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If, during the regular control, the storekeeper or logistician detects the presence of insects' larvae in food items, a treatment with insecticides may be sufficient. A treatment with insecticides can avoid fumigation. Generally speaking, it will be necessary to implement all preventive measures in order to reduce maximum risks of food infestation and to avoid the fumigation. Fumigation is an expensive and time-consuming treatment, which immobilises the warehouse activities for several days, and, which requires meticulousness and trained staff.

1.1. Criteria of choice for insecticide

A good insecticide is chosen according to several criteria: Wide range of action: efficient against maximum possible insects Reduced toxicity for men, animals and plants (natural environment) No persistence: no residue in the food Absence of influence on the quality of stored food: no smell, or bizarre taste, no modification of nutritional value of food Easy to use Reasonable price Availability in the country or neighbouring countries

1.2. Formulas
Insecticides exist under different forms of use and their international codes have been established by the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organisation): DP EC WP VP FD FP Etc.
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powder for powdering for mixing together with stored food, or for treating surfaces (walls, floors, roof of warehouse) concentrated emulsion for treatment of surfaces wet powders for treatment of surfaces aerosol in the form of product vapour diffuser " " " fumigating boxes " " " fumigating cartridges

Note: The chemical names of active components and the commercial names of the products vary from a country to another and from a language to another. Widely used insecticides are: - Malathion (family of Organo-phosphors) - Promethean (family of synthetic pyrethrinoids) Family of insecticides Active matter (example) Commercial names ORGANO-PHOSPHORS MALATHION Callimal 10% DP Callimal 50 EC Malathion ALM 50 EC Malathion Shell 50 EC Moderatly dangerous SYNTETIC PYRETHRINOID PERMETHRIN Percal 2% DP, Percal 25WP Percal 100 EC, Percal 250 EC Pounce 2% DP Permetalm EC, Permetalm 1% PP DP Relatively dangerous: noxious while inhaled, in contact with skin and while ingested Noxious for aquatic flora and fauna Wearing gloves for DP and WP Wearing gloves and boots for ECs large 2G of Permethrin/Ton

Risks for man

Risks for environment Manipulation and preparation Spectrum of action Recommended dose of active product for stored food ATTENTION

Non toxious for plants, aquatic flora and fauna Wearing gloves large 8G of Malathion/ton

"XX grams of active product " is not equivalent to XX grams of commercial product (Callimal 10% or Callimal 50 or Malathion 50 EC) The quantity of active product =Malathon (or Permethrin) is calculated by ratio according to the proportion of commercial product.

1.3. Suppliers and manufacturers of insecticide products

Some pharmaceutical and oil corporations, or their subsidiaries
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BASF AG, BAYER AG, CIBA-GEIGY SA CYANAMID TRANSNATIONAL CORPORATION/NAIROBI KENYA,RHONE POULENIC AGRO, DUPONT DE NEMOURS, ELF ATOCHEM AGRI SA, HOECHST AG, ROUSSEL UCLAF, SANDOZ, SHELL International Group of National Associations of Manufacturers of Agrochemical (GIFAP) Groupement International des associations nationales de Fabricants de Produits agro-chimiques GIFAP, 79 Avenue Albert Lancaster, B-1180 BRUXELLES BELGIQUE Fax: 32 2 375 27 93

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Action contre la Faim strongly advises to subcontract the fumigation to professional companies. Fumigation is a dangerous process that requires equipment and experience. To not follow the procedure can jeopardize the safety of employees and will be inefficient against the insects.

2.1. General information

The respect of storing techniques and good maintenance of storages and stocks decreases the risks of infestation of stored food items. However, these good practices are not a guarantee against an infestation. To stop the contamination of food items, the most efficient method is the fumigation. On single product (a gas) can terminate the insects in their most inaccessible refuges (ex. interior of grain) Before starting the fumigation, the Logistic Coordinator must contact Action Contre la Faim in Paris for logistic support and technical advice. On a mission the logistician has to: Contact the representatives of DETIA (main supplier of products for fumigation) within the operating country, or within the closest country to be informed on available products, cost, delivery deadline etc. Note: To order fumigation products to Action contre la Faim Paris Headquarters is very complicated (maximum 1kg, strict transport regulations). The products for fumigation have to be ordered on the field, just when needed in order to avoid a long storage of these products. After the purchase, store products for fumigation in a dry, fresh, ventilated and locked place. Do not store the products in a building where humans or animals live. Contrary to the products for fumigation, order in advance: Plastic sheeting for fumigation
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If not available in the country of operation, plastic sheeting can be ordered to Paris Headquarters. Usually in roll of 200 m2 (50 x 4 m) 250 Euros available within 3 weeks Equipment for detection Gas detector 250 Reagent tube 0.01 to 1 PPM (Party per million =10-6) of PH3 (10 tubes per parcel) 90 + Transport charges to Action Contre la Faim Paris 6 Protection equipment Gas mask 100 Corresponding filtering cartridge 15

