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Nitrates (mechanism, use, toxicity) Adverse effects of statins Niacin (mechanism, use, toxicity) Cholestyramine,
Nitrates (mechanism, use, toxicity) Adverse effects of statins Niacin (mechanism, use, toxicity) Cholestyramine,
Nitrates (mechanism, use, toxicity) Adverse effects of statins Niacin (mechanism, use, toxicity) Cholestyramine,
Nitrates (mechanism, use, toxicity) Adverse effects of statins Niacin (mechanism, use, toxicity) Cholestyramine,

Nitrates (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Adverse effects of statins

Niacin (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Cholestyramine, colestipol, colesevelam (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Ezetimibe

Fibrates (gemfibrozil + -fibrates) (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Digoxin and digitoxin (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Class 1A antiarrhythmics

Class 1B antiarrhythmics

Class 1C antiarrhythmics

Class 1 antiarrhythmics (general mechanism and toxicity)

Class 2 antiarrhythmics

Class 3 antiarrhythmics

Toxicity of amiodarone

Class 4 antiarrhythmics

Adeosine (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Magnseium (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Treatment for prolactinoma

Treatment of secondary hyperaldosteronism

Treatment of carcinoid syndrome

Rapid-acting insulins (3)

Short-acting insulin (1)

Intermediate-acting insulin (1)

Long-acting insulins (2)

Metformin (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Tolbutamide, chlorpropamide (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Glyburide, glimepiride, glipizide (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Pioglitazone, rosiglitazone (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Acarbose, miglitol (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Pramlintide (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Cause NO release -> vasodilation (veins >>> arteries); used in angina; fast tolerance, hypotension, flushing, headache

Pharmacology

Cardio

Hepatoxicity and muscle breakdown

Pharmacology

Cardio

Inhibits lipolysis and reduces VLDL secretion, lowering LDL and raising HDL; hyperlipidemia; flushing and hyperuricemia

Pharmacology

Cardio

Inhibits reabsorption of bile acids -> lower LDL with slight increase in HDL; unpigmented gallbladder stones and malabsorption

Pharmacology

Cardio

Prevents cholesterol reabsorption -> lower LDL

Pharmacology

Cardio

Upregulates LPL -> lower triglycerides, slightly inc. HDL and slightly dec. LDL; myositis and hepatoxicity

Pharmacology

Cardio

Inhibits Na/K ATPase -> indirectly inhibits Na/Ca exchanger -> inc. calcium levels -> inc. contractility; stimulates the vagus; causes cholinergic symptoms and hyperkalemia

Pharmacology

Cardio

Quinidine, procainamide, and disopyramide; inc. AP duration and QT interval; can cause torsades de pointes, cinchonism (qunidine), procainamide (drug- induced lupus)

Pharmacology

Cardio

Lidocaine, mexiletine, and tocainide; dec. AP duration especially in depolarized/ischemia tissue; best following MI

Pharmacology

Cardio

Flecainide, propafenone; no effect on AP, used in ventricular tachycardias; do not use post-MI due to risk for arrhythmias

Pharmacology

Cardio

Blocks Na channels, decreasing the slope of phase 0 depolarization; toxicity exacerbated by hyperkalemia

Pharmacology

Cardio

Beta-blockers; reduces cAMP, slowing SA and AV node activity, increases PR interval; adverse effects include impotence, asthma exacerbation, sedation

Pharmacology

Cardio

Amiodarone, ibutilide, dofetilide, sotalol; K channel blockers; inc. AP duration and QT interval

Pharmacology

Cardio

Pulmonary fibrosis, hepatotoxicity, thyroid dysfunction

Pharmacology

Cardio

Ca channel blockers; verapamil and diltiazem; dec. conduction velocity and inc. PR interval; cause constipation, flushing, and edema

Pharmacology

Cardio

Inc. K efflux, hyperpolarizing the cell; used in supraventricular tachycardias; can cause flushing, hypotension, and chest pain

Pharmacology

Cardio

Used in torsades de pointes and digoxin toxicity

Pharmacology

Cardio

Bromocriptine or cabergoline (dopamine agonists)

Pharmacology

Endocrine

Spironolactone (or other AT2 antagonist)

Pharmacology

Endocrine

Octreotide (somatostatin analogues)

Pharmacology

Endocrine

Lispro, aspart, and glulisine

Pharmacology

Endocrine

Regular

Pharmacology

Endocrine

NPH

Pharmacology

Endocrine

Glargine and detemir

Pharmacology

Endocrine

Biguanide; unknown mechanism; increases insulin sensitivity and glycolysis and decreases gluconeogenesis; can cause lactic acidosis (don't use in renal failure patients)

Pharmacology

Endocrine

First-generation sulfonylureas; close beta-cell K channels, causing depolarization and increased insulin release; causes disulfuram-like effects

Pharmacology

Endocrine

Second-generation sulfonylureas; close beta-cell K channels, causing depolarization and increased insulin release; causes hypoglycemia

Pharmacology

Endocrine

Thiazolidinediones; activates PPAR-gamma, increasing insulin sensitivity and adiponectin levels; causes weight gain, hepatotoxicity, and heart failure

Pharmacology

Endocrine

Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors; prevent sugar hydrolysis and absorption, reducing blood sugar levels

Pharmacology

Endocrine

Amylin analog; reduces glucagon secretion; causes hypoglycemia

Pharmacology

Endocrine

Pharmacology Endocrine Amylin analog; reduces glucagon secretion; causes hypoglycemia Pharmacology Endocrine
Pharmacology Endocrine Amylin analog; reduces glucagon secretion; causes hypoglycemia Pharmacology Endocrine
Pharmacology Endocrine Amylin analog; reduces glucagon secretion; causes hypoglycemia Pharmacology Endocrine
Exenatide, liraglutide (mechanism, use, toxicity) Linagliptin, saxagliptin, sitagliptin (mechanism, use, toxicity)
Exenatide, liraglutide (mechanism, use, toxicity) Linagliptin, saxagliptin, sitagliptin (mechanism, use, toxicity)
Exenatide, liraglutide (mechanism, use, toxicity) Linagliptin, saxagliptin, sitagliptin (mechanism, use, toxicity)
Exenatide, liraglutide (mechanism, use, toxicity) Linagliptin, saxagliptin, sitagliptin (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Exenatide, liraglutide (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Linagliptin, saxagliptin, sitagliptin (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Propylthiouracil (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Methimazole (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Levothyroxine, triiodothyronine (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Oxytocin (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Demeclocycline (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Glucocorticoids (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Cimetidine and ranitidine (mechanism, use, toxicity)

-prazoles (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Bismuth, sucralfate (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Misoprostol (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Octreotide (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Toxicity of long-term antacid use

Infliximab (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Sulfasalazine (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Ondansetron (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Metoclopramide (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Can be used to prevent mast cell degranulation

Treatment of lead poisoning

Heparin (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Enoxaparin, dalteparin (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Warfarin (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Alteplase, reteplase, tenecteplase (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Aspirin (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Clopidogrel, ticlodipine, prasugrel, ticagrelor (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Cilostazol, dipyridamole (mechanism, use, toxicity)

GLP-1 analogues; increase insulin, decrease glucagon secretion; causes pancreatitis

Pharmacology

Endocrine

DPP-4 inhibitors; increase insulin, decrease glucagon secretion; causes mild urinary/respiratory infections

Pharmacology

Endocrine

Blocks thyroid peroxidase and 5'-deiodinase; used to treat hyperthyroidism; causes agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia, hepatotoxicity

