munnik Hertzog, (1866-1942), Prime minister of South Africa

17 June 1924: General elections

1925: South Africa reverts to gold standard

1925: Recognition of Afrikaans as the second official language of the Union after English

1930: White women receive the vote

January 1932: Airmail service between South Africa and Britain started

February 1932: Wireless telephone communication established with Britain

1933: Afrikaans Bible issued

1933: South Africa House opened in London

1936: South African Broadcasting Corporation established

01

August 1936: Union Airways acquired by Government

1938: Great Trek Centenary celebrations.

1939: Jan Christiaan Smuts' second term as Prime Minister of South Africa

1 September 1939: World War II begins - South Africa takes part on the Allied side

1941: South African Forces take Mega in Southern Abyssinia

April 1941: South African Forces arrive in Egypt

2 September 1943: The bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

1944: The black-out in Cape Town is suspended

1944: 6th South African Armoured Division leads 8th Army offensive in Italy. South Africans were the first to enter Florence

November 1944: Heroic stand by South African Forces at Sidi Resegh

1945: South African Forces capture Monte Sole and Monte Caprara, which were barring entering into Bologna. Announcement made that as from the beginning of the war until 5 March 1945; more than 1 500 South African soldiers were decorated, 2386 were mentioned in despatches and 330 were commended.

17 April 1945: 34 people killed and 90 injured in explosion of the Grand Magazine in Pretoria

1948: National Party elected to Government. Known as the beginning of apartheid era

1948: Daniel Francois Malan (1874-1959) prime minister of South Africa

December 1949: consecration of the Voortekker monument

1952: Nelson Mandela and Oliver Tambo open the first black legal firm in South Africa.

1958: Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd (1901-1966), Prime Minister of South Africa

21 March 1960: Sharpeville Massacre, police opened fire on a crowd protesting against apartheid, killing 69 protestors.

The African National Congress (ANC) is banned

31 May 1961: South Africa leaves the Commonwealth and becomes a Republic. Charles Robberts Swart (National

Party) is elected as State President of South Africa. He serves until 1 June 1967

12 June 1964: Nelson Mandela is captured and convicted of sabotage and treason and sentenced to life imprisonment at

the age of 46, initially on Robben Island where he would be kept for 18 years

1965: Rhodesian Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI)

1 June 1967: Theophilus Ebenhaezer Donges (National Party) is elected State President of South Africa, but suffers a stroke and dies before he takes office

1 June 1967 10 April 1968: Jozua François Naudé (National Party) becomes acting State President of South Africa

10 April 1968 09 April 1975: Jacobus Johannes Fouché (National Party) is elected State President of South Africa

1975: South African Forces in Angola

09 April 1975 19 April 1975: Johannes De Klerk (National Party) is acting State President of South Africa

19

April 1975 21 August 1978: Nicolaas Johannes Diederichs (National Party) is elected State President of South

Africa. He dies while in office.

1976 - 1981: The homelands of Transkei, Bophuthatswana, Venda and Ciskei are separated from South Africa and established as independent states

21

August 1978 10 October 1978: Marais Viljoen (National Party) is elected State President of South Africa

10

October 1978 04 June 1979: Balthazar Johannes Vorster (National Party) is elected State President of South

Africa

04 June 1979 3 September 1984: Marais Viljoen (National Party) is elected State President of South Africa, for the

second time

1984: Coloureds and Asians given the vote

03

September 1984 15 Augusst 1989: Pieter Willem Botha (National Party) becomes President of South Africa

19

January 1989 15 March 1989: Chris Heunis becomes acting president for P.W. Botha who suffered a stroke on

19 January 1989

15

August 1989 10 May 1994: President Fredrick Willem De Klerk (National Party)

02

February 1990: The start of the repealing of the apartheid laws and the ban on the ANC is lifted by President De

Klerk

11 February 1990: Nelson Mandela is released from prison after 27 years

1994: Previous homelands re-incorporated into South Africa

27

April 1994: First democratic general elections

10

May 1994 16 June 1999: Nelson Mandela (ANC) becomes President of South Africa. Government of National

Unity. Nelson Mandela was South Africa‘s first Xhosa speaking president.

16

June 1999: Second democratic general elections.

16

June 1999 24 September 2008: Xhosa speaking Thabo Mbeki (ANC) becomes President of South Africa.

25

September 2008 09 May 2009: Kgalema Petrus Motlanthe (ANC) becomes President of South Africa. Kgalema is

South Africa‘s first Tswana speaking president.

09 May 2009: Jacob Gedleyihlekisa 'Msholozi' Zuma assumes office as the President of South Africa.

Life in The Past

Living your life in your current day-to-day environment it may be difficult to imagine a life without the trappings and conveniences of modern life how many of us would turn back home if we left for work and then realized that we‘d left our cellular phone at home? Can you imagine travelling at night without street lights or tarred roads?

Living in the 1600’s

Jan van Riebeeck arrived at the Cape on the 6th April 1652 in command of a small detachment onboard three wooden ships the Drommedaris, Reijger and Goede Hoop. His orders were explicitly not to establish a colony, but only a fortified trading station.

He was to sell meat, wine and vegetables and other supplies bartered from the Khoi or produced by him at a company

garden. His employers, the Dutch East India Company (VOC), had no desire to pay for the conquest and administration

of territory. Their interest was to stop a British occupation of the Cape and ensure the provision of vital supplies to their

shipping fleets en route to the East.

Following his orders, Van Riebeeck's constructed a fort with a moat and earthen walls at the water's edge and, under the direction of gardener Hendrik Boom, beds were laid out in 'the Company Garden' just beyond the fort.

It soon became apparent that the Khoi were unable or unwilling to trade sufficient supplies. Far from being able to

supply passing ships, van Riebeeck's men found themselves short of food.

Thus, he petitioned the company to release employees from their contracts to become farmers and 20 acre plots were allocated along the Liesbeeck River in 1657.

In a fateful move that led to the distinct multi-racial character of Cape Town, van Riebeeck ordered slaves to be brought

from Asia to help work the farms and develop the settlement.

The enclosure of land led to war with the Khoi in 1659 and the indigenous people were pushed back.

The VOC had issued firm instructions that no town should be built. Van Riebeeck, however, could not resist the insistence of Mrs Boom, the gardener's wife, who wished to open a boarding house near the garden. She deserves the title 'the mother of Cape Town'. By 1657, there were four taverns, providing respite to sailors for the first time. It is interesting to note that, in 1659, Jan van Riebeeck himself made the first Cape wine.

Some free burghers, meanwhile - struggling to establish farms - gave up agriculture and turned their hand to crafts and professions. They too persuaded van Riebeeck to permit workshops and buildings near the port. Very soon there were four streets of buildings, which sailors referred to as 'Cape Town'.

The VOC was alarmed, and sent a message repeating that there was to be no town, only a fortified trading post. Van Riebeeck assured them it was 'more the name than the reality'.

When van Riebeeck left on board the Mars in 1662, to take up command at the VOC post in Malacca, the Cape Peninsula had been transformed forever. There were 200 Europeans, slaves from Asia and Africa, warfare, farms along the Peninsula, a fort, jetty and the first streets of 'Cape Town'.

A hierarchical, diverse, multi-ethnic and stratified society had been established. He had been sent to create a trading

post, but had directed the first chapter of colonisation by violent conquest, both of the land and its people.

The power of the local Khoi had been broken, but there was soon a more powerful threat to the colony. War was looming between Britain and Holland. Van Riebeeck's fort almost collapsed after heavy rain in 1663. The VOC directors (Heren XVII) ordered a castle built of stone.

In 1665 slaves were put to work at a site on the shoreline, where the canons were in range of the anchorage. The large

pentagonal fort, with a bastion at each angle, became the centre of VOC government in the Cape. It contained the

residence of the governor and other officials, offices, the bakery, garrison and dungeons. It was finally completed in 1679. The fort is still in use as a barracks and open to the public.

Forty years old, well educated, widely travelled and related by marriage to a director of the VOC, Simon van der Stel quickly developed ambitious plans for the expansion of a colony when he arrived in 1679.

Survey teams and geologists were sent out and he surveyed for himself the fertile mountain slopes beyond the Cape Flats. One night he camped among bushes on an island in the Eerste River. He declared he would build a town along the stream, and name it after his night in the shrubs - 'Stellenbosch'.

The land around the town would be developed for farms, and especially wine making (wine was required for the ships). Each year he celebrated his birthday with festivities in the elegant, oak lined village he had founded, which is today an attractive town in the winelands. He later developed farms and settlements at Paarl and Drakenstein on the Berg River.

In the beginning of 1685 in the Cape Simon van der Stel established the magnificent Groot Constantia wine farm as a model to Dutch farmers. He was a cultured man, dismayed by the poor quality of wine production, and determined to teach the Boers (farmers) by example.

However, soon Simon discovered a better way to improve farming. When King Louis XIV revoked the Edict of Nantes on 18 October 1685, providing religious tolerance in France, many Huguenot (protestant) refugees made their way to Holland. Van der Stel asked the VOC to provide passage to the Cape for any with experience of wine farming. Many French Huguenots decided to leave Europe and escape to the new frontiers of the Cape seeing the VOC offering as a reprive from almost certain death.