2.2. Choice of products for the fumigation

Action contre la Faim uses exclusively phosphin, or phosphorus hydrogen (Frequently named by its chemical formula "pH3"). This choice was made due to: 1. Large spectrum of action: phosphin is efficient against all sorts of bugs of stored food items at every stage of their development: eggs, larvae, nymphs, full-grown animals. It is also efficient against other harmful species such as are mice and rats. 2. Absence of influence on the quality of treated food items: no smell, or bizarre tastes, no modification of the nutritional value of food items. 3. No persistence: no residue in the food items Attention: Never proceed to fumigation with methyl bromide.

2.3. The different types of products based on PH3 & their range of application
There are several types of products for fumigation based on phosphin in different forms. Each product is advised and adapted for (a) particular area(s) of application: Tablets and pills Sachets Cordons Rolls (to hang) Fumigation of grains in silo, unpacked grains, or stack of bags under tarpaulin Fumigation of small volumes, or food stored in piles (ex. wagon) Fumigation of stored unpacked food Fumigation of very important quantity of food in volume Cells of flat-bottomed silos,
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Sachets in packs Blister strip

building Fumigation of stocks under tarpaulin Fumigation at moderate temperature, and/or in low level humidity conditions

2.4. Principle of fumigation

Tablets and pellets are composed usually of aluminium phosphide (AIP), or magnesium phosphide (Mg3P2) , mixed with ammonium carbonate. Immediately after the opening of the hermetically sealed packaging of a product for fumigation a gas with a very penetrating smell, ammonia, (or ammonium carbamate) starts coming out. Phosphin comes out in the presence of humidity and air. This is a colourless gas with a smell of carbide, or garlic, and it is very toxic for both human beings and animals.

2.5. Food that can be fumigated

Among the food usually stored by Action contre la Faim for the programmes, its possible to fumigate the following food: Beans, soya, peanuts Corn, wheat, rice, sorghum Cereal flour (wheat, corn...) Leguminous flour (soya...) Food on the basis of cereals: biscuits, pasta Powdered milk Herbs, spices, condiments, the, yeast

For other food items, consult Action contre la Faim logistic department. Insects that are frequently found in the food stored by Action contre la Faim: - Bean beetles, groundnuts - Rice, wheat and corn weevils To identify insects, consult the DETIA DEGESCH website or to take an infected sample to submit to an expert.

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To organise a fumigation

Note: For the clarity of this chapter explaining the practical organisation of a fumigation, the study is limited to the case of the infestation of piles of bags in tropical conditions (high humidity and temperature) and their treatment done by fumigation under tarpaulin with pH3 pastilles.

3.1. Preparation of fumigation

3.1.1. Evaluation and isolation of the infested food
Once the infested area is located and the type of insects identified, and once the level of infestation (number of insects per Kg) is estimated, the infested food is isolated and covered with a special plastic sheeting for fumigation in order to avoid the extension of the contamination. Empty bags used to carry the infested food have to be placed under the plastic sheeting as they may contain larvae. Every item or food that has been in contact with the infested food needs to be treated. The empty bags that cant be treated shall be burned.

3.1.2. Awareness and information

Inform the competent authorities and the neighbourhood about the date, hour, and place of the treatment with gas. If any, the warehouse administration and the security company have to be informed officially.

3.1.3. Tightness
In order to ensure a sufficient concentration of gas - the level on which depends, among other things, the efficiency of fumigation-, a perfect tightness of the volume to fumigate is indispensable. This is done by covering the piles with hermetic plastic sheeting. If the floor is made of wood, or any other porous material, then its necessary to place the piles to fumigate on a plastic sheeting. Calculate the surface of necessary tarpaulin and add 1.5 to 2 m of each side to fix the tarpaulin on the floor. In case its necessary to attach two tarpaulin together, to overlap largely the two pieces and to tape them cautiously. To glue the tarpaulin on the floor. To place sandbags on the tarpaulin all around to strengthen the construction
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Attention: To not forget to leave 2 free accesses to proceed the fumigation by placing PH3 pastilles under the palettes Use a new tarpaulin for each fumigation, never fumigates with old tarpaulins.