Pharmacology

Endocrine

Blocks thyroid peroxidase; used to treat hyperthyrodism; teratogenic

Pharmacology

Endocrine

Thyroid hormone analogs; causes thyrotoxicosis

Pharmacology

Endocrine

Used to control uterine hemhorrage

Pharmacology

Endocrine

ADH antagonist used to treat SIADH; can cause photosensitivty and bone/teeth abnormalities

Pharmacology

Endocrine

Inhibits phospholipase A2 activity and expression of COX-2; used for immune suppression; can cause Cushing's syndrome, adrenal insufficiency (if withdrawn quickly)

Pharmacology

Endocrine

H2 antagonists; used to treat hyperchloridia; cimeditine is a P-450 inhibitor and has antiandrogenic effects, both reduce creatinine secretion

Pharmacology

GI

Irreversibly inhibit the H/K pump; used to treat hyperchloridia; increased risk of C. difficile infection and hypomagnesemia

Pharmacology

GI

Coats ulcer base and protects underlying tissue

Pharmacology

GI

PGE1 analog that decreases acid production and increases bicarb production; used to prevent NSAID ulcers; abortifacient

Pharmacology

GI

Somatostatin analog; used to treat VIPoma and carcinoid syndrome

Pharmacology

GI

Hypokalemia

Pharmacology

GI

Anti-TNF; used to treat IBD and RA; can cause activation of latent microbes

Pharmacology

GI

Combination of sulfapyridine (antibacterial) and 5-aminosalicylic acid (anti- inflammatory); used to treat IBD; causes oligospermia

Pharmacology

GI

5-HT3 antagonist; used as an antiemetic

Pharmacology

GI

D2 antagonist; used to increase gut muscle activity and as an antiemetic; causes parkinson signs

Pharmacology

GI

Cromolyn sodium

Pharmacology

Heme/Onc

Dimercaprol and EDTA, succimer in kids

Pharmacology

Heme/Onc

Activates antithrombin, which inactivates thrombin and Xa; used for immediate coagulation and in pregnant women; some patients develop antibodies to platelet factor 4 (HIT)

Pharmacology

Heme/Onc

Same actions as heparin, but has a longer half-life, does not have to be monitored as closely, and has a reduced risk of HIT

Pharmacology

Heme/Onc

Inactivated gamma-carboxylation of factors II, VII, IX, X, C, and S; used for long-term and non-immediate anticoagulation; can cause tissue necrosis, teratogenic

Pharmacology

Heme/Onc

Converts plasminogen to plasmin; used as a thrombolytic

Pharmacology

Heme/Onc

Irreversibly inhibits COX-1 and COX-2; anti-platelet and anti-inflammatory; gastric ulcers, tinnitus, Reye's syndrome in childhood viral infections

Pharmacology

Heme/Onc

Irreversibly blocks ADP receptors on platelets, preventing degranulation; used for acure coronary syndrome; ticlodipine causes neutropenia

Pharmacology

Heme/Onc

Phosphodiesterase inhibitor, increases cAMP and decreases ADP, preventing platelet degranulation; nausea, headache, facial flushing, hypotension

Pharmacology

Heme/Onc

ADP, preventing platelet degranulation; nausea, headache, facial flushing, hypotension Pharmacology Heme/Onc
ADP, preventing platelet degranulation; nausea, headache, facial flushing, hypotension Pharmacology Heme/Onc
ADP, preventing platelet degranulation; nausea, headache, facial flushing, hypotension Pharmacology Heme/Onc
Abciximab, eptifibatide, tirofiban (mechanism, use, toxicity) Methotrexate (mechanism, use, toxicity) 5-fluorouracil
Abciximab, eptifibatide, tirofiban (mechanism, use, toxicity) Methotrexate (mechanism, use, toxicity) 5-fluorouracil
Abciximab, eptifibatide, tirofiban (mechanism, use, toxicity) Methotrexate (mechanism, use, toxicity) 5-fluorouracil
Abciximab, eptifibatide, tirofiban (mechanism, use, toxicity) Methotrexate (mechanism, use, toxicity) 5-fluorouracil

Abciximab, eptifibatide, tirofiban (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Methotrexate (mechanism, use, toxicity)

5-fluorouracil (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Cytarabine (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Azathioprine, 6-mercaptopurine, 6- thioguanine (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Dactinomycin (actinomycin D) (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Doxorubicin (Adriamycin), daunorubicin (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Bleomycin (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Carmustine, lomustine, semustine, streptozocin (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Busulfan (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Vincristine, vinblastine (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Paclitaxel (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Cisplatin, carboplatin (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Etoposide, teniposide (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Hydroxyurea (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Prednisone (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Tamoxifen, raloxifene (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Trastuzumab (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Imatinib (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Rituximab (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Vemurafenib (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Bevacizumab (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Ibuprofen, naproxen, indomethacin, ketorolac, diclofenac (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Celecoxib (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Acetominophen (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Alendronate (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Allopurinol (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Febuxostat (mechanism, use, toxicity)

GPIIb/IIIa inhibitors, preventing platelet aggregation; bleeding, thrombocytopenia

Pharmacology

Heme/Onc

Inhibits dihydrofolate reductase, inhibiting DNA synthesis; myelosuppression, macrovesicular fatty change in liver

Pharmacology

Heme/Onc

Pyrimidine analog that is activated and inhibits thymidylate synthase, inhibiting DNA synthesis; myelosuppression, photosensitivity

Pharmacology

Heme/Onc

Pyrimidine analog that inhibits DNA polymerase; leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, megaloblastic anemia

Pharmacology

Heme/Onc

Purine analogs that are activated by HGPRT and inhibit purine synthesis; toxicity is increased with allopurinol, causes bone marrow, GI, and liver toxicity

Pharmacology

Heme/Onc

DNA intercalator; used for childhood tumors; myelosuppression

Pharmacology

Heme/Onc

Generates free radicals that cause DNA strand breaks; dilated cardiomyopathy (Dexrazoxone, an iron chelator, prevents this), myelosuppression, alopecia

Pharmacology

Heme/Onc

Generates free radicals that cause DNA strand breaks; pulmonary fibrosis with minimal myelosuppression

Pharmacology

Heme/Onc

Crosslinks DNA (must be activated by liver); myelosuppression, hemhorragic cystitis (can be minimized with mesna)

Pharmacology

Heme/Onc

Used to treat CNS tumors

Pharmacology

Heme/Onc

Alkylates DNA; pulmonary fibrosis, hyperpigmentation

Pharmacology

Heme/Onc

Block microtubule polymerization; vincristine causes neurotoxicity, vinblastine causes bone marro suppression

Pharmacology

Heme/Onc

Blocks microtubule breakdown; myelosuppression

Pharmacology

Heme/Onc

Crosslinks DNA; nephrotoxicity (minimize with chloride diuresis, amifostine), acoustic n. damage

Pharmacology

Heme/Onc

Inhibits topoisomerase II; myelosuppression, GI upset, alopecia

Pharmacology

Heme/Onc

Inhibits ribonucleotide reductase and increases HbF; used in cancers and HbSS disease; bone marrow suppression

Pharmacology

Heme/Onc

Unknown but may trigger apoptosis in dividing cells; Cushingoid symptoms

Pharmacology

Heme/Onc

Prevents estrogen receptor binding; used in breast cancer and prevention of osteoporosis; tamoxifen increases the risk of endometrial cancer due to agonist effects. Raloxifene = no increase in endometrial cancer.