Roughly 200 were shipped over, increasing the population by a third. They were provided with limited supplies and sent out to establish farms, first to the region of Paarl and then to an elephant breeding ground called 'Oliphantshoek' that later became known as 'Franschhoek'. Van der Stel may be regarded as the father of the South African wine industry.

Simon also explored the Peninsula and named 'Simon's Bay' - a natural harbour in False Bay that was to be used extensively in years to come, and is today the major naval base of the SA Navy. A road was built from Constantia Nek connecting the colony to Hout Bay in 1693.

In Cape Town itself, Simon instituted a hospital in 1697. With so many sick sailors arriving at the Cape, and illness common in the town, it was designed for 225 patients and located in the quiet of the company gardens, which was designated a botanical garden as production shifted to the farms. 3

The Company‘s hospital, in the Heerengracht, occupied two of the present blocks from the present Wale to Longmarket Streets. It was very necessary to have such a building for the health of the Company‘s servants who often arrived in a scurvy-stricken condition after a long sea voyage. It had accommodation for several hundred patients and its capacity was often taxed so that many more were admitted than was good for the recovery of the sick. A new and larger hospital was commenced in 1772 and stood on the site of the old military barracks. 4

Living in the 1700’s

By 1700, the Cape Peninsula and the winelands were widely settled. Khoi resistance had been broken by warfare. Extensive tracts of land had been cultivated and plantation forests established. The herds of elephants, antelope and buffalo, hippos and lion prides had been reduced to remnant populations.

Slaves performed the hardest manual tasks and the Khoi had been put to work as shepherds. The Burghers (citizens), many of whom had been very poor in Europe, made themselves land owners and directors.

Slowly, the ratio of females to males became more even as burghers and officials called their wives from Europe, also, orphan girls were sent from Holland and female slaves arrived.

3 History Of Cape Town Roddy Bray http://www.capetown.at/heritage/index.htm

4 Social Life and Customs In The Cape Colony Ancestry24.com

The VOC no longer tried to stop the energetic expansion of the colony, but their policy remained the same. The VOC would maintain, at the lowest possible cost, a trading post at the Cape to supply passing ships. All that had changed was that the products would not be acquired from the Khoi and the Company Gardens, but from the growing European settler population. It was still to be a trading post.

But in order to derive profits, the VOC had to retain control to stop the settlers trading directly with the ships. They supported the colony only in as much as required to make it economically productive. Their administration was therefore small, essentially commercial, but insisted upon absolute control.

essentially commercial, but insisted upon absolute control. Figure 2: Principal English trade routes about 1700. 5

Figure 2: Principal English trade routes about 1700. 5

The vessels on which they arrived were usually laden with spices and goods for the trade and the ships‘ primary purpose was to transport supplies and goods to colonies and to trade ports. Passengers onboard the vessels were not the primary purpose and luggage and personal items was thus kept to an absolute minimum. Dwellings were rural and living in the area was difficult at the best of times. There was no or little schooling for children. Jan Van Riebeeck set up a castle for security in the Cape and most settlers set up farms in the areas near to the Castle for security, access to provisions and slaves. The Huguenots who arrived in the area between 1652 and 1690 were given farms around the Paarl and Franschhoek areas.

It must have been an extremely difficult life and must have had the French Huguenots daily questioning their decision to move to the Cape of Good Hope. The trip to the Cape onboard wooden sail ships, which usually took a gruelling three months, must have been scary to start with as drinking water and food were rationed onboard the ship. In fact, many passengers who undertook the trip died at sea. Once they arrived in the Cape life did not become easier the colony gave them very little to start their farms or ply their trade.

The Cape, therefore, was a 'colony' in that it was under VOC rule from Batavia, and, ultimately, Amsterdam, but there was no sense of a colonial 'civilising' mission as seen later in Africa. There was no attempt to build a society.

Thus, there was an active and large hospital, because sailors needed to recuperate. But there were virtually no primary schools and never a secondary school to serve the settler population. No missionaries were sent to the Cape. Few churches were built, and the VOC maintained control of church appointments.

5 The Project Gutenberg eBook, An Introduction to the Industrial and Social History of England - Edward Potts Cheyney

http://www.gutenberg.org/files/21660/21660-h/21660-h.htm

Local politics was strictly controlled. There was no newspaper, in fact no printing press and no encouragement given to local politics. The Governor controlled all appointments to the main ruling councils - the Council of Burghers and Council of Justice.

The influence of the VOC diminished with distance from Cape Town. Cape Town was the only harbour and the VOC's purpose was to control trade, they therefore had little concern for the rural areas and did not spend significant sums on their administration.

The powerful figures were those Boers (farmers) who had prospered and consolidated large mixed farms grazing sheep and cattle and producing grain and grapes. These farms were like small principalities, largely self-sufficient but trading surplus for certain luxuries.

The farms were worked by Khoi workers and slaves purchased from VOC auctions in Cape Town. Boers adopted a paternalistic attitude to their slaves - a coercion based upon affection, petty rules and harsh discipline. Psychologically it was a powerful mix, because it bred a feeling of inferiority. This was reinforced by the designation of childish dress codes and names.

Wealthy burghers built impressive homesteads in a style reminiscent of Holland, which became known as 'Cape Dutch'. Many very fine and attractive examples remain in the winelands. They also maintained houses in Cape Town and became influential among VOC officials, often leaving their farms under the management of senior slaves to concentrate upon their 'town affairs'.

The sons of burghers drove the expansion of the colony. In the social hierarchy that had developed, Europeans expected to own a farm, they did not work for other farmers - that was equated with the role of slaves. They had to be 'baas' - and so they needed farms of their own. This simple, but powerful social motivation, drove successive generations to venture further and further away from Cape Town, creating a maverick 'frontier' racked by hostility with the Khoi San and later the Bantu. They were called 'trekboers' .

Cape Town steadily grew during the 1700s to a population of several thousand Europeans and their slaves. Travellers described it as a 'pretty' and 'neat' town with straight streets on a grid pattern. A tree-lined canal ran from the Company Gardens down the main street (Heerengracht) and around the Grand Parade, flowing into the sea by the Castle.

Along the shoreline stood warehouses and shipyards and behind them townhouses with white lime plaster walls, green shutters and thatched roofs. Since the mid-eighteenth century a distinctive Cape style had developed of a Dutch origin but with distinctive Asian influences. There were more than a thousand houses by the mid-eighteenth century.

Each year, on average, 70 ships laid anchor in Table Bay, usually remaining for nearly a month. As visitors came ashore along van Riebeeck's jetty by the Castle, they found a town where the impressive double storey townhouses of wealthy burghers and VOC officials stood alongside taverns, lodgings and workshops.

The town lacked the sophistication of Amsterdam, or the exotic attractions of Batavia, and visitors commented upon the problems of rough roads, wandering animals and open sewage, but it was generally rated an attractive town, and particularly welcome after months at sea.

Visitors were the economic lifeblood of the town and the locals offered bed and board and developed a quiet trade selling exotic goods from the privacy of their homes, for fear of the rules of the VOC.

Wealthy visitors could find rooms in the finer houses and wrote of the abundant, fresh food and the dancing laid on for their enjoyment. There was also a wine shop, which offered tours of Table Mountain, complete with hampers carried by slave porters.

Sailors found their way to boarding houses and tented camps, and filled up the taverns, which had a reputation for prostitutes and brawls with the local soldiers. ―The Scottish Temple‖ was a popular bar and brothel and it prospered for much of the century. Cape Town lived up to its nickname ―Tavern of the Seas‖.

In the 1700‘s the streets of Cape Town hummed with extraordinary diversity. VOC employees were drawn from all over northern Europe - Scandinavia, Russia, UK, France, Switzerland, Germany and Holland. As the 1700s progressed the VOC employed more Asian sailors - Indian, Japanese and Chinese.

Senior VOC officials behaved and dressed with great pomp. By contrast, VOC soldiers formed a rough underclass, often involved in brawls with sailors living it up in the taverns.

The oppressed slave population added further to the diversity. Cape Town's slaves had origins in Eastern, West and Southern Africa, Madagascar and Mauritius, Ceylon, India, Malaysia, Indonesia and elsewhere.

In addition, there was a growing population of mixed race people - from the pregnancies of female slaves or Khoi women by European sailors and slave owners. In the early years of the settlement there were cases of marriages between Europeans and slaves whom they had emancipated. There were also cases of slaves having illicit children by Khoi women.

Apart from the slaves, there was a much smaller group of 'free blacks' - people who had been released from slavery and Asian ex-convicts who had completed their sentences and remained - usually because they had no means to return home. Others were simply non-Europeans who had, for whatever reason, stopped and settled at the Cape. There was a small immigrant Chinese community, for instance, which dominated candle making.

There were, however, less than 400 free blacks at the end of the century, although they dominated the fishing industry and also worked as artisans. They enjoyed the same status as free burghers (citizens) and were free to live anywhere in the town. It is clear that they socialised freely with burghers, officials and sailors in the taverns.

