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# EQUIPMENTS REQUIRED

1. Ammeter: 0 - 15A; 0 - 2.5A. 2. Voltmeter: 0 40V; 0 250V. 3. Wattmeter: 0 -1400 W. THEORY OF THE EXPERIMENT DETERMINATION OF X1 (Positive Sequence reactance): It is a reactance of a synchronous machine under steady state condition in the direct axis. The positive sequence impedance can also be defined as the impedance offered by the machine to the flow of positive sequence currents in the armature windings create a magnetic field that rotates in the normal direction in the air gap. X2=Z2sinQ 1. Open Circuit Test

a. Run the machine at rated speed. b. Connect a voltmeter and ammeter according to the circuit diagram. c. Note the reading at different exciting current. 2. Short Circuit Test

a. Run the machine at rated speed. b. Apply low voltage to the field circuit so that exciting current is small. Alternately connect a high resistance rheostat in the field circuit with full field voltage applied connect an armature in the field circuit.

c. Apply three-phase short circuit at the synchronous machine terminal with an ammeter connected in any phase. d. Measure the short circuit current corresponding to the field current given by the ammeter reading.

## DETERMINATION OF X2 (Negative Sequence Reactance):

The negative sequence reactance X2 can be determined by driving the machine at rated speed with low excitation. Short circuit ant two phases and open circuit one phase. Measure the short circuited current Isc and voltage of open circuited phase Vos. The current coil of voltmeter is excited by Isc and voltage coil by Vos. The negative sequence impedance can be calculated. Z2=Vos / 3.Isc X2=Z2sinQ , where Q = cos-1(P / Vsc.Vsc) a. Run the machine at rated speed b. Short circuit two phases of the alternator through an ammeter and the current coil of the wattmeter. c. Connect the voltage coil of the wattmeter and the voltmeter between the open phase and any short circuited phase. d. Gradually increase the excitation such that the short circuit current does not exceed its full load value. e. Take reading of voltmeter, Ammeter and Wattmeter.

## Determination of X0 (Zero Sequence Reactance):-

The machine is driven at rated speed. The windings of all phases are connected in parallel. Connect the voltmeter and ammeter according to the circuit diagram shown in Fig 3.1. a. Connect the armature winding in parallel according to the circuit diagram. b. Run the machine at rated speed. c. Apply low voltage from a variac and measure both voltage and current taken by the armature windings
X0= 3. V0 / I0

QUIZ - 3

## Fig 3.4 Connection Diagram for Determination of X0

1. The synchronous reactance of an alternator is due to leakage flux only Reactance because of armature reaction in the machine synchronous machine rectance both leakage flux as well as armature reaction\$

2. The staturated synchronous reactance of an alternator is ---------- its unsaturated synchronous reactance

## More than\$ less than Equal to None of the above

3. Unbalanced three phase stator currents cause Vibrations Heating of rotor Double frequency currents in the rotor all of the above\$

4. The short circuit characteristic of alternator is Always linear\$ Always non-linear Either linear or non-linear. None of the above

5. Mention the fault in which only positive sequence reactance is present, L-L L-L-G L-L-L \$

L-G

6. Negative sequence currents rotates with respect to field winding at Synchronous speed Twice of synchronous speed\$ Half of synchronous speed Stationary

7. Zero sequence current can flow from a transmission line to a transformer if the windings are Grounded Star/Delta Delta/Star Star/Grounded star\$ Delta/Delta

8. In which fault the positive sequence component of voltage at fault point is zero 3-Phase fault\$ L-L Fault L-L-G Fault L-G Fault

9. If Ia1 is the positive sequence current of an alternative and Z1, Z2& Z0 are the sequence impedences of the altermator, the voltage drop produced in L-G fault will be Ia1 Z1 Ia1 (Z1+z2) Ia1 (Z1+Z2+Z0)\$ Ia1 (Z2+Z0)

10.Which statement is correct for positive, negative and zero sequence impedances (Z1 greater than Z2 greater than Z0)\$ (Z1 less than Z2 less than Z0) (Z0 less than Z1 less than Z2) None of these