Pharmacology

Heme/Onc

Antibody against HER-2 receptor; cardiotoxicity

Pharmacology

Heme/Onc

Antibody against bcr-abl tyrosine kinase

Pharmacology

Heme/Onc

Antibody against CD20; used to treat non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and rheumatoid arthritis

Pharmacology

Heme/Onc

B-raf kinase inhibitor (V600 mutation); used in metastatic melanoma

Pharmacology

Heme/Onc

Antibody against VEGF

Pharmacology

Heme/Onc

Reversible COX inhibitor; gastric ulcers, renal ischemia (due to constriction of afferent arteriole)

Pharmacology

Musculoskeletal

Reversible COX-2 inhibitor; anti-inflammatory without damage to gastric mucosa; sulfa allergy, thrombosis

Pharmacology

Musculoskeletal

COX inhibitor in the CNS (not anti-inflammatory); causes hepatic necrosis

Pharmacology

Musculoskeletal

Pyrophosphate analog that inhibits osteoclasts; used to treat osteoporosis, hypercalcemia, and Paget's disease; corrosive esophagitis

Pharmacology

Musculoskeletal

Xanthine oxidase inhibitor, reduces production of uric acid

Pharmacology

Musculoskeletal

Xanthine oxidase inhibitor

Pharmacology

Musculoskeletal

of uric acid Pharmacology Musculoskeletal Xanthine oxidase inhibitor Pharmacology Musculoskeletal
of uric acid Pharmacology Musculoskeletal Xanthine oxidase inhibitor Pharmacology Musculoskeletal
of uric acid Pharmacology Musculoskeletal Xanthine oxidase inhibitor Pharmacology Musculoskeletal
Probenecid (mechanism, use, toxicity) Colchine (mechanism, use, toxicity) Etanercept (mechanism, use, toxicity)
Probenecid (mechanism, use, toxicity) Colchine (mechanism, use, toxicity) Etanercept (mechanism, use, toxicity)
Probenecid (mechanism, use, toxicity) Colchine (mechanism, use, toxicity) Etanercept (mechanism, use, toxicity)
Probenecid (mechanism, use, toxicity) Colchine (mechanism, use, toxicity) Etanercept (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Probenecid (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Colchine (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Etanercept (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Infliximab, adalimumab (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Latanoprost (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Morphine, fentanyl, cofeine, heroin, methadone, meperidine, dextromethorphan, diphenoxylate (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Butorphanol (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Tramadol (mechanism, use, toxicity)

First-line therapy for simple partial seizures

First-line therapy for complex partial seizures

First-line therapies for tonic-clonic seizures

(3)

First-line therapy for absence seizures

Phenytoin (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Carbamazepine (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Lamotrigine (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Gabapentin (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Topiramate (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Phenobarbital (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Valproate (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Ethosuximide (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Benzodiazepines (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Tiagabine (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Vigabatrin (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Levetriacetam (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Phenobarbital, pentobarbial, thiopental, secobarbital (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Inhibits reabsorption of uric acid in PCT

Pharmacology

Musculoskeletal

Inhibits microtubule polymerization, preventing neutrophil extravasation

Pharmacology

Musculoskeletal

TNF-alpha receptor that binds free TNF-alpha

Pharmacology

Musculoskeletal

Anti-TNF-alpha antibody

Pharmacology

Musculoskeletal

PGF2 analog that increases the outflow of aqueous humor; can cause darkening of the iris

Pharmacology

Neurology

Mu opioid agonists that open K channels and close Ca channels, inhibting synaptic transmission; addiction, respiratory depression, constipation, miosis

Pharmacology

Neurology

Mu opioid partial agonist; used to treat severe pain; causes withdrawal if being treated with full agonist

Pharmacology

Neurology

Weak opioid agonist that inhibits serotonin and NE reuptake; increases risk for seizures

Pharmacology

Neurology

Carbamazepine

Pharmacology

Neurology

Carbamazepine

Pharmacology

Neurology

Carbamazepine, phenytoin, valproate

Pharmacology

Neurology

Ethosuximide

Pharmacology

Neurology

Increases Na channel inactivation and inhibits glutamate release; used for simple, complex, and tonic-clonic seizures and status epilecticus prophylaxis; nystagmus, gingival hyperplasia, hirsutism, megaloblastic anemia, teratogenic, drug-induced lupus, P450 inducer

Pharmacology

Neurology

Increases Na channel inactivation; first-line for simple, complex, and tonic- clonic seizures and trigeminal neuralgia; agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia, P450 inducer, SIADH, liver toxicity

Pharmacology

Neurology

Blocks Na channels; used for simple, complex, and tonic-clonic seizures; Steven-Johnson syndrome

Pharmacology

Neurology

Inhibits Ca channels; used for simple, complex, and tonic-clonic seizures, migraine prophylaxis, peripheral neuropathy, bipolar disorder; ataxia

Pharmacology

Neurology

Blocks Na channels and increases GABA secretion; used for simple, complex, and tonic-clonic seizures and migraine prevention; mental dulling, kidney stones, weight loss

Pharmacology

Neurology

Increases GABA channel action; first-line for simple, complex, and tonic-clonic seizures in children; P450 inducer

Pharmacology

Neurology

Increases Na channel inactivation and increases GABA levels; first-line for tonic-clonic seizures, used for simplex, complex, tonic-clonic, and myoclonic seizures; hepatotoxicity, neural tube defects, weight gain, tremor

Pharmacology

Neurology

Blocks thalamic Ca channels; first-line for absence seizures; GI distress, Steven-Johnson syndrome

Pharmacology

Neurology

Increases frequency of GABA channel opening; first-line for status epilepticus (diazepam, lorazepam), used for eclampsia seizures (diazepam, lorazepam), anxiety, alcohol withdrawl, sleep walking, night terrors; sedation

Pharmacology

Neurology

Inhibits GABA reuptake; used for simple and complex seizures

Pharmacology

Neurology

Irreversibly inhibits GABA transaminase, increasing GABA concentration; used for simple and complex seizures

Pharmacology

Neurology

Unknown mechanism; used for simple, complex, and tonic-clonic seizures

Pharmacology

Neurology

Increase duration of GABA channel opening; induction of anesthesia, sedative; CNS depression, P450 inducer, contraindicated in patients with porphyrias

Pharmacology

Neurology

sedative; CNS depression, P450 inducer, contraindicated in patients with porphyrias Pharmacology Neurology
sedative; CNS depression, P450 inducer, contraindicated in patients with porphyrias Pharmacology Neurology
sedative; CNS depression, P450 inducer, contraindicated in patients with porphyrias Pharmacology Neurology
Triazolam, oxazepam, midazolam (mechanism, use, toxicity) Short-acting benzodiazepines; more addictive potential
Triazolam, oxazepam, midazolam (mechanism, use, toxicity) Short-acting benzodiazepines; more addictive potential

Triazolam, oxazepam, midazolam (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Short-acting benzodiazepines; more addictive potential

Pharmacology

Neurology

Barbituates vs. benzodiazepines (mechanism)

Increase duration vs. increase frequency

Pharmacology

Neurology

Zolpidem, zaleplon, eszopiclone (mechanism, use, toxicity)

BZ1 subtype GABA channel agonists; used to treat insomnia

Pharmacology

Neurology

Ketamine (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Blocks NMDA receptor; used as an anesthetic; increases cardiac activity, hallucinations, bad dreams

Pharmacology

Neurology

NMDA receptor; used as an anesthetic; increases cardiac activity, hallucinations, bad dreams Pharmacology Neurology
NMDA receptor; used as an anesthetic; increases cardiac activity, hallucinations, bad dreams Pharmacology Neurology
hallucinations, bad dreams Pharmacology Neurology Order of sensory loss when using local anesthetics Pain
hallucinations, bad dreams Pharmacology Neurology Order of sensory loss when using local anesthetics Pain
Order of sensory loss when using local anesthetics Pain -> temperature -> touch -> pressure
Order of sensory loss when using local anesthetics Pain -> temperature -> touch -> pressure
Order of sensory loss when using local anesthetics Pain -> temperature -> touch -> pressure