Some free blacks owned property and were better off than some burghers, although, in general, they were worse off than most Europeans because they started with no capital. Only at the end of the eighteenth century did some discrimination develop and they were legally required to carry passes, like slaves.

In the 1780s Cape Town enjoyed a 'boom' decade. France and Holland were at war with Britain and French troops were stationed in Cape Town from 1781 to 1784 to prevent a British invasion. French mercenaries remained thereafter, at great expense to the VOC. The garrison developed the 'French lines' - a network of defences to protect the eastern approaches to the town, and complement the VOC's 'sea lines' and Signal Hill batteries. Furthermore, French merchants made the Cape their base for trade in the Indian Ocean and to supply French bases at Reunion and Mauritius.

All of this led to a mercantile boom. Several impressive buildings in Cape Town date back to this time, not least the work of French military engineer Louis-Michel Thibault and the German sculptor and wood carver Anton Anreith. They worked together on the cellar at Groot Constantia, the re-building of the Slave Lodge and, separately, on modifications at the Groote Kerk, the Lutheran Church and Koopmans de Wet House. All of these structures can still be seen today.

The boom, however, led to inflation. Furthermore, the VOC was in terminal decline. The British East India Company had broken the VOC monopoly in Indonesia. Furthermore, trade was shifting to the products of India and China, where the British were dominant.

The VOC paid no more dividends after 1782. Meanwhile, the number of its employees at the Cape tripled to 3000 as the VOC employed mercenaries to defend the colony. Corruption and the loss of morale crippled the Company.

Jan van Riebeeck was sent to establish a fortified trading base and a company garden at the Cape. In practice he laid the basis of a colony that expanded hundreds of miles beyond the Cape peninsula, beyond the control of the VOC itself, which ultimately evolved to become the Republic of South Africa.

Although sailors, soldiers and officials came and went, a population developed native to the Cape that did not look to other shores, but regarded Cape Town as home. It was a complex, eclectic and multi-cultural population, ill educated and predominantly poor, but resourceful, with a broad base of skills, resentful of authority, and stratified into different classes. This was not a racial order, of the type that later developed in South Africa, but an economic order. It was an economy based upon cheap labour and slavery, enforced by law.

Under the rule of the VOC a situation developed where most Europeans owned farms or businesses and held a preferred legal status as 'free burghers'. Most Asians worked as artisans, or held responsible clerical jobs, and were considered senior slaves or free blacks. Some Asians and most Africans were slaves living under a harsh rule of law.

Especially in the frontier farming communities a tough, violent, ill-educated and arrogant culture had developed that destroyed Khoikhoi society. The San would follow, and today the closest relatives of the Khoi San live outside of South

Africa, in the deserted places of Namibia and Botswana, groups such as the !Kung and G/wi. They had also engaged in hostilities with the Xhosa on the eastern frontier - the first of many wars to follow.

The elegant towns of Stellenbosch, Tulbagh, Swellendam, Graaff-Reinet and Cape Town itself are products of the Dutch era and retain their character to this day. The winelands owe much to Simon van der Stel, and the Franschhoek valley was cultivated for wine making by the courage of the Huguenots he brought to the Cape. South African wines came to prominence long before the end of the Dutch era, especially sweet desert wines like Vin de Constance, Napoleon Boneparte's favourite wine.

Cape Town had developed as a busy and strategic port, whose significance would only grow in the following two centuries. Agriculture was well established and although local industries were in their early stages, a broad range of 'cottage' trading and manufacturing activities had developed and some professional services were emerging.

From the 'great babel' of languages a unique form of Dutch began to emerge in the form of Afrikaans, with words borrowed from several languages, including Khoi ('Kudu', 'Cango') and influenced by the Arabic spoken by many of the slaves. Cape food developed as a fine fusion of eastern spice in western meals. In the following century, British puddings would be added to produce the truly eclectic 'Cape Malay' cuisine.

Unique forms of music, weddings and festivities developed with Asian influences among the free blacks. A fine architecture, similar to Dutch but with hints of the East and local adaptations, have given us the attractive townhouses, homesteads and Drostdy (magistrate's houses) that are enjoyed to this day and have become known as the Cape Dutch style.

On 9 July 1795, a squadron of the British fleet under Admiral Keith Elphinstone sailed into Simon's Town harbour, which the VOC had neglected to fortify.

Major-General James Craig and his infantry went ashore and negotiations began, but broke down in early August. A regiment of Khoi soldiers sent out by their masters to do battle at Muizenberg, retreated after a brief skirmish and the town surrendered. 6

Inventions in the 1700‘s included: 7

The mercury thermometer was invented in 1714 and was first called the thermoscope. Even though many scientists were inventing certain types of thermometers at the same time, Santorio Santorio was the first inventor to put a numerical system on it. Gabriel Fahrenheit invented the first mercury thermometer.

Bartolomeo Cristofori invented the piano in 1720. It was first known as the Pianoforte. By the time Beethoven was writing his last sonatas the piano was already one hundred years old. Since the middle of the eighteenth century the piano has had a central place in music.

6 History Of Cape Town Roddy Bray http://www.capetown.at/heritage/index.htm

7 Inventions of the 1700‟s:

http://www.gkschools.org/ms/colonies2country/inventions/index.html

Figure 3: Model of Eli Whitney's Cotton Gin 8 The cotton gin was invented in

Figure 3: Model of Eli Whitney's Cotton Gin 8

The cotton gin was invented in 1765 by Eli Whitney. It was used to remove seeds from cotton fibres. The machine consisted of spiked teeth mounted on a boxed revolving cylinder. The cylinder then pulled the cotton fibre through small slotted openings to separate the seeds from the lint.

The first one-man human powered submarine, known as the Turtle submarine was invented by David Bushnell in 1776. It was the first American submarine and had a hand-driven propeller. It was used by the Colonial Army in an unsuccessful attempt to sink the British warship HMS Eagle. It was the first submarine to dive and surface. The turtle would normally float with approximately six inches of exposure.

James Watt introduced an improved version of the steam engine in 1769, which led to the steamboat when John Fitch made the first successful trial of a forty-five foot steamboat on the Delaware River on 22 August 1787. Larger vessels were then built which carried passengers and freight between Burlington, Philadelphia, and New Jersey.

From 1768 to 1779 British explorer, navigator and cartographer James Cook mapped the boundaries of the Pacific

Ocean and discovered many Pacific Islands.

He also mapped several other previously uncharted lands, including

Newfoundland.

James Cook even visited the Cape of Good Hope and Saint Helena around 1771 en route back to

England.

From 1779 to 1879 the Xhosa Wars was fought between the British and Boer settlers and the Xhosas in South Africa. During this war, in 1799 the Dutch East India Company is dissolved.

Living in the 1800’s

While the Cape Colony became more ―built up‖, life in Southern Africa was still difficult. Many differences in culture came into play and, with squabbling and fighting constantly brewing between the Boers, British and indigenous people of Southern Africa, Dutch-speaking farmers known as Voortrekkers were prompted to emigrate northwards away from the Cape Colony. 9

The cause of the British invasion in the Cape in 1795 was war with Napoleon. The Dutch King had fled and a puppet regime established in Holland. Britain sent troops to the Cape before revolutionary France could capture the strategic

8 The Cotton Gin Patent - Mary Bellis

http://inventors.about.com/od/cstartinventions/ss/patent_X72_5.htm

9 Wikipedia - 1830‟s

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1830s

port. It was intended as a temporary occupation, until Napoleon was defeated, and the British returned the settlement to Dutch rule when peace was established in 1803.

In January 1806, however, hostilities resumed and the British returned to the Cape, landing to the north of the city at Blouberg. The Scots Highlanders, blowing their pipes, advanced and the mercenaries hired to oppose them fled.

The British remained a 'temporary force' until 1814, when the comprehensive peace following Waterloo gave the Cape to Britain. Up until that time, and for some years to come, the British were content to keep the status quo - perhaps to the surprise of the local people.

The administration of the VOC was retained, the legal system remained Roman-Dutch law and Dutch was used widely in government. The early Governors - like Lord Charles Somerset (1811-26) - were themselves landed aristocrats and had much in common with the powerful Cape land owners. Furthermore the Burgher Senate continued to run the town. The VOC was gone, with all its autocratic restrictions on trade, to be replaced by a British authority with a surprisingly light touch.

The British garrison - at times numbering 8000 personnel - helped to stimulate the local economy and British troops defended the eastern frontier where the trekboers had encountered the powerful Xhosa.

By 1820 only 757 British people had settled in the Cape. Meanwhile the economy had strengthened and farmers were reaping the rewards of favourable tariffs for wine exports to Britain.

Perhaps the most memorable impression of the British in these early years was of aristocrats based in India arriving with servants, to banquet with the Governor and set off on shooting expeditions into the interior.

In all other respects the town continued along Dutch lines, indeed with greater freedom and political participation than they had enjoyed under the VOC. There was, in the first twenty to thirty years, considerable continuity with the past. This suited the British, who wished to minimise administration costs and avoid confrontation.

In the early years of the nineteenth century, British merchants, mostly former employees of the British East India Company, established companies in Cape Town to trade and export agricultural and other products.