Preparation of a field glue Ingredients: 40 to 45 l of water 5 kg of flour

To mix the flour with warm water until a smooth and fluid batter (without lumps) is obtained To boil the remaining water and to pour the mixture already made into this boiling water. To mix strongly until the glue boils again and turns into a sticky consistency. To let it cool down and the glue is ready...

3.1.4. To not forget the programmes!

The access to the warehouse is prohibited during 7 days after the beginning of the treatment with gas. 3 days for the fumigation followed by 4 days of ventilation. The logistician will have to anticipate the deliveries of food items to the programmes or will create a buffer stock in another warehouse or in containers.

3.1.5. Dosage
Dosage, instructions for use, and security rules recommended by manufacturer have to be rigorously respected: In the DETIA DEGESCH manual, or in the instructions leaflets of the products for fumigation, take note of the recommended dosage for fumigation. Frequently, it is 1 g of PH3 per ton of food. As it may vary according to the presentation of products for fumigation (pastilles, tablets) the reading of the manufacturer instructions is imperative. The next step is to calculate the necessary number of pastilles, considering the quantity to fumigate and the recommended dosage.

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Pastilles shouldn't be left in an opened tube, as soon as there is contact with the air the reaction starts. The number of pastilles really used is then often superior to the one calculated as the last tube will be entirely used. Example: Bean beetles infest 80 tons of red beans, packed in bags. The recommended dosage is 1 PH3/T, for 80 tons: 1 g PH3/T X 80T = 80g PH3. One "DEGESCH PHOSTOXIN TABLET" contains 1 g of PH3, 80 pastilles are required. There are 30 pastilles in a box, so it will be necessary to use 3 boxes with 30 pastilles, then 90 pastilles - instead of 80 in theory - in order not to leave pastilles in an open tube.

3.1.6. Security procedures

The fumigation has to be implemented by a qualified operator, and the staff helping him/her, has to be trained for the use of fumigation products. Never allow employees or workers that have not been trained to work with fumigation products. Be aware with typical symptoms of intoxication with phosphin, and with the first aid protocols in case of emergency. Note: In case of an important absorption of pH3 (acute intoxication), the clinical symptoms appear immediately: the victim seems to be drunk. However, serious symptoms that can endanger your life may appear after more than 48 hours the victim absorbed very low concentrations, especially after repeated exposures.

3.1.7. Necessary equipment for fumigation

Products for fumigation mustn't touch each other (risk of ignition), or be in contact with water (risk of phosphin freeing then poisoning of the operator) Find non-metallic plates with holes, like egg box, or prepare sufficient number of wooden or cardboard boxes with holes to place each pastille in one hole. To prepare: - 3 gas masks with filtering cartridge corresponding to phosphin - 3 pairs of dry gloves of adequate size - 1 recipient with soapy water, to neutralise traces of products for fumigation on packaging, gloves, etc. - Board for sensitisation DANGER FUMIGATION - Spate clothes for the team - Field glue and some additional sandbags.
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Soap and water One pit

It is not necessary to have specialised clothes, but the clothes exposed to pH3 will be aerated and washed separately.

3.1.8. Final preparation before the treatment with gas

To remove any metallic belonging, because PH3 is corrosive (watch, jewellery...) No lighters Do not eat, drink, or smoke while preparing and using products for fumigation

3.2. The fumigation

3.2.1. Treatment with gas
Repeat the treatment with gas to co-ordinate and synchronise movements. The objective of this repetition is to make possible a fumigation without talking and to shorten to the maximum the necessary time: the treatment with gas has to be finished in 30 to 40 min. If it is necessary, place a supervisor or a watchman during the treatment with gas to forbid the access. To never proceed a fumigation alone: 3 persons are necessary To wear dry gloves on while working with pastilles and gas mask Open the boxes, then the tubes, or flask outdoors and place pastilles in the boxes with holes, one pastille per hole. Pastilles must never get in direct touch with food. Place each box with holes together with pastilles under the tarpaulin, under the palettes by using the free access left for that purpose. Start with the most distant place from the exit. To glue the tarpaulin on the floor, at the left open space for handling and then to place sandbags on the edge of tarpaulin to guarantee a perfect tightness.
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To lock all the warehouse entries with a ban of entering for 3 days. To place awareness panels DANGER FUMIGATION at each entry of the warehouse. To remove the gas masks To change the clothes To wash hands with the soapy water prepared for that purpose, then rinse them with the water.