Order of sensory loss when using local anesthetics

Pain -> temperature -> touch -> pressure

Pharmacology

Neurology

Succinylcholine (mechanism, use, toxicity)

ACh receptor agonist, produces sustained depolarization and desensitization; used as a paralytic; hypercalcemia, hyperkalemia, malignant hyperthermia

Pharmacology

Neurology

Tubocurarine, -curium drugs (mechanism, use, toxicity)

ACh antagonists; used as paralytics

Pharmacology

Neurology

Dantrolene (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Inhibits release of Ca from sarcoplasmic reticulum and skeletal muscle; used to treat malignant hyperthermia and neuroleptic-malignant syndrome

Pharmacology

Neurology

Levodopa/carbidopa (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Converted to dopamine by dopa decarboxylase in CNS/inhibits peripheral dopa decarboxylase activity; used to treat parkinson symptoms; can cause arrhythmias and "on/off" phenomenon

Pharmacology

Neurology

Selegiline (mechanism, use, toxicity)

MAO-B (prefers dopamine for breakdown) inhibitor, inhibits dopamine breakdown; used to treat parkinson symptoms; enhances adverse effects of levodopa

Pharmacology

Neurology

Donepezil, galantamine, rivastigmine (mechanism, use, toxicity)

ACh esterase inhibitors; used to treat Alzheimer's disease; cholinergic symptoms

Pharmacology

Neurology

Sumatriptan (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Agonist at 1B/1D serotonin receptors; used to treat acute migraines and cluster headaches; coronary vasospasm

Pharmacology

Neurology

Trifluoperzine, fluphenazine, haloperidol (mechanism, use, toxicity)

High potency antipsychotics that antagonize D2 receptors; used to treat schizoprehnia, psychosis, mania, and Tourette's; hyperprolactinemia, anti- cholinergic symptoms (dry mouth, constipation), extrapyramidal effects (dyskinesia), neuroleptic malignany syndrome, tardive dyskinesia (haloperidol)

Pharmacology

Psychiatry

Chlorpromazine, thioridazine (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Low potency antipsychotics that antagonize D2 receptors; used to treat schizophrenia, psychosis, mania, and Tourette's; corneal deposits (chlorpromazine), retinal desporits (thioridazine)

Pharmacology

Psychiatry

Olanzapine, clozapine, quetiapine, risperidone, aripripazole, ziprasidone (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Atypical antipsychotics with unknown mechnism; used for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, OCD, and others; weight gain (olanzapine, clozapine), agranulocytosis (clozapine), seizures (clozapine), prolonged QT (ziprasidone)

Pharmacology

Psychiatry

Lithium (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Unknown mechanism; used for bipolar disorder and SIADH; tremor, sedation, edema, hypothyroidism, polyuria

Pharmacology

Psychiatry

Buspirone (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Agonizes 1A serotonin receptors; used for generalized anxiety disorder; no side effects, but takes 1-2 weeks for improvement

Pharmacology

Psychiatry

Fluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline, citalopram (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Block reuptake of serotonin from the synaptic cleft; depression and others; sexual dysfunction, sertonin syndrome (hyperthermia, myoclonus, flushing, diarrhea, seizures)

Pharmacology

Psychiatry

Venlafaxine, duloxetine (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Block reuptake of NE and serotonin from synaptic cleft; depression, diabetic neuropathy (duloxetine); hypertension

Pharmacology

Psychiatry

-iptyline, -ipramine, doxepin, amoxapine (mechanism, use, toxicity)

TCAs, block reuptake of NE and serotonin; depression, bewetting (imipramine), OCD (clomipramine); convulsions, coma, arrhythmias, sedation, hypotension, anti-cholinergic effects

Pharmacology

Psychiatry

Tranylcypromine, phenelzine, isocarboxazid, selegiline (mechanism, use, toxicity) Bupropion (mechanism, use, toxicity)
Tranylcypromine, phenelzine, isocarboxazid, selegiline (mechanism, use, toxicity) Bupropion (mechanism, use, toxicity)
Tranylcypromine, phenelzine, isocarboxazid, selegiline (mechanism, use, toxicity) Bupropion (mechanism, use, toxicity)
Tranylcypromine, phenelzine, isocarboxazid, selegiline (mechanism, use, toxicity) Bupropion (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Tranylcypromine, phenelzine, isocarboxazid, selegiline (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Bupropion (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Mirtazapine (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Maprotiline (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Trazodone (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Mannitol (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Acetazolamide (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Furosemide (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Ethacrynic acid (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Hydrochlorothiazide (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Spironolactone, eplerenone (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Triamterene, amiloride (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Captopril, enalapril, lisinopril (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Losartan, valsartan (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Leuprolide (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Finasteride (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Flutamide (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Ketoconazole (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Clomiphene (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Tamoxifen (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Raloxifene (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Anastrozole, exemestane (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Mifepristone (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Terbutaline (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Tamsulosin (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Inhibit breakdown of NE, serotonin, and dopamine; used for atypical depression, anxiety, and hypochondriasis; hypertensive crisis (tyramine in wine/cheese), don't use with other serotonin agonists

Pharmacology

Psychiatry

Increases NE and dopamine; used for smoking sensation, depression; seizures

Pharmacology

Psychiatry

Alpha-2 antagonist, increases NE and serotonin release, and serotonin receptor agonist; used for depression; sedation, increased appetite with weight gain;

Pharmacology

Psychiatry

Blocks NE reuptake; used for depression; sedation, hypotension

Pharmacology

Psychiatry

Inhibits serotonin uptake; used for insomnia; pripism

Pharmacology

Psychiatry

Osmotic diuretic; used to treat drug overdose and increased ICP; pulmonary edema, CHF

Pharmacology

Renal

Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor; used for glaucoma, metabolic alklalosis; hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis, ammonia toxicity, sulfa allergy

Pharmacology

Renal

Inhibits NKCC channel, preventing urine concentration; used in hypertension, CHF, hypercalcemia; ototoxicity, hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, nephritis, gout, sulfa allergy

Pharmacology

Renal

Inhibits NKCC channel; used in patients with furosemide (sulfa) allergy; hyperuricemia

Pharmacology

Renal

Inhibits NaCl reabsorption in DCT and increases Ca reabsorption; hypertension and hypercalcinuria; hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, hyperuricemia, hypercalcemia, sulfa allergy

Pharmacology

Renal

Aldosterone receptor antagonists; hyperaldosteronism, CHF, hypokalemia; hyperkalemia (arrhythmias), antiandrogen effects with spironolactone

Pharmacology

Renal

Block sodium channels in cortical collecting duct; hyperaldosteronism, CHF

Pharmacology

Renal

ACE inhibitor, leads to reduced angiotensin II levels and decreases GFR; prevents heart remodeling, hypertension, CHF; cough, angioedema, transient creatinine increase, hyperkalemia

Pharmacology

Renal

Angiotensin II receptor antagonists; similar to ACE inhibitors, but do not cause cough due to normal metabolism of bradykinin

Pharmacology

Renal

GnRH analog that acts as an agonist in pulsatile doses and an antagonist in continuous doses; used as an agonist for infertility and an antagonist for prostate cancer, fibroids, and precocious puberty; antiandrogenic

Pharmacology

Reproductive

5-alpha reductase inhibitor; used for BPH and male-pattern baldness

Pharmacology

Reproductive

Testosterone receptor antagonist; used in prostate cancer

Pharmacology

Reproductive

Inhibits 17,20-desmolase, stopping sex steroid synthesis; used to treat polycystic ovarian syndrome