Merchants became the driving force of a powerful and active middle class that set about bringing British liberal 'reform' principles to Cape Town society. These values found expression in the editorials of John Fairbairn, the founder of the first newspaper (1824) - the 'South African Commercial Advertiser'. The paper encouraged energetic support for the emancipation of slaves, the liberalisation of trade, participation in sport, development of infrastructure, health care, literacy, education, science, the arts and self-government.

Merchants based at the Cape were supported by 'the Trading Society' in London that lobbied the Imperial government on their behalf. The vision was also shared by a new generation of government officials in the Cape that built infrastructure and set about developing schools.

In combination, government and the middle class developed a vibrant civil society and a modern city at the Cape. Societies for leisure and learning were established.

Through trade the middle class grew in wealth and power and developed the resources to establish important financial companies in the 1830s.

The middle class aimed to re-develop the town and transform it from a 'rural' Dutch town into a colonial capital. They argued for this on the grounds of civic pride and public health. Particularly as commerce gathered pace much of the old Dutch town was replaced with grand new buildings.

The desire to 'modernise' Cape Town from its Dutch trappings extended also to culture. Support was given to British missionary organisations, and more denominations sprang up. Scottish ministers were even fed into the Dutch Reformed Church to give the church a more 'British' feel (this back-fired, the Scots became fervent Afrikaners).

However, it was the movement to abolish slavery that was to cause the biggest and most damaging break between the British and 'Afrikaner' populations of the Cape.

The 'Dutch' Cape population (they were in fact a mix of European nationalities by origin) did not take easily to this new mood of liberalism and change.

They and their religious ministers defended a narrow Calvinism and a slave-based economy. The ideas of the Enlightenment and of German rationalism, still less the precepts of the French revolution, had not penetrated the Cape under the VOC. Nor were they welcome in their distilled British form.

The energetic liberalism of the British middle class produced a response in the 'Dutch' population and newspapers expounding conservative views were produced. De Zuid-Afrikaan was founded in 1830, and challenged liberalism and the abolition of slavery. Dutch theatre companies, such as the 'Africander Amateurs' offered alternative plays. Dutch societies formed for the pursuit of the arts, science, education and literature.

The Reformed Church took on a centrality to life it had not had under the VOC and became much more active. In contrast to the British, who represented the force of colonialism, this population of European descent began to describe itself as 'Afrikaners'. It was a loose term, probably not exclusive to whites, but all those who used the form of Dutch that had evolved at the Cape.

In the 1830s, however, young Afrikaners in the city began to follow more liberal ways, and intermarriage between the merchants and the daughters of prosperous burgers, and trade between burgers and merchants helped to cement bridges across the cultural gap.

The gulf between the British and rural Afrikaner communities, however, grew wider with the emancipation of slaves (1834) prompting ten per cent of the European population to leave the Cape, with their slaves, and cross the Vaal River in search of independence. This 'walk out' on British rule is known as the Great Trek and has been the subject of many books, including Mitchener's 'The Covenant'.

The gulf between British modernity and Afrikaner conservatism remained and was only closed, temporarily, when in 1848 the British government proposed to ship British convicts to the Cape. There were vociferous public protests and the 'Neptune' was kept out at sea with her cargo of convicts for five months. Eventually she was sent on to Australia. It was a seminal episode, for it showed that in spite of their differences the white population of the Cape would unite in the face of a common threat to their interests.

After the end of slavery, a new, more complex society began to take shape in Cape Town.

Although the ruling class was white, so too were many of the working class. State-aided schemes brought poverty- stricken settlers from the UK, who tried to establish themselves in the Cape. A third of all servants in 1865 were white.

The British introduced the term 'coloured' for non-Europeans, and ‗Malays‘ to refer specifically to Cape Muslims. Records show roughly equal numbers of coloured and whites in most occupations, including the skilled professions. Mixed marriages also continued. Some areas of the city were distinctly 'coloured' but for the most part working class whites and coloureds lived in the same areas and pursued the same occupations.

Many Afrikaners claimed compensation payable to slave owners. With this capital they invested in property and turned from slave-owners to slum landlords. In the absence of building restrictions (introduced 1861), houses were built without water or sewerage disposal, separated by narrow alleyways. Areas of lower Cape Town and District 6 developed in this way, with certain 'slum lords', such as J Wicht, owning hundreds of such cramped dwellings, renting out rooms to poor families.

The cruel poverty of these areas helped to maintain the popularity of the taverns that had developed under the VOC. Wine and whisky, in particular, were available cheaply.

Temperance societies and later the Salvation Army and the YMCA tried to counter the rowdy alcoholism that was a feature of city life.

The end of slavery, therefore, created a society that was much more obviously stratified, with a distinct contrast between the bourgeoisie middle class with their regency townhouses, pianos and carriages and the extrovert, piecework class of artisans, many of whom lived in terrible slums.

The powerful middle class aspired to political control and had, for many years, campaigned for self-government. In 1840 a Municipality was created, with councillors elected on a non-racial but qualified franchise. The qualifications rested upon income and property ownership.

In keeping with British policy of self-government in the dominions, 'Representative Government' was established at the

Cape in 1853, hastened by the display of local political opinion over the arrival of the Neptune the previous year. This created a 'Legislative Council' of MPs empowered to pass laws for the Colony, although administration remained under British control.

Finally, in 1872 fully-fledged 'Responsible Government' was established, with an upper house and administrative control. The franchise remained qualified, but non-racial. Cape Town had become a colonial capital. The impressive Parliament buildings set in the old VOC Company Gardens were completed in 1885, and are today the South African parliament.

A more conservative era took hold with self-government. Afrikaners were in the majority of whites, particularly in the

country districts. The terms of the franchise meant that only the landed classes could vote - and this excluded most non-

European people. Furthermore, only property owners worth more than £1000 could sit in the upper chamber.

Inevitably, the assembly was partial to commercial interests, rather than those of the poor. Policies were geared to appeal to retailers and professionals, who made up the majority of voters. New laws such as the 'Master and Servants Act' of 1856 did much to turn the clock back on worker's rights.

With the development of self-government, the liberal influence began to diminish. Political power had shifted to the local population, which was mostly conservative and Afrikaans. The Cape government was dominated by the 'Afrikaner Bond', a group of influential Afrikaner leaders focused upon promoting Afrikaner interests.

British influence was also changing. Throughout the Empire, liberal confidence was giving way to jingoism as economic rivalry developed with Germany and the United States. Furthermore, the 'scramble for Africa' had begun:

European rivalry expressed in colonial conquest. To justify this race for African territory, a popular version of Darwinism was giving rise to bigoted ideas of racial superiority. Such ideas fuelled a new mood of negativity in Cape Town toward non-Europeans.

Some newspapers, like the Cape Argus, continued to appeal to public sympathy for the poor, attacking the role of slumlords like Wicht. But others, like the Cape Times, wrote damning accounts of the 'moral pollution' of poor neighbourhoods, laying the responsibility for the conditions at the door of the poor themselves.

Increasingly, such views carried racial overtones. The Malay were no longer characterised as 'quiet' but 'rebellious, lazy, ignorant'. Blacks too, were labelled as 'indecent' and 'immoral'. The 'Lantern' carried an exposé in 1881 of the 'profanity, drunkenness and immorality' of blacks living in a slum in Woodstock.

There were increasing calls for 'order' and 'control' to be exerted over these unruly, diseased and violent people, as they were caricatured.

The battle between liberal sentiment and conservatism was fought out among politicians in the municipal and Cape governments. Liberals tended toward greater action, and thus expenditure to alleviate social problems, but were countered by the financial interests of ratepayers.

Factions earned names like 'the dirty party' and the 'clean party'. It was only in the 1890s that adequate water, drainage and sewerage were introduced, under considerable pressure from the colonial health authorities.

Without political will, little was achieved to alleviate the conditions in the slums. Instead, large funds were invested in developing infrastructure.

Railways were built, connecting Cape Town to the winelands (1863), and the length of the Peninsula (1864). Telegraph lines were laid to Grahamstown (1863) and London (1885). Road building also continued, particularly the extraordinary construction of mountain passes by the Bains, father and son.

The building of the harbour from 1860 was particularly ambitious and a prison for convict labour and a broad gauge railway were constructed for the purpose.

The development of the Cape's infrastructure came just in time to capitalise on the great diamond boom that started in 1867, and the economy of the Cape grew fivefold in five years, 1870 1875.

Cape Town itself swelled, as immigrants settled in the city. The British and European populations grew substantially, and other ethnic groups became more numerous, including Jews, Indians and Africans.

In 1865 the population was 28,400, in 1891 it had grown to 67,000 and in 1904 171,000. The villages and suburbs became dense urban areas and settlements spread to the north of the city along Table Bay. The settlements were racially mixed, although for the 'protection of public health' municipal officials began to consider moving non-whites into separate areas. 10

On January 11, 1879, the British invaded Zululand with about 7000 regular troops, a similar number of black African "levees" and a thousand white volunteers. Ignoring advice from a number of Boer authorities, the British lost more than 1600 soldiers at the battle of Isandhlwana on 22 January 1879. President Kruger even gave them advice and took the time to explain the need for caution, including tactics such as laargering. (drawing wagons into a defensive circle) A British outpost at Rorke's Drift on the Zululand-Natal border withstood a second Zulu attack, however, and after reinforcements arrived, the British managed to conquer the Zulu capital at Ulindi by July 1879. The British consolidated their power over most of the colonies of South Africa in 1879 after the Anglo-Zulu War.

