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Matter

Particles

Mole concept

Chemical formulae

Equations

- Atoms (Relative
atomic mass)

- Ions(Relative Formula
mass)

- Molecules(Relative
molecular mass)

- Empirical formula - Molecular formula

- Number of particles - Molar mass - Molar volume

- Balance equations - Writing equations

Relative atomic mass was defined


The number of times the mass of 1 atom of an element is heavier than 1/12 times of 1 carbon-12 atom. The relative atomic mass of C-12 being 12

Relative atomic mass


= mass of 1 atom of an element 1/12 x mass of 1 atom of carbon-12

Relative molecular mass of a compound defined:


The number of times the mass of 1 molecule of a compound is heavier than 1/12 times the mass of 1 carbon-12 atom, the relative atomic mass of C-12 being 12.

Relative molecular mass


= mass of 1 molecule of an element 1/12 x mass of 1 atom of carbon-12

Relative Formula mass,Ff


1) Relative atomic mass is used for substances that are made up of ion. For ionic compound which made up of positive ion(cation) & negative ion (anion), relative formula mass is used. Exp: Determine the relative formula mass of following: [ r.a.m of Zn=65 , O=16 , Cu=64 , S=32] a) Zinc oxide ,ZnO = 65+16 = 81 b) Copper(II) Sulphate,CuSO4 = 64+32+(16x4) = 160

Number of mole Mole:


1) A mole is an amount of substance that contains as many particles as the number of atoms in exactly 12g of carbon-12. 2) 1 mole contains 3.02 x 1023 particles Therefore a) 1 mol of atomic substance contains 6.02 x 1023 atoms b) 1 mol of molecular substance contains 6.02 x 1023 atoms c) 1 mol of ionic substance contains 6.02 x 1023 atoms 3) 6.02 x 1023 is called Avogadro constant / Avogadro number 4) Avogadro constant NA : The number of particles ( atom, molecules / ions) contained 1 mole of substance.

Formula :
Number of particles = Number of moles x Avogadro constant NA

Number of moles & mass


1) The mass of 1 mole of element in grams is equivalent ( same) to the relative atomic mass & relative molecular mass of the element. Exp: 1 mole of hydrogen = 1 g (relative atomic mass (RAM:1, Mass= 1g) Number of mole (atoms) = Mass in grams (g) Relative atomic mass (molar mass)

Number of mole (molecules) = Mass in grams (g) Relative molecular mass (molar mass) Therefore: Mole = Mass(g) Molar mass n=m mr

Number of Moles of a Gas & Its Molar Volume


1) Molar volume of a gas defined as the volume occupied by 1 mole of the gas 2) Standard temperature & pressure (S.T.P), 1 mole of gas occupies a volume of 22.4dm3 3) Room conditions (R.T.P), 1 mole of gas occupies a volume of 24 dm3

Formula: Number of mole =Volume Molar Volume(24/22.4dm3)

Chemical Formulae
1) A chemical formula is used to represent a chemical compound by using letters for atoms & number of atom that are present in the substance.

Exp:
Show the symbols of carbon, hydrogen & oxygen Show the numbers of carbon, hydrogen & oxygen that combine together

C6H12O6

2) Several covalent compounds & their chemical formulae that are sharing the number of atoms of each element making up the compound Name Chemical Formula Oxygen O2 Chlorine Cl2 Water H2O Ammonia NH3 Carbon dioxide CO2 Nitrogen dioxide NO2

Sulphuric acid Methane Benzene

H2SO4 CH4 C6H6

3) Chemical formula of an ionic compound, charges of cations(+) & anions (-) Charge Cation Anion 1 Sodium,Na+ Chloride,ClPotassium, K+ Bromide, Br Silver Ag+ Iodide, IAmmonium NH4+ Nitrate, NO3Hydrogen,H+ HydroxideOHBicarbonate,HCO32 Calcium,Ca2+ Oxide, O2Magnesium,Mg2+ Sulphate, SO42Zinc,Zn2+ Sulphite,SO32Iron(II),Fe2+ Sulphide,S2Lead(II),Pb2+ Carbonate, CO32Copper(II),Cu2+ Thiosulphate, S2O32Mercury(II),Hg2+ Stannum(II),Sn2+

Aluminium Al3+ Iron(III) Fe3+ Chromonium(III) Cr3+

Phosphate PO43Nitride N3-

Writing the chemical formula of ionic compound Xm+ Yn= XnYm Exp: 1) Na+ & ClNaCl 2) Al3+ N3Al3N3 = AlN 3) Al3+ O2Al2O3 4) Mn4+ O2Mn2O4 =MnO2

Molecular Formula & Empirical Formulae 1) Relative molecular mass of a substance can be calculated by using chemical formulae. Exp: Calcium carbonate CaCO3 Relative atomic mass = 40+ 12+ (16X3) = 100 2) 2 types of chemical formulae a) Empirical formula b) Molecular formula 3) Empirical formula shows the simplest ratio of atoms of the elements that combine to form the compound. 4) The molecular formula shows the actual number of atoms of the elements that combine to form compound. RAM of Ca=40 , C= 12 , O=16

Steps of determine the empirical formula Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Exp: The table below shows the mass of metal M & chlorine that combine to form a compound. Determine the empirical formula of this compound. Element Mass of the element Relative atomic mass of the element M 2.08 g 52 Cl 4.26 g 35.5 Write the mass / the mass percentage of each element in the compound. Calculate the number of moles of each element by dividing the mass / mass percentage of each element by its relative atomic mass. Calculate the simplest mole ratio by diving each number with the smallest number. Write the empirical formula

Solution

Step 1

Element Mass Number of moles Simplest ratio


Step 2 Step 3

M 2.08 g 2.08/52 = 0.004 0.004/0.004 =1

Cl 4.26 g 4.26/35.5 = 0.12 0.12/0.004 = 3

Empirical formula =MCl3

Step 4

Chemical Equations 1) The steps involved in writing a chemical equation: Step 1 Write the correct formulae of the reactants on the left side of the equation Step 2 Write the correct formulae of products on the right side of the equation Step 3 Balance the equation by making sure the number of atoms of each element on the left & on the left & on the right of the equation is the same. This is done by writing an integer in front of the chemical formula. Step 4 When balancing the equation, never alter (change) the formula of the compounds.

Step 1 Na + O2 Step 3 Na+O2


1 atom 2 atoms

Step 2 Na2O (Change charged Na+O2Step4 To make it balance 4Na + O2


2 atoms 4 atoms 2 atoms

Na2O)

Na2O
1 atom

2Na2O
4 atoms 2 atoms

Not balance bcoz in front Na has 1 atom & O has 2 atoms but behind Na has 2 atoms 1 O has 1 atom

Balanced bcoz 2x2Na = 4Na 2x1O (oxygen) =2

Reminder is the formula is mole = mass / molar mass the answer should be 50 mole.

If not mole means wrong.


Same as all the formula. If forgot g, mole, dm3 all wrong. Must remember to put the unit. Except for Relative atomic mass and Relative molecular mass & Relative Formula mass