Pharmacology

Reproductive

Partial estrogen agonist in the hypothalamus, increases release of LH and FSH, stimulating ovulation; used for infertility and PCOS

Pharmacology

Reproductive

Estrogen receptor antagonist at the breast; used for breast cancer; partial agonist at the uterus, can cause endometrial hyperplasia

Pharmacology

Reproductive

Estrogen receptor agonist at bone, inhibits osteoclast activity and stimulates osteoblast activity; used to treat osteoporosis

Pharmacology

Reproductive

Aromatase inhibitors; used in breast cancer

Pharmacology

Reproductive

Progesterone receptor antagonist, given with misoprostol for abortion; abortifacient; bleeding, abdominal pain

Pharmacology

Reproductive

Beta-2 agonist, inhibits uterine contractions

Pharmacology

Reproductive

Alpha-1 antagonist; used to treat BPH

Pharmacology

Reproductive

contractions Pharmacology Reproductive Alpha-1 antagonist; used to treat BPH Pharmacology Reproductive
contractions Pharmacology Reproductive Alpha-1 antagonist; used to treat BPH Pharmacology Reproductive
contractions Pharmacology Reproductive Alpha-1 antagonist; used to treat BPH Pharmacology Reproductive
Sildenafil, vardenafil (mechanism, use, toxicity) Danazol (mechanism, use, toxicity) Treat methemoglobinemia with
Sildenafil, vardenafil (mechanism, use, toxicity) Danazol (mechanism, use, toxicity) Treat methemoglobinemia with
Sildenafil, vardenafil (mechanism, use, toxicity) Danazol (mechanism, use, toxicity) Treat methemoglobinemia with
Sildenafil, vardenafil (mechanism, use, toxicity) Danazol (mechanism, use, toxicity) Treat methemoglobinemia with

Sildenafil, vardenafil (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Danazol (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Treat methemoglobinemia with

Diphenhydramine, dimenhydrinate, chlorpheniramine (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Loratadine, fexofenadine, desloratadine, cetrizine (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Albuterol (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Salmeterol, formoterol (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Theophylline (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Ipratropium (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Beclomethasone, fluticasone (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Montelukast, zafirlukast (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Zileuton (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Omalizumab (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Guaifenesin (mechanism, use, toxicity)

N-acetylcysteine (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Bosentan (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Dextromethorphan (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Difference in competitive vs noncompetitve inhibitors?

What is Km?

What is Vmax?

What is bioavailability?

Time to steady state depends on?

What is rate of elimination in zero order kinetics?

Give three drugs that are zero order eliminated.

What is the rate of elimination for first order kinetics?

How does ionization relate to urine pH?

How do you treat overdose of weak acid? Give drug examples.

Phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors, causing inc. cGMP levels and smooth muscle relaxation; used in erectile dysfunction; impaired blue-green vision, contradindicated with nitrates

Pharmacology

Reproductive

Partial androgen receptor agonist; used to treat endometriosis and hereditary angioedema; weight gain, acne, hirsutism, low HDL, hepatoxicity

Pharmacology

Reproductive

Methylene blue

Pharmacology

Respiratory

(First generation) H1 antagonists; used in allergies, motion sickness, insomnia; sedation, antiadrenergic, antiserotonergic, and antimuscarinic effects due to CNS penetration

Pharmacology

Respiratory

H1 antagonists, 2nd gen; used in allergies; less fatigue than 1st gen antihistamines due to decreased CNS penetration

Pharmacology

Respiratory

Short-acting beta-2 agonist; asthma

Pharmacology

Respiratory

Long-acting beta-2 agonist; asthma; tremor, arrhythmias

Pharmacology

Respiratory

Phosphodiesterase inhibitor, increases cAMP and causes bronchodilation; asthma; cardiotoxicity, neurotoxicity

Pharmacology

Respiratory

Muscarinic antagonist, prevents bronchoconstriction; asthma and COPD

Pharmacology

Respiratory

Inhibit cytokine synthesis, reducing inflammation due to asthma; 1st line for chronic asthma

Pharmacology

Respiratory

Leukotriene receptor antagonists; especially useful in aspirin-induced asthma

Pharmacology

Respiratory

Inhibits activity of 5-lipoxygenase, inhibiting leukotriene production; reduces inflammation

Pharmacology

Respiratory

Anti-IgE antibody; used in refractory allergic asthma

Pharmacology

Respiratory

Thins respiratory secretions

Pharmacology

Respiratory

Loosens mucus plugs; used in CF patients and as an antidote to acetominaphen posioning

Pharmacology

Respiratory

Antagonizes endothelin-1 receptors, reducing vascular resistance in the pulmonary vessels; used in pulmonary hypertension

Pharmacology

Respiratory

Antagonizes NMDA receptors, inhibiting coughing; produces opioid effects in large doses and carries mild abuse potential

Pharmacology

Respiratory

Alpha-1 agonists that reduce edema and nasal congestion; rhinitis; hypertension, quick tolerance (recurrence of symptoms despite continued treatment)

Pharmacology

Respiratory

competitive = decrease potency, noncompetitive = decrease efficacy.

Pharmacology

General

Inverse relation of affinity of enzyme for its substrate.

Pharmacology

General

Direct proportion to enzyme concentration

Pharmacology

General

Fraction of administered drug that reaches systemic circulation unchanged.

Pharmacology

General

depends on half-life. Does not depend on frequency or size of dose.

Pharmacology

General

constant amount eliminated per time.

Pharmacology

General

PEA - phenytoin, Ethanol, Aspirin.

Pharmacology

General

A constant FRACTION is eliminted, variable by concentration!

Pharmacology

General

Ionzied species are trapped in urine and not resorbed. Neutral can be resorbed.

Pharmacology

general

Treat with Bicarb to make neutral. Exp: phenobarbital, methotrexate, aspirin.

Pharmacology

general

general Treat with Bicarb to make neutral. Exp: phenobarbital, methotrexate, aspirin. Pharmacology general
general Treat with Bicarb to make neutral. Exp: phenobarbital, methotrexate, aspirin. Pharmacology general
general Treat with Bicarb to make neutral. Exp: phenobarbital, methotrexate, aspirin. Pharmacology general
How do you treat overdose of weak base? Give drug examples. What is phase I
How do you treat overdose of weak base? Give drug examples. What is phase I
How do you treat overdose of weak base? Give drug examples. What is phase I
How do you treat overdose of weak base? Give drug examples. What is phase I

How do you treat overdose of weak base? Give drug examples.

What is phase I drug metabolism? What pt. population loses this?

What is phase II metaboloism? What population depend on this?

What is efficacy?

What is potency?

What happends to efficacy when a partial agonist and full agonist are mixed?

What is therapetuic index?

What is a therapeutic window?

What are the two types of Nicotonic receptors? What kind of messenger do they use?

Alpha-1 sympathetic receptor (G-protein class, major function)

Alpha-2 sympathetic receptor(G-protein class, major function)

Beta-1 sympathetic receptor(G-protein class, major function)

Beta-2 sympathetic receptor(G-protein class, major function)

M-1 Parasymp receptor(G-protein class, major function)

M-2 Parasymp(G-protein class, major function)

M-3 parasymp(G-protein class, major function)

What receptor is responsible for miosis and accomadation?

What receptor is responsbile for mydriasis?

Dopamine D-1 receptor(G-protein class, major function)

Dopamine D-2 receptor(G-protein class, major function)

Histamine H-1 receptor(G-protein class, major function)

histamine H-2 receptor(G-protein class, major function)

vasopression V-1 receptor(G-protein class, major function)

vasopression V-2 receptor(G-protein class, major function)

Which receptors work via Gq -> Phospholipase C ->Pip2->DAG + IP3?