Once the Zulu were defeated, the Transvaal Boers claimed that the 1877 British annexation was a violation of the Sand River Convention of 1852 and the Bloemfontein Convention of 1854. The Boers protested and in December 1880 they revolted. The war began on 16 December 1880 with shots fired by Transvaal Boers (farmers) at Potchefstroom after Transvaal formally declared independence from the United Kingdom. It led to the action at Bronkhorstspruit on 20 December 1880, where the Boers ambushed and destroyed a British Army convoy. From 22 December 1880 to 6 January 1881, British army garrisons all over the Transvaal became besieged.

The average Boer Burghers who made up their Commandos were farmers who had spent almost all their working life in the saddle, and because they had to depend on both their horse and their rifle they were skilled stalkers and marksmen, and became expert light cavalry. They could make use of every scrap of cover, from which they could pour in a destructive fire. They were dressed in their everyday farming clothes, which were a neutral or earth-tone khaki clothing, whereas the British uniforms were still bright scarlet red, a stark contrast to the African landscape, which enabled the Boers, being expert marksmen, to easily snipe British troops from a distance. Other significant advantages to the Boers included their widespread adoption of the breech loading rifle, which could be aimed, fired, and reloaded from a prone position, and the Boers' unconventional military tactics, which relied more on stealth and speed than discipline and formation.

The besieging of the British garrisons led to the Battle of Laing's Nek on 28 January 1881 where a British force composed of the Natal Field Force under Major-General Sir George Pomeroy Colley attempted to break through the Boer positions on the Drakensberg range to relieve their garrisons. But the Boers, under the command of Piet Joubert repulsed the British cavalry and infantry attacks. Further actions included the Battle of Schuinshoogte (also known as Ingogo) on 8 February 1881, where another British force barely escaped destruction. The final humiliation for the British was at the Battle of Majuba Hill on 27 February 1881, where several Boer groups stormed the hill and drove off the British, and the British commander, Major-General Sir Colley, was killed. During the Second Boer War, one of the British slogans was ―Remember Majuba‖.

10 History Of Cape Town Roddy Bray http://www.capetown.at/heritage/index.htm

Figure 4: Kommandant Wessels (4th person front row) with General de le Rey on his

Figure 4: Kommandant Wessels (4th person front row) with General de le Rey on his left in the Boer War 11

Unwilling to get further involved in a war which was already seen as lost; the British government of William Gladstone ordered a truce. Under instructions from the government, Sir Evelyn Wood who had replaced Colley upon his death on 27 February 1881 signed an Armistice to end the war, and subsequently a Peace Treaty with Kruger (after Brand's assistance) at O'Neil's Cottage on 6 March, and in the final peace treaty on 23 March 1881, they gave the Boers self- government in the Transvaal under a theoretical British oversight. 12

With the 1886 discovery of gold in Transvaal, thousands of British and other prospectors and settlers streamed over the border from the Cape Colony (annexed by Britain earlier) and from across the globe. The city of Johannesburg sprang up as a shanty town nearly overnight as the uitlanders (foreigners) poured in and settled near the mines. The uitlanders rapidly outnumbered the Boers on the Rand, but remained a minority in the Transvaal as a whole. The Afrikaners, nervous and resentful of the uitlanders' presence, denied them voting rights and taxed the gold industry. The tax on a box of dynamite was five shillings ($0.50) of the cost of five pounds ($10). These mines consumed vast quantities of explosives and President Paul Kruger gave manufacturing monopoly rights to a non-British operation of the Nobel Company which infuriated the British. The so-called "dynamite monopoly" became a major pretext for war which raged from the 11 th of October 1899 to the 31 st of May 1902. The war was fought between the British and the independent Boer republics of the Orange Free State and the South African Republic (Transvaal Republic). After a protracted, hard- fought war, the Second Boer War was ended by the Treaty of Vereeniging in which the Boers conceded victory to the British and the independent republics were absorbed into the British Empire. 13

The outbreak of the South African War in 1899 led to further immigration and economic growth. Cape Town did not experience any fighting, although raiding parties did threaten the winelands. In economic terms the war was a great boom for the city as soldiers and huge quantities of equipment passed from the harbour to the railways.

The War, however, also created growing slum areas with an influx of refugees. Families arriving without possessions

11 SAgenealogie Foto Albums http://members.fotki.com/SAgenealogie/

12 Wikipedia First Boer War http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Boer_War

13 Wikipedia Second Boer War http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Boer_War

were housed in tents along Dock Road. When disease broke out, they were shifted to Maitland, and when evicted by the Maitland municipality they tended to drift into District Six. 14

On 24 May 1844 the first electrical telegraph sent by Samuel Morse and the first postage stamp was introduced. It was known as the Penny Black and was issued by the United Kingdom on 1 May 1840. The First Transcontinental Railroad in the USA was built in the six year period between 1863 and 1869 and the London Fire Department was established in 1865. The late 1800‘s saw the invention of the telephone in 1876, by Alexander Graham Bell and the light bulb was invented around this time too. The phonograph was invented in 1877 by Thomas Edison.

At the close of the century development and commercial production of electric lighting and the gasoline-powered automobile by Karl Benz, Gottlieb Daimler and Maybach became popular as well as first commercial production and sales of phonographs and phonograph recordings. 15

Living in the 1900’s

After the turn of the century and improved transport systems and communications methods brought Southern Africa almost in line with the rest of the world and Cape Town was a confident Imperial Capital. The impressive colonial City Hall and Herbert Baker's Gothic Anglican Cathedral were completed in the first years of the century. Stevens, a British journalist, described it as 'Denver with a dash of Delhi… neither over-industrious nor over-lazy, decently successful, reasonably happy, wholeheartedly easy-going'. 16

However, an outbreak of the plague in 1901 heightened concerns for public health and municipal officials set about enforcing racial segregation. For this reason the first townships were developed.

Leisure was an important feature of city-life. 'Rational pastimes' were promoted, particularly to boost tourism - the pier, bathing, concerts, theatre and cinema. Muizenberg was promoted as the 'Brighton of South Africa' and became a popular bathing spot. Green Point common was developed for sports clubs and swimming baths were built.

Beneath this confident appearance, however, there were racial tensions as non-whites expressed resentment at the attitudes and racial policies of the municipality.

The white community, too, was seeking a new era. A spirit of magnanimity had developed following the defeat of the Boers in 1902. English speakers were looking forward to a new era in a united South Africa.

The National Convention of 1909, to forge peace between British and Afrikaners, established the boundaries of the modern unified South Africa. Cape Town was to be the legislative capital, but the Executive would be based in Pretoria.

The agreement promised peace and reconciliation between English, Afrikaners, and self-government within the Empire, but it failed to take account of black aspirations and this was to overshadow the twentieth century.

When the British arrived in 1795, Cape Town was essentially a 'Company Town', closely controlled in all aspects of life by the VOC. The rural areas were distant and largely independent of the town. Slaves were the backbone of the small economy.

In 1910 Cape Town was an imperial capital of a large and strategically important colony. It's population was heading for two hundred thousand. The abolition of monopolies and slavery had led to greater economic freedom, and liberalism encouraged a free society. It had a large and active commercial class, civil society and local political movements.

Slavery had been abolished and a highly complex multi-cultural society had emerged, stratified into widely differing classes and identities. Whites dominated the upper classes but whites were also present in the lower classes, and there were non-whites in professional occupations. Racism was on the rise and beginning to inform political policy, but was not yet the determining factor of Cape Town society.

14 History Of Cape Town Roddy Bray http://www.capetown.at/heritage/index.htm

15 Wikipedia – 1800‟s

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1800s

16 History Of Cape Town Roddy Bray http://www.capetown.at/heritage/index.htm

A strong liberal tradition was established in the town in the first half of the century by the emerging British middle

class. Their efforts led to the growth of many centres of education, religion and publishing, many of which continue to this day.

The middle class also established strong business institutions, several of which are still trading. With active imperial officials, they helped to push through programmes that created the modern city and its infrastructure. Their welfare work gave rise to charitable works and church missions that created a more compassionate society.

As self-government developed in the second half of the century, the combination of emerging English chauvinism and Afrikaner conservatism led to a less compassionate and more overtly racist and prejudiced society. The discovery of diamonds and then gold, then the South African War created successive economic booms.

Workers came from rural areas and across the continent to find work. A significant black population began to grow. The benefits of these booms, however, were not shared, and the divisions of wealth became more extreme with slums growing around the city. On health grounds the first 'township' was set aside for blacks outside the city.

On 31 May 1910, the unification of South Africa brought to an end the old colonial certainties. Previously Cape Town stood as an Imperial Capital of The Cape Colony. That colony was now simply a Province of the new Union of South Africa. The grand parliament buildings in Cape Town became the legislative capital of the new state, but Pretoria was made the administrative capital.