3.2.2. Destruction of empty packaging of products for fumigation

To never use empty packaging of products for fumigation for another utilisation and avoid their utilisation by other persons. In the prepared soapy water, slowly plunge the empty packages one by one, as well as gloves, to neutralise traces of products for fumigation. To crash the empty packaging then to bury the water and the boxes in the pit.

3.2.3. Duration of fumigation

The duration of the fumigation depends on air's humidity and temperature. Three days are usually necessary. The higher the humidity and temperature are, the faster and the more complete the freeing of gaz will be, and the duration of fumigation will be shorter. In the tropical environment, high temperature and humidity conditions are ideal for the fumigation. The duration of fumigation has to be respected in order to: - Allow the reaction of products for fumigation with humidity and air to be as complete as possible - Ensure that all harmful insects are destroyed - Reduce risks of possible exposure to gas for the staff who will open the fumigated building and who will, later on, carry out storing or handling operations in the area that has been treated With an adequate dosage, the duration of the fumigation is the other essential criteria to guarantee the success of the fumigation.
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3.3. After the fumigation

3.3.1. Opening the warehouse
It is not necessary to have specialised clothes, but all clothes exposed to pH3 will be aired and then washed separately. A team of three people must enter the warehouse together. They must wear gas masks with the cartridge corresponding to PH3 and dry gloves. Do not inhale powdery residue, because they still contain nondecomposed active substances. To remove the tarpaulin and to take it outside to be neutralised with soapy water To remove powdery residues of pastilles. They must never be in direct contact with the food items. Neutralisation of powdery residue Powdery residues of products for fumigation are neutralised by pouring them into a recipient with soapy water, this operation has to be done outdoors. To mix carefully will neutralise all residues. When no gas is evaporating from the water, empty the recipient in the pit. Then place the tarpaulin in a second recipient containing soapy water during 1 day. The tarpaulin will be dried outdoor during 4 days before being stored. Warning: Don't pour water over the powdery residue, but plunge the residues into the water. Do not breathe the evaporating gas.



The duration of ventilation is 4 days minimum. Therefore the global fumigation process will be over D + 7 days after the treatment with gas started. To ventilate buildings and food items to eliminate volatile pH3: to open all windows, doors, and if available to start the ventilation circuits. Before anyone return without any protection in the warehouse, its imperative to measure the concentration of gas in the air with gas detector with reactive tube, of the same manufacturer

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The concentration gas in the air must be inferior, or equal to the MAC values (Maximum Acceptable Concentration.


Utilisation of treated food items

Once the ventilation is over, its necessary to know if the fumigation was effective and if the concentration of remaining PH3 is not dangerous for human consumption. A representative sampling will be organised to: - Check that all insects are dead - Send a sample to a laboratory to measure de PH3 left in the food items Maximum Limits of Residue (MLR) in fumigated food items are: - 0.1 mg of HYDROGEN PHOSPHIDE /KG for cereals - 0.01 mg of HYDROGEN PHOSPHIDE / KG for processed food, example: weaning flour If these limits are respected, the logistician will sort the bags according to the number of dead insects. The utilisation of treated food depends on the quantity of dead insects: Beyond 4 dead insects / kg of food: food is not appropriate for the human consumption. It can be used for animal feeding. If there are less of 4-insects / kg of food: food items can be used, on condition that Action contre la Faim informs the beneficiaries about the presence of insects. Food items will be sewed, or place into water before the utilisation for preparation to easily eliminate the insects floating on the surface.

3.3.4. Fumigation report

A brief report has to be prepared, to describe the fumigation procedure and to specify all characteristics of infestation: type of infestation (identification of insect), nature and quantity of fumigated food items, nature of products for fumigation and applied dose, dates and hours of treatment with gas procedure and opening of the warehouse and duration of ventilation. This report will be sent to the Logistic Mission Officer in the Headquarters.

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