DAG causes activation of what?

IP3 causes increase in what?

Treat with ammonium chloride. exp: amphetamines.

Pharmacology

general

Reduction, Oxidation, hydrolysis with CYP450. Often gives neutral products. Geriatrics lose this phase.

Pharmacology

general

Conjugation (Glucuronidation, Acetylation, and Sulfation.) Gives charged products. Geriatrics depend on this, old people have GAS.

Pharmacology

general

maximal effect a drug can produce.

Pharmacology

general

amount of drug needed for the same effect.

Pharmacology

general

DECREASED efficacy. fight for same binding site, full agonist cant exert full effect.

Pharmacology

general

LD50/ED50. Median lethal dose divded by median effective dose. Safer drugs have a higher TI.

pharmacology

general

Minimum effective dose to minimum toxic dose. Think of it as range of use.

pharmacology

general

1. Nicotinic - Ligang gated Na/K channels. Two nicotinic types: Nm(NMJ) and Nn(autonomic ganglia. 2. Muscarinic - G-proteins. 5 types, M1-M5.

pharmacology

general

q, increase: vasc. smooth muscle contraction, pupillary dilator muscle contraction, intestinal and bladder sphincter contaction.

pharmacology

autonomics

i, decrease: sympathetic outflow, insulin release, lipolysis. increase: platlet aggregation.

pharmacology

autonomics

s, increase: heart rate, contractilty, renin release, lipolysis

pharmacology

autonomics

s, vasodilation, brochodilation, increase: heart rate, contractility, lipolysis, insulin release, aqueous humor production. decrease: uterine tone, ciliary muscle tone.

pharmacology

autonomics

q, CNS, enteric nervouse system.

pharmacology

autonomics

i, decease: heart rate, contractility of atria

pharmacology

autonomics

increase: exocrine gland secretion (tears, gastric, etc), gut peristalsis, bladder contraction, bronchoconstriction, pupillary spinchter contraction, cilliary muscle contraction.

pharmacology

autonomics

Parasympathetic M-3.

pharmacology

autonomics

Sympathetic Alpha-1.

pharmacology

autonomics

s, relaxes renal vascular smooth muscle

pharmacology

autonomics

i, modulates transmitter release especially in brain.

pharmacology

autonomics

q, increase: mucus production, contraction of bronchioles, pruritus, pain.

pharmacology

autonomics

a, increase gastric acid secretion

pharmacology

autonomics

q, increase: vascular smooth muscle contraction

pharmacology

autonomics

s, increase water permeability and reabsorption in kidneys. (V2 found in 2 kidneys).

pharmacology

autonomics

H1,Alpha1,V1,M1,M3. (remember HAVe 1 M&M)

pharmacology

autonomics

Protein Kinase C.

pharmacology

autonomics

Calcium -> smouth muscle contraction

pharmacology

autonomics

Protein Kinase C. pharmacology autonomics Calcium -> smouth muscle contraction pharmacology autonomics
Protein Kinase C. pharmacology autonomics Calcium -> smouth muscle contraction pharmacology autonomics
Protein Kinase C. pharmacology autonomics Calcium -> smouth muscle contraction pharmacology autonomics
Which receptors work via Gi->Adenyly cyclase ->cAMP ->Protein Kinase A? Which receptors work via
Which receptors work via Gi->Adenyly cyclase ->cAMP ->Protein Kinase A? Which receptors work via
Which receptors work via Gi->Adenyly cyclase ->cAMP ->Protein Kinase A? Which receptors work via
Which receptors work via Gi->Adenyly cyclase ->cAMP ->Protein Kinase A? Which receptors work via

Which receptors work via Gi->Adenyly cyclase ->cAMP ->Protein Kinase A?

Which receptors work via Gs->adenylyate cyclase ->cAMP->Protein Kinase A?

What does protein kinase A do?

What are the two classes of cholinomimetics?

Bethanechol(mechanism,use,toxicity)

Carbachol(mechanism,use,toxicity)

Pilocarpine(mechanism,use,toxicity)

methacholine(mechanism,use,toxicity)

Neostigmine(mechanism,use,toxicity)

pyridostigmine(mechanism,use,toxicity)

edrophonium(mechanism,use,toxicity)

Physostigmine(mechanism,use,toxicity)

Donepezil(mechanism,use,toxicity)

signs of cholinesterase inhibitor poisoning. treatment.

Parathion(mechanism, treatment)

Atropine, homatropine, tropicamide (mechanism, use, toxicity).

Benztropine(mechanism,use,toxicity)

Scopolamine(mechanism,use,toxicity)

Ipratropium,tiotropium (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Oxybutynin(mechanism,use,toxicity)

Glycopyrrolate(mechanism,use,toxicity)

Jimson Weed(mechanism, toxicity)

Epinephrine(Mechanism, receptors bound, use, toxicity)

M2, Alpha2, D2. (remember MAD 2's.)

pharmacology

autonomics

Beta1, Beta2, D1, H2,V2.

pharmacology

autonomics

increase calcium release in heart and blocks myosin light chain kinase.

pharmacology

autonomics

1. direct agonsts 2. indirect agonists (anticholinesterases).

pharmacology

autonomics

Direct cholinomimetic. Postop or neurogenic ileus, urinary retention. COPD+asthma exacerbation, peptic ulcers.

pharmacology

autonomics

Direct Cholinomimetic. Identical to Ach. Glaucoma, pupillary contraction, relief of IOP. COPD+asthma exacerbation, peptic ulcers.

pharmacology

autonomics

Direct Cholinomimetic. Stimulates tears, salvia, sweat. Open and closed-angle glaucoma.COPD+asthma exacerbation, peptic ulcers.

pharmacology

autonomics

Direct Cholinomimetic. challenge test of asthma diagnosis. COPD+asthma exacerbation, peptic ulcers.

pharmacology

autonomics

Indirect cholinomimetic agonist. NO cns penetration. Postop and neurogenic ileus, myasthenia gravis, reversal of NMJ block. COPD+asthma exacerbation, peptic ulcers.

pharmacology

autonomics

indirect cholinomimetic agonist. Long acting myasthenia gravis treatment. COPD+asthma exacerbation, peptic ulcers.

pharmacology

autonomics

indirect cholinomimetic agonist. Short acting, for myasthenia gravis diagnosis. COPD+asthma exacerbation, peptic ulcers.

pharmacology

autonomics

indirect cholinomimetic agonist. for anti-cholinergic overdose, crosses BBB. COPD+asthma exacerbation, peptic ulcers.

pharmacology

autonomics

indirect cholinomimetic agonist. Alzheimers disease. COPD+asthma exacerbation, peptic ulcers.

pharmacology

autonomics

DUMBBELSS (diarrhea, urination, miosis, bronchospasm, bradycardia, excitation of skeletal muscle +CNS, lacrimation, sweating, salvia.) tx: atropine + pralidoxime.

pharmacology

autonomics

Irreversible cholinesterase inhibitor, ACH overdose. Tx: atropine + pralidoxime.

pharmacology

autonomics

Muscarinic antagonist. produces mydriasis and cycloplegia. (Atropine also used for bradycardia). Causes hot as a hare, dry as bone, red as beet, blind as bat, mad as a hatter.

pharmacology

autonomics

Muscarinic antagoist. Parkinsons disease (park my benz). Can be used in haloperiodal O.D, whihc causes torticolliosis. Causes hot as a hare, dry as bone, red as a beet, blind as a bat, mad as a hatter.

pharmacology

autonomics

Muscarinic antagonist. Motion sickness. causes hot as a hare, dry as a cone, red as a beet, blind as a bat, mad as a hatter.

pharmacology

autonomics

Muscarinic antagonist. COPD, Asthma. Causes hot as a hare, dry as a bone, red as a beet, blind as a bat, mad as a hatter.

pharmacology

autonomics

Muscarinic anatagonist. reduces urgency in mild cystitis and reduce bladder spasms. causes hot as a hare, dry as a bone, red as a beet, blind as a bat, mad as a hatter.