It was soon clear that real power and influence would no longer lie in Cape Town but in the Transvaal, the old

Afrikaans republics that included the economic centre of the Rand (the gold seam at Johannesburg) and the political capital at Pretoria. Furthermore, Durban's port was proving more profitable than Cape Town's due to its easy access to

the Transvaal.

Losing economic and political influence, Cape Town promoted itself as a cultural centre and worked to define South African identity in terms of its Cape Town roots - the arrival of van Riebeeck and the Imperial era.

Divisions in Cape Town society became very plain during World War 1 and were compounded by a depression in the 1920s. In the new era Cape Town was increasingly subject to the hardline, racially-minded politics of the Transvaal, and racist attitudes hardened.

Although not as swiftly as Johannesburg, Cape Town became an industrial city as the port expanded and motor cars, electricity and cinema arrived. Electricity reached people's homes in the 1930s and the Table Bay power station was built in 1936 bringing a significant increase to Cape Town's revenues.

Images of the city in the early twentieth century are characterised by the pier built in 1925. But demands for improved city infrastructure and new docks led to the demolishing of the pier in 1940 to make way for a massive land reclamation scheme which extended the city, created land for freeways and wharfs for the modern port.

In the process, concrete replaced the old seafront and these developments marked a new, disconnected and imposing

era. Capetonians came to associate the pier with a pre-apartheid Cape Town when social relations were more easy

going, the pace of life slower and the town was by the sea.

Many of the monuments and buildings that characterise Cape Town today were erected in the early twentieth century. Some, like Rhodes Memorial (1912) represent a nostalgia for the Imperial era, others celebrated the VOC era.

The 'Cape Dutch' movement begun by Cecil Rhodes inspired his architect Sir Herbert Baker and organisations such as The South African National Society. Numerous farm houses, Cape Dutch buildings, the Old Supreme Court and the Castle were preserved. Baker and his followers popularised building in the Cape Dutch style of gables, thatch, verandahs and whitewash.

Organisations such as the Van Riebeeck Society (1918) projected Cape Town as the 'Mother City' of South Africa, the cornerstone of its cultural heritage. They defined South Africa and its heritage in terms of the arrival of Europeans at the Cape.

Other developments consolidated Cape Town's place as a cultural centre. The University of Cape Town (UCT) was formally established in 1918 following bequests from mining magnates, and was built on land bequeathed by Rhodes

from his Groote Schuur estate. The Campus buildings were completed in 1930 by J.M. Solomon, one of Herbert Baker's associates.

Kirstenbosch Botanical Gardens were established in 1913, as a showcase for Southern African flora. The National Gallery was built with public gardens containing World War 1 war memorials. In 1930 the Place Name Committee decided that 'Capetown' be renamed Cape Town, as the former was considered undignified.

Although Cape Town asserted itself as the 'Mother City' of the South Africa, nevertheless there remained a strong attachment to the UK, and not only among English-speaking whites, but also among others who sensed that the new conservative order would treat them less favourably than the liberal regime of Britain.

The mood was well expressed during the royal family visit in 1947. The city arranged a series of flamboyant spectacles to welcome King George and his family from banquets to firework displays, balls, reviews and garden parties that included mock 'Malay' weddings. The connection to Britain helped Capetonians feel part of the international community which was perceived to be 'civilised'.

Migration to Cape Town continued during the twentieth century with an influx of people considered Bantu, Coloured and Afrikaans, European and Jewish, Indian and West Indian. Prejudice and government policy frustrated and separated these groups.

Coloured people struggled, and failed, to forge a clear identity or a consistent political voice. In the face of economic hardship, rejection and discrimination the group was too diverse to respond to the pressures upon it.

Bantu (blacks) were growing in number and the first half of the twentieth century saw the politicisation of Cape Town's black residents. Major influences were the First World War, living conditions within the city, unionisation and political leadership - both local and international.

Through discriminatory employment practices wealth became tied to race. The ruling elites consistently differentiated groups, with whites receiving preferential treatment and attention. Increasingly, economic differences separated the races into different suburbs, churches and facilities. Laws and policies also enforced some segregation, but only on the political margins was their opposition to increasing racial division.

Amidst racial division and economic problems, Afrikaners asserted their culture, especially in language and literature. Although many Afrikaners spoke English and remained loyal to the moderate United Party led by Jan Smuts, there were others that turned to the rising tide of rightwing Afrikaner nationalism.

In 1933 South Africa's largest fascist organisation, the South African Gentile National Socialist Movement (the Greyshirts) was established at the Koffeehuis, the favourite meeting place of the Afrikaner nationalists in Cape Town. Shortly before, South Africa's Nazi Party was founded by Professor Hermann Bohle. This rightwing tide would in due course find expression in the National Party Government of 1948 that brought in Apartheid.

Between the two world wars, Cape Town developed into a modern industrial city but did not grow at the same pace as Johannesburg. Manufacturing in Cape Town remained within the food, drink, tobacco, clothing and printing industries. Large increases in the population and ambitious urban planning led to the development of 'Garden Cities', townships and a massive land reclamation scheme along the city foreshore.

Overall, however, the city remained locked in an economic depression between the Wars, especially during the 1920s. The sustained economic crisis led to deep poverty and a related increase in crime.

Whites were protected from the worst of the economic crisis through government policies that provided better education to whites, employment opportunities and support for Afrikaner businesses. By the 1940s, legal backing was given to segregated workplaces and suburbs, to the advantage of whites and the exclusion of others, especially blacks. Steadily the city became divided on racial lines.

The first squatter camps developed around the city and poor inner city areas like District 6 became more crowded. In 1923 the Urban Areas Act was passed forcing Africans to live in designated locations. A new location named Langa was opened to replace the overcrowded Ndabeni township in 1927. Langa was designed to provide authorities with the maximum control over access. The name "Langa" is a shortening of "Langalibalele", the name of a rebel Hlubi chief

who lived there after his release from Robben Island in 1875 17 . Various laws regulated behaviour in the township and it was ruled by a superintendent.

Cape Town was declared a 'closed city' to control further black migration. However, during the Second World War migration rules were relaxed. The failure to provide housing for the large numbers that arrived led to the development of large squatter areas. A humiliating 'reception centre' was established at Langa to process newcomers and many blacks were forced to leave.

During the first half of the twentieth century Cape Town lost its place as the pre-eminent city of Southern Africa. With the formation of the Union of South Africa in 1910, government and political power shifted to the Transvaal.

Although the population continued to grow rapidly and the city became industrialised, it fell behind the booming economy of Johannesburg. Nevertheless, it found its place in South Africa as a cultural centre - expressing South Africa's heritage in terms of European settlement and the British Empire.

The racial prejudices and attitudes that had developed toward the end of the British era were reinforced and extended by the policies of the Afrikaans-dominated government in Pretoria. Increasingly, whites benefited from discriminatory policies while others were impoverished by the Depression. The city became increasingly divided along racial lines.

The older suburbs still contained a mixture of coloured and whites, and areas like District 6 remained mixed. But, new townships, like Langa, were designed specifically for blacks, with an emphasis upon state control. Laws restricted the migration of blacks to the city.

Nevertheless, in 1948 four-fifths of Africans still lived outside locations (townships). Many lived in shanty towns, some of which also had coloured populations. Older areas like District 6, that were mostly coloured, also contained a mixture of Indians, some whites and blacks.

Some workplaces became segregated and, increasingly, education and employment policies ensured that racial divisions characterised the workplace. Some public and leisure institutions were segregated including swimming pools, hospitals and law courts and some cinemas, hotels, cafes and the main beaches. But still there was no uniform policy of segregation or formal racial categorisation.

In 1948, however, a government was elected committed to a policy of apartheid, a policy of universal segregation that would ruthlessly categorise and divide the population. 18

South Africa began to grow alongside other countries in the world, but when they formed a republic on 31 May 1961, it was ostracized by the rest of the world because of its Apartheid policy (meaning ―separate-ness‖ in Afrikaans) which was a system of racial segregation from 1948.

Many large international corporations withdrew from the country, but South Africa refused to give in to pressure to drop its Apartheid policy. It continued to grow and became one of the most economical stable countries in the Southern African region - in spite of the boycotts against it.

Apartheid was dismantled in a series of negotiations between the governing National Party, the African National Congress and a wide variety of other political organisations from 1990 to 1993. Negotiations took place against a backdrop of political violence in the country, including allegations of a state-sponsored third force destabilising the country. The negotations resulted in South Africa's first multi-racial election, which was won by the African National Congress. 19 The negotiations culminated in democratic elections in 1994 when freed ―freedom fighter‖ Nelson Mandela was elected president of South Africa.

Through his 27 years in prison, much of it spent in a cell on Robben Island, (A small jail island off Cape Town) Nelson Mandela became the most widely known figure in the struggle against apartheid. Among opponents of apartheid in

18 History Of Cape Town Roddy Bray http://www.capetown.at/heritage/index.htm

19 Apartheid in South Africa http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/CODESA

South Africa and internationally, he became a cultural icon as a proponent of freedom and equality while the apartheid government and nations sympathetic to it condemned him and the ANC as communists and terrorists. 20

Technical and industrial advances and two world wars made the 1900‘s a period of great growth but also a period of great tragic destruction by means of powerful war machines in both the West and the East.

It seemed as if the building of factories, discoveries and inventions of the early 1900‘s led to more discoveries and inventions and therefore accelerated the world‘s progress, changing the way that people went about their daily lives.

Motor vehicles, aeroplanes and telephones became commonplace, and in the second half of the century television, computers, the internet and cellular phones dominated most people‘s thoughts and lives! Although life became more comfortable for those who could afford it there are millions who live below the breadline throughout the world. Those who can afford comfortable lives have to keep working at maintaining their lifestyle and for most of these people it means working for large corporations or the government.

Compared to the last two hundred years in South Africa the 1900‘s saw the greatest change and number of changes in social, economic and political development. South Africa participated in both the World Wars but was thankfully spared from damage to the country‘s infrastructure due to it‘s location on the planet.

20 Wikipedia Nelson Mandela http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nelson_Mandela

Health and Medicine at the Cape of Good Hope

Without doubt, life was extremely difficult for Huguenots in the Cape, beginning with the rigours of sailing across or down the Atlantic. Respiratory diseases, ―fever‖ (undiagnosed beyond that) and malnutrition were afflictions that passengers and crew alike suffered from during these voyages. The longest voyage (by a few days) on which the refugees departed, took place from March to August 1688 on the Berg China. This ordeal resulted in the deaths of 30 of the refugees, including six women. Interestingly, Pierre Joubert left the Netherlands married to one woman and arrived at the Cape married to another, leaving us with the assumption that his first wife had died en route.

Earlier, the Oosterland, carrying 29 passengers, 107 seamen and 105 soldiers, saw the loss of a woman, but witnessed the birth of a child during the voyage. The child‘s mother was fortunate in that her husband was the surgeon, Jean Prieur du Plessis. Another baby was born on one of the ships which were moored in Table Bay. In that case, one may assume that the other women on board assisted with the delivery, aided perhaps by the ship‘s doctor, who would have been a barber-surgeon.

Records indicate that deaths on t‘ Wapen van Alkmaar, numbered 37, with 104 survivors placed in the VOC hospital on arrival. It is known that some of the dead as well as some survivors were Huguenots. As noted earlier, the new arrivals suffered from weakness, if not fevers and malnutrition, as a result of the hardships and deprivations experienced during the months under sail. Add these disabilities to the pre-existing weaknesses that prevailed among the majority of the refugees they had endured the hardships of hunger and whichever type of temporary lodging they could find, often in woods or, if they were fortunate, in lean-to shelters as they made their way out of France into the New Netherlands or to the western coast, where they hid away on various types of small vessels in order to get to England. Once the majority of the refugees were safe from their French pursuers, they had little money to secure decent lodging or work in their respective places of exile, which is why most of them elected to sail on to the Cape. Thus, one may postulate that many of them were not in robust health when they set off on the long voyages to these remote frontier settlements.

After the refugees had survived the arduous voyage, they had to adjust to a new and different climate. The climatic changes were dramatic in comparison with what they had experienced in Northern Europe. The disease environment, too, was different. In those days, diseases were closely associated with climate, and diagnoses were often made based

on the prevailing conditions. Seasons at the Cape were reversed: rain fell heavily during the winter because of westerly winds meeting with a warm front causing piercingly strong, chilly winds. This rain and wind often produced respiratory illnesses. The summers were insufferably hot for the little band of French Huguenots, yet this was the season when the crops had to be gathered, vegetable gardens cleared of produce, canning and preserving done, as well as the demanding labour associated with grapepicking (many of the Huguenots engaged in viticulture). Typical of the weather, was an

still raining

entry in the diary of Adam Tas, which reads that in early January 1705, a ―north wind blew on the 5th with no let up on the 8th‖ and part of a neighbour‘s crop - that of a refugee - had been destroyed.

Medical care was inconsistent. Huguenot surgeons were few and the language barriers separated groups of people, especially the women in terms of seeking treatment from respectively English or Dutch speakers. Jean Prieur du Plessis had arrived at the Cape in 1688. Jean returned to Holland in the ship Janslandt in 1693 and return to the Cape in 1703. Jean‘s son Charl remained in the Cape and went on to become a practicing doctor. Jean Prieur du Plessis was followed by Paul Lefevre, an employee of the VOC, and was therefore based in Cape Town where very few of the refugees were close enough to avail themselves of his services.

Gideon le Grand had arrived at the Cape by 1698 and was based in Stellenbosch. Last among this group was Jean Durand, who settled on a farm by 1690, but seems not have been active in practising medicine, preferring instead to engage in farming and local administration. Le Grand kept a journal regarding his practice. Only partial entries survive, but it is known that he treated French Huguenots, including Maria Jeanne du Pré, plus various children of the refugees. Gideon recorded, in January and February 1710, bled ―Jeanneton‖, a daughter of Jean du Buis. There are, however, no baptism records available for her. Many records where lost early in the 18 th century, which could explain why no record was found; alternatively, it could be possible that she died while still very young.

It is also possible that the ―Jeanneton‖ to which Gideon referred was Johanna Terrier (Jean‘s stepdaughter) because Gideon also saw ―Suzon‖, who he documented as the daughter of Jean Du Buis. The ―daughter‖ he referred to was the stepdaughter Suzanne Terrier. 21 Gideon le Grand lived in Paarl and passed away some time in 1710.

21 Focus on The DE BUS/(DE) BUYS Family J. E. Malherbe

Figure 5: Blood letting (breathing a vein) as depicted in an 1804 drawing 2 2

Figure 5: Blood letting (breathing a vein) as depicted in an 1804 drawing 22

In terms of medical knowledge, almost all of the authorities believe that these men at the Cape were barber-surgeons. By the 1670s, the French Protestants had been virtually shut out of universities. France had a guild of barber-surgeons dating from the thirteenth century. They were broken down into two categories that of "petit bourgeoisie" or the lesser "barbitonsores". There is no way of knowing into which category these men fell, or if they were divided between the two. How informed they were regarding modern medical knowledge at the time, is unknown. It would depend to some extent on personal and professional relationships between university-trained physicians who were Roman Catholic, and the dissident barber-surgeons in their respective provinces.

Maternity and Childbirth

Bachelor Peter Kolbe (an astronomer) judged that the women at the Cape gave birth much more easily than in Europe. Swedish physician Carl Peter Thunberg, who as far as is known, never delivered a baby at the Cape made this same assumption. These stereotypes are contradicted in part by a contemporary obstetrician who noted that the more children a woman bore, the more likely a quicker and often easier labour would be. Overall, Huguenot women were prolific childbearers and tended to produce, on average, a child every 2 years, with some bearing 11 to 12 children in total.

It was a French Protestant doctor who first opened a school of midwives in sixteenth-century Europe and it was Ambroise Paré who insisted that women take to the bed to deliver. It is not known if the refugee women delivered on a bed, used a birthing stool, or assumed any of several positions from kneeling to squatting to aid the child down the birth canal. At the Cape both Kolbe and Thunberg found that women nursed their own babies, although when the mothers died or were incapacitated, the children would be farmed out to other nursing mothers, including perhaps the ―other‖ in both places.

Records of the number of still births and mortality among infants at either of these frontiers are lacking. Published genealogies at the Cape, which account for less than half of the number of refugee families, bare hints of childhood mortality. Bachelor Kolbe noted that European women at the Cape who breast-fed their children were ―most grievously

their breasts are frequently very cruelly pained and their nipples are almost always the

same‖. As a result, he thought that they weaned their children too fast.

afflicted with sore breasts

Du Plessis returned to Europe within a few years after his arrival. His first wife died there, and he returned in 1700, married to midwife Maria Buisset. She was the only French-speaking midwife at the Cape. Surely Buisset was kept busy, but most of the births at the Cape were presided over by female members of the family and neighbours (including those who spoke no French).

One may assume that the rigours of successive childbearing took the life of Ann Retief, who had borne four sons and six daughters at the time of her death in 1710, when she was only thirty-nine. Jacquemine des Prez died at thirty-six leaving behind eleven children. Complications from childbearing included breech births, haemorrhaging and puerperal

22 The Physician in the 19th Century

fevers. In addition, there were holes and tears to the wall and mouth of the vagina. Those who survived the fevers and damage done to their bodies would have required time to heal, but in most cases, women were up and about very quickly some even on the very day they gave birth. One aid to the pain of childbirth was a bit of brandy, and it was common practice during labour to rub the body with oil, or to provide women with a variety of herbs to consume.

In this era, many medical authorities believed that the uterus was the source of conditions such as hysteria among women. No doubt, many held this view at the Cape, where it was commonly believed that conception could only take place when a woman achieved orgasm along with her male partner. The dual pleasure theory held that the female egg was released from the uterus at orgasm while the male sperm was sent out to join it through copulation. There is no hyperbole in Peter Kolbe‘s statement that women at the Cape were ―generally modest, but no flinchers from conjugal delights. They are excellent breeders.