Muscarinic anatagonist. IP: given in preop to reduce airway secretions. oral:

reduce drooling, peptic ulcer. Can cause hot as a hare, dry as a bone red as a beet, blind as a bat, mad as a hatter.

pharmacology

autonomics

muscarinic antagonist, causes gardner's pupil (mydriasis).

pharmacology

autonomics

Direct Sympathomemetic. A1,A2,B1,B2. Anaphylaxis, open angle glaucoma, asthma, hypotension.

pharmacology

autonomics

Direct Sympathomemetic. A1,A2,B1,B2. Anaphylaxis, open angle glaucoma, asthma, hypotension. pharmacology autonomics
Direct Sympathomemetic. A1,A2,B1,B2. Anaphylaxis, open angle glaucoma, asthma, hypotension. pharmacology autonomics
Direct Sympathomemetic. A1,A2,B1,B2. Anaphylaxis, open angle glaucoma, asthma, hypotension. pharmacology autonomics
Norepinephine(Mechanism, receptors bound, use, toxicity) Isoproterenol(Mechanism, receptors bound, use, toxicity)
Norepinephine(Mechanism, receptors bound, use, toxicity) Isoproterenol(Mechanism, receptors bound, use, toxicity)
Norepinephine(Mechanism, receptors bound, use, toxicity) Isoproterenol(Mechanism, receptors bound, use, toxicity)
Norepinephine(Mechanism, receptors bound, use, toxicity) Isoproterenol(Mechanism, receptors bound, use, toxicity)

Norepinephine(Mechanism, receptors bound, use, toxicity)

Isoproterenol(Mechanism, receptors bound, use, toxicity)

dopamine(Mechanism, receptors bound, use, toxicity)

dobutamine(Mechanism, receptors bound, use, toxicity)

Phenylephrine(Mechanism, receptors bound, use, toxicity)

Albuterol, salmetrol, terbutaline (Mechanism, receptors bound, use, toxicity)

Ritodrine(Mechanism, receptors bound, use, toxicity)

Amphetamine (mechanism, use)

Epinephrine(Mechanism, use, toxicity)

Cocaine (mechanims, use).

Why must B-Blockers be avoided in suspected cocaine intoxication?

How does norepinephrine cause reflex bradycardia?

How does isoproterenol cause reflex tachycardia?

Clonidine, alpha-methyldopa(Mechanism, receptors bound, use)

Phenoxybenzamine(Mechanism, receptors bound, use, toxicity)

phentolamine(Mechanism, receptors bound, use, toxicity)

Prazosin, Terazosin, Doxazosin,Tamsulosin (Mechanism, receptors bound, use, toxicity)

Mirtazapine (mechanism, use, toxicity)

Describe what occurs when you alpha- blockade epi vs. phenylephrine.

Give 6 applications of Beta-blockers in general.

give general toxicites of b-blockers

What are the B1 selective b-blockers? When are they useful?

What are the nonselective ( b1 = b2) b- blockers?

direct sympathomemetic. A1,A2, some B1. used in hypotension but it decrease renal perfusion.

pharmacology

autonomics

Direct sympathomemetic. B1, B2. Used in Torsade de pointe and bradyarryhmia. Can cause tachycardia and worsen cardiac ischemia.

pharmacology

autonomics

Direct sympathomimetics. Receptors depend on dose. low = D1, med = D1, B2,B1, high = A1,A2,B1,B2,D1. Used in shock and heart failure (ionotropic and chronotropic).

pharmacology

autonomics

Direct sympathomimetic. Mostly B1, little a1,a2,b2. Used in heart failure and cardiac stresstest (ionotrpic and chronotropic)

pharmacology

autonomics

Direct sympathomimetic. A1, A2. Used in hypotension, to cause mydriasis, and rhinitis (decongestant).

pharmacology

autonomics

Direct sympathomimetic. Mostly B2, some b1. Sal = long term ashtma or copd. Albuterol for short term asthma. Terbutaline for to reduce premture uterine contractions.

pharmacology

autonomics

Direct sympathomimetic. B2 only. Used to reduce premature uterine contractions.

pharmacology

autonomics

indirect sympathomimetic. Releases stored catecholamines. Used for narcolepsy, obesity, ADD.

pharmacology

autonomics

indirect sympathomimetic. Releases stored catecholamines. Used for nasal decongestion, urinary incontience, hypotension.

pharmacology

autonomics

direct sympathomimetic. Reuptake inhibitor. Causes vasoconstriction and local anesthesia.

pharmacology

autonomics

mixing them can lead to unopposed A1 activation and extreme hypertenion.

pharmacology

autonomics

stimulates A1>B2. Causes increased vasoconstrciton -> increased BP. This causes reflex bradycardia and slowing of HR.

pharmacology

autonomics

Stimulates B2>A1. This cause vasodilation and dropping of BP. B1 is stimulated and causes tachycardia.

pharmacology

autonomics

Centrally acting alpha-2 agonists, this causes LESS peripheral sympathetic release.Used in hypertension, especially renal disease due to no increase in renal blood flow!

pharmacology

autonomics

IRREVERSIBLE nonslective alpha blocker. Used in pheochromosytoma BEFORE surgery! toxic: orhtostatic hypotension, reflec tachycardia.

pharmacology

autonomics

REVERSBILE nonselective alpha blocker. give to patients on MAOI who each tyramine contraining foods.

pharmacology

autonomics

Alpha-1 blocker. Used in hypertension, urinary rentention in BPH. tox:

orthostatic hypotension, dizziness, headache.

pharmacology

autonomics

Alpha-2 blocker. Used in depression. tox: sedation, hypercholesterolemia, increased apetite.

pharmacology

autonomics

Before blockade: Both epi and phen RAISES BP. After alpha blockade: only epi raises, no change in phenyl. Why: Epi has B binding, phenyl does NOT.

pharmacology

autonomics

Angina - decreases HR and contractility, decreasing oxygen use. MI - decrease mortality. SVT - decrease AV duction. Hypertension - decrease CO and renin secretion. CHF - slows progression. Glaucoma - decrease secretion of aqueous humor.

pharmacology

autonomics

impotence, asthma exacerbation, bradycardia, seizures, sedation, hides hypoglycemia.

pharmacology

autonomics

A BEAM. acebutolol, betaxolol, Esmolol, Atenolol, Metoprolol. Useful in comorbid pum. disease.

pharmacology

autonomics

Please Try Not Being Picky. Propranolol, Timolol, Nadolol, Pindolol. B = B- blocker.

pharmacology

autonomics

Please Try Not Being Picky. Propranolol, Timolol, Nadolol, Pindolol. B = B- blocker. pharmacology autonomics
Please Try Not Being Picky. Propranolol, Timolol, Nadolol, Pindolol. B = B- blocker. pharmacology autonomics
Please Try Not Being Picky. Propranolol, Timolol, Nadolol, Pindolol. B = B- blocker. pharmacology autonomics
what are the nonselective a and b- antagonists? What are the partial B-agonists? Give treatment
what are the nonselective a and b- antagonists? What are the partial B-agonists? Give treatment
what are the nonselective a and b- antagonists? What are the partial B-agonists? Give treatment
what are the nonselective a and b- antagonists? What are the partial B-agonists? Give treatment

what are the nonselective a and b- antagonists?

What are the partial B-agonists?

Give treatment for acetaminophen overdose.