It is unlikely that the devout French Huguenot women resorted to abortion. Deformed babies were thought to result from indecent sexual relations. These included any position for coitus except with the man on top, burrowing into his vagina field as he might otherwise sow his crops from above. At the Cape, at least two children were probably crippled at birth. These were Stephen, son of Martha Rousseau and Francois du Toit, and Jacob, the son of Susanne Gardiol and Abraham de Villiers. Babies were taken to breast on demand. At which age solid food was introduced, is not known, but the timing no doubt depended on the inclination of the mother. Weaning in France (and Northern Europe) ranged from twenty-one to twenty-four months in the seventeenth century, to ten months in the eighteenth. Children ate what was served at the table as soon as they were able to chew. Prior to that, in what will seem unhygienic to modern readers, mothers would often partially chew the food and then pass it on to their babies.

Diseases and Epidemics

Once reaching the Cape they suffered from contagious diseases; smallpox, dysentery, measles, and infectious diseases. The ship Joanna Cathaerina in 1673 brought 221 slaves and within fourteen months 129 slaves had died. The ship Voorhout brought 257 slaves, mainly children in 1676 and within three and a half months 92 were dead. 23

Relying solely on the primary data provided in J.G. le Roux‘s "Hugenote bloed in ons", one can get a partial idea of mortality between 1688 and 1700. In that twelve-year period, a total of 86 refugees died, meaning that as many as 79 may have lived on (48 refugees had no death-dates listed). A cursory gleaning of the wills left by Huguenot men before 1700, indicates that the death-rate among the newer arrivals was high. About ten per cent of them left probated wills and this number gives an indication of deaths in the first decade there. Surely the death-rate was higher. Only those who were able to write a will, or had access to materials on which to write it, with witnesses available, did so.

Yellow Fever epidemics caused considerable loss of life for the refugees. Yellow Fever was one of the many diseases that killed many people in the 1700s. Death from Yellow Fever was common because no cure was available. The symptoms start with headaches, chills, and a general ache in back, arms, and legs. This is followed by a high fever for about 3 days, after which the fever goes away, but only for a couple of hours. The high fever then returns and as red blood cells are destroyed the skin and eyes turn yellow. The patient then begins to vomits black blood because of bleeding in the nose, gums, and intestines. As the person's pulse grows weak, they start to become confused and delirious. Also, tiny red bumps may appear on the skin. Death follows shortly after. 24

Gout troubled the adults and Kolbe believed the condition derived from excessive consumption of alcohol. Another source agreed, noting that gout generally attacked those aged persons who ―have spent most of their lives in ease, voluptuousness, high living, and too free use of wine and other spirituous liquors‖. ―Putrid fevers‖ (probably typhoid) also afflicted the refugees.

At the Cape, epidemics also took their toll. When smallpox broke out in Cape Town in 1713, the epidemic followed two years of drought. Just as the much-needed rains started falling, the colony had to deal with this epidemic that was introduced via the linens on a ship. Smallpox was especially hard on the Khoi, who had no natural immunity, but it also had a severe impact on the Europeans. The Huguenots were mostly located in the Drakenstein, at Franschhoek, around Stellenbosch, and a few had moved into Wagonmakers Valley by that time. Many people were dying in the outlying districts and were not able to seek out a notary to make wills and as a result, there is very little data regarding the deaths of Huguenots both women and men.

23 Van Rensburg Genealogy - Andre van Rensburg

24 Medicine in the 1700‟s

Surely Anne Fouché and Elizabeth Joubert succumbed to smallpox as their wills were probated in 1713. The ―pokkies‖ claimed at least 1 585 Europeans that year. J.A. Heese found that of these, 875 were children. One report to the Netherlands in June 1713 noted that there were not ―20 healthy people in Drakenstein‖.

Interestingly, Marie Grillion makes the point that her husband, Gideon Malherbe, died of "natural causes", yet when the distraught widow and mother was forced to make an accounting of their holdings that, in turn, revealed that her husband and three of her children had died due to smallpox.

Other afflictions troubled the Huguenots at the Cape - anxious mothers had to deal with sore eyes – a ―distemper‖ that was worse in summer months. While old people suffered from ―a scalding rheum that issued abundantly from the eyes‖, the ―greatest rate falls on the children‖, and thus efforts were made to keep them out of the rays of the sun. One of the Huguenot surgeons treated these eye conditions with drops and ―Spanish fly‖. Kolbe added soreness of the throat to the list of chronic illnesses.

Worms afflicted them too, especially the children. Intestinal parasites were common in that era. In London, the Spitalfields Project involved the excavation and examination of primarily French Huguenot skeletons that had been buried from 1729 to the mid-nineteenth century. Between eight hundred and a thousand bodies were exhumed, with about half of them examined. Among the findings was a high incidence of infant mortality, which the examiners attributed to intestinal worms. Traveller and physician Anders Sparrman referred to worms as a ―troublesome disorder in rural areas‖. Another traveller wrote about ―dirty scabby children‖ whose condition he thought was caused by intestinal worms. Certainly intestinal worms contributed to anaemia, but probably were not directly responsible for the deaths that the medical examiners in the Spitalfields Project noted in their study.

Another source of illness was rotten teeth. Dental caries and gum diseases were problems in eighteenth-century Europe, where there were some rudimentary forms of treatment available. At this time it was commonly believed that dental caries were caused by worms in the teeth that had to be dislodged ―by compounds of myrrh and aloes‖. Periodontal diseases were not being diagnosed at that time and one can only infer that such agonies as infection and abscess had to run their course until the teeth simply fell out.

In discussing epidemics and diseases, treatments and the persons responsible for administering them, have barely been mentioned. Clearly, when a doctor, whatever his limits of training, was available in these first decades on the frontier, the Huguenots availed themselves of him. As has been seen, Gideon le Grand treated the refugees at the Cape. Despite the role of the ruling hand of the patriarch in others areas of their lives, it was primarily the women who treated their own illnesses and those of their children. Men were probably responsible for gleaning knowledge of local herbs, roots and plants from ―others‖ that were long resident in specific areas. The Khoi had their own treatments for various ailments that plagued them as had been witnessed by observers such as Laguat at the Cape.

At the Cape at least one Huguenot had some background as an apothecary. Isaac Taillefert‘s father had been an apothecary in France, as was one of his brothers. While he is often listed as an apothecary, Taillefert‘s skills were those of a hat-maker. He was also a farmer, and it is likely that he drew on memories of herbal medications from his father‘s pharmacy. In 1698 a French Huguenot traveller remarked on his garden: ―[It] may very well pass for fine. Nothing, I think, there is wanting‖. In fact few medications as we know them, were available. For purposes of treatment, most people made do with herbs, roots, leaves, and even fruits and vegetables.

Treatments

This period in Early Modern European medical history was influenced by the humoral theory posited by Galen, with medical treatment predicated on balancing the humors. The primary means of achieving this aim were through laxatives, emetics and bleeding - with the occasional blister applied to relieve ―pressure‖ on an affected area of the body.

At the Cape, they certainly had a copy of "Pharmacopoeia Belgica", or "the Dutch Dispensary Revised and Confirmed by the College of Physicians in Amsterdam", which was translated into English in 1659. This volume would have been invaluable not only as a medical reference for herbs, roots, plants and various trees, but also to advise gardeners what to plant. In these volumes, one finds references to vegetables ranging from asparagus to artichokes, parsley and radish (used as a diuretic). Felix fern was ―good against worms‖, while tameric [turmeric] was ―good against yellow jaundice‖ and fennel ―good for the eyes‖. Rhubarb strengthened the liver; ginger ―warms the stomach and expels wind‖; pomegranate seeds ―dry and bind very much‖; while aloes (in abundance at the Cape) ―comforts the brain‖. Lavender and rosemary were good against colds, and St. John‘s wort cured sciatica. Melon ―seeds moves urine‖ and natrutil seeds

of cretfes ―kills the child in the womb‖. Other medications especially useful for women and children were date stones (presumably ground) and sage. Damask plums were used to ―loosen the belly‖ while ―sour prunes bind the belly‖. Elephant‘s teeth and ivory (also in abundance at the Cape) were ―good to coat and stop Fluxes of blood‖. Leeches were used to ―suck away melancholy bloods‖. Gideon le Grand employed ―cinnamon, terebinth, crocus, ginger, piper and sweet oil

Three types of African wood sorrel were employed to treat scurvy, while garden garlic had a multitude of uses. A physician and a European resident both discounted rhinoceros horn. Still, ―the fine shavings were taken internally‖ and were thought by the locals to cure convulsions and spasms in children. Women in the country brewed a local bush tea (Bobonia cordata) as cure for various internal ailments. They learned to do this from the Khoi or San, while the San also taught them to turn to rooibos tea that had medical properties when taken internally or when ground leaves and bark were applied externally. 25

The Slave Lodge Hospital

bark were applied externally. 2 5 The Slave Lodge Hospital Figure 6: Plan of the Slave

Figure 6: Plan of the Slave Lodge at the Cape Of Good Hope (1798)

25 Health Issues Pertaining to French Huguenot Women and Children at the Cape of Good Hope and in Charles Town, Carolina, 1685-1720 - Patricia Romero

The above figure shows the ground plan of the Slave Lodge retraced by Jessie Breytenbach from the LN Wildt plan, 1798, in the William Fehr Coll