Give treatment for salicylates overdose.

give treatment for amphetamines overdose

Give treatment for antimuscarinic and anticholinergic overdose.

Give treatment for b-blocker overdose

Give treatment for digitalis overdose

give treatment for iron overdose.

give treatment for lead overdose

give treatment for mercury, arsenix, gold overdose

give treatment for copper, arsenic, gold overdose

give treatment for cyanide

give methemoglobin treatment

Give Carbon monocide treatment

give treatment for methanol, ethylene glycol overdose

give treatment for opiods overdose

give treatment for benzodiazepine overdose

give treatment for TCA overdose

give treatment for heparin overdose

give treatment for warfarin overdose

give treatment for tPA, Streptokinase, urokinase overdose

give treatment for theophylline overdose

give treatment for acetylcholinesterase inhibitors

causes coronary vasospam

causes cutaneous flushing

causes dilated cardiomyopathy

causes torsades de pointes

causes agranulocytoisis

causes aplastic anemia

causes direct coombs positive hemolytic anemia

causes gray baby syndomr

causes hemolysis in G6PD-defiect patients

causes megaloblastic anemia

Causes thrombotic complications

Causes cough

causes pulmonary fibrosis

causes acute cholestatic hepatits, jaundice

causes focal to massice hepatic necrosis

causes hepatits

can lead to pseudomembranous colitis

Carvedilol, labetalol.

pharmacology

autonomics

Pindolol, Acebutolol.

pharmacology

autonomics

N-Acetylcysteine (replenishes glutathione).

pharmacology

overdose

NaHCO3 (alkalinize urine)

pharmacology

overdose

NH4Cl (acidify urine)

pharmacology

overdose

Phygostigmine and control the hyperhermia.

pharmacology

overdose

Glucagon

pharmacology

overdose

(KLAM) normalize K, Lidocaine, Anti-dig fab fragments, Mg2

pharmacology

overdose

deFEroxamine, deFErasirox.

pharmacology

overdose

CaEDTA, dimercaprol, succimer, penicillamine

pharmacology

overdose

Dimercaprol, succiner

pharmacology

overdose

penillamine

pharmacology

overdose

nitrite + thiosulfate, hydroxocobalamin

pharmacology

overdose

Methylene blue, vitamin c

pharmacology

overdose

100% oxygen or hyperbaric oxygen

pharmacology

overdose

Fomepizole>Ethanol, dialysis

pharmacology

overdose

naloxone/naltrexone

pharmacology

overdose

flumazenil

pharmacology

overdose

NaHCO3 (alkalinize plasma)

pharmacology

overdose

protamine

pharmacology

overdose

Vitamin K, fresh frozen plasma

pharmacology

overdose

aminocaproic acid

pharmacology

overdose

B-Blockers

pharmacology

overdose

atropine + pralidoxime

pharmacology

overdose

cocaine, sumatriptan, ergots

pharmacology

reactions

(VANC) Vancomycin, Adenosine, Niacin, Ca blocker

pharmacology

reactions

doxorubicin, daunorubicin

pharmacology

reactions

class III (sotalol) and class Ia (quinidine)

pharmacology

reactions

Clozapine, Carbamazepine, Colchine, Propylthiouracil, Methimazole, Dapsone

pharmacology

reactions

chloramphenicol, benzene, NSAIDs, propylthiouracil, methimazole

pharmacology

reactions

methyldopa, penicillin

pharmacology

reactions

chloramphenicol

pharmacology

reactions

(hemolysis IS PAIN)isoniazid, sulfonamides, primaquine, aspirin, ibuprofen, nitrofurantoin

pharmacology

reactions

(females with PMS are on full BLAST mode) Phenytoin, Methotrexate, Sulfa drugs

pharmacology

reactions

OCPs like estrogen

pharmacology

reactions

ACE inhibitors

pharmacology

reactions

Bleomycin, amiodarone, Busulfan

pharmacology

reactions

erthryomycin

pharmacology

reactions

Halothane, Amanita Phalloides, Valrpoic acid, Acetaminophen

pharmacology

reactions

isoniazid

pharmacology

reactions

clindamycin, ampicillin

pharmacology

reactions

reactions isoniazid pharmacology reactions clindamycin, ampicillin pharmacology reactions
reactions isoniazid pharmacology reactions clindamycin, ampicillin pharmacology reactions
reactions isoniazid pharmacology reactions clindamycin, ampicillin pharmacology reactions
can lead to adrenocortical insufficiency can causes gynecomastia causes hot flashes causes hypergylcemia causes
can lead to adrenocortical insufficiency can causes gynecomastia causes hot flashes causes hypergylcemia causes
can lead to adrenocortical insufficiency can causes gynecomastia causes hot flashes causes hypergylcemia causes
can lead to adrenocortical insufficiency can causes gynecomastia causes hot flashes causes hypergylcemia causes

can lead to adrenocortical insufficiency

can causes gynecomastia

causes hot flashes

causes hypergylcemia

causes hypothyroidism

causes fat redistribution

causes gingival hyperplasia

causes gout

causes myopathies

causes osteoporosis

causes photosensitivty

causes rash/SJS

cause drug induced lupus

causes teeth problems

causes tendonitis, tendon rupture, tooth damage

causes diabetes insipidus

causes fanconi's syndome

causes hemorrhagic cystits

causes interstital nephritis

causes SIADH

causes cinchonism

causes parkinson-like syndome

causes seizures

causes tardive dyskinesia

acts like an anti-muscarinic

can cause a disulfiram like reaction

can cause nephro/ototoxicity

list p450 inducers

list p450 inhibitors

lists the sulfa drugs

Difference between peniciliin G and V.

Penicillin(mechanism,use,toxicity)

Oxacillin,Naficillin,Dicloxacillin(mechanism,

use,toxicity)

Ampicillin, amoxicillin(mecanism,use, toxicity)

glucocorticoid withdrawl via HPA suppression

pharmacology

reactions

`(Some drugs create awkward knockers) spironolactone, digitalis, cimetidine, chronic alcohol use, ketoconazole

pharmacology

reactions

estrogen, clomophene

pharmacology

reactions

niacin, tacrolimus, protease inhibitor, HCTZ, corticosteriods

pharmacology

reactions

lithium, amiodarone, suldonamides

pharmacology

reactions

glucocoricoids, protease inhibitors

pharmacology

reactions

phenytoin, verpamil

pharmacology

reactions

furosemide, thiazides, niacin, cyclosporine

pharmacology

reactions

fibrates, niacin, colchine, hydroxychloroquine, interferon-alpha, penicillamine, statins, glucocorticoids

pharmacology

reactions

corticosteroids, heparin

pharmacology

reactions

(SAT for a PHOTO) Sulfonamides, amiodarone, tetracycline

pharmacology

reactions

penicillin, ethosuximide, carbamazepine, sulfa drugs, lamotrigine, allopurinol, phenytoin, phenobarbital

pharmacology

reactions

Hydralazine, isonizid, procainamine, phenytoin

pharmacology

reactions

tetracyclines

pharmacology

reactions

fluoroquinolones

pharmacology

reactions

lithium, demeclocycline

pharmacology

reactions

expired tetracycline

pharmacology

reactions

Cyclophosamide, ifosfamide

pharmacology

reactions

methicllin, NSAID, furosemide

pharmacology

reactions

carbamazepine, cyclophosamide

pharmacology

reactions

Quinidine, qunine

pharmacology

reactions

antipsychotics, resperine, metoclopramide

pharmacology

reactions

(with seizures, I BITE My tongue) isoniazid, Buproprion, imipenem, Tramadol, Enflurane, Metoclopramide

pharmacology

reactions

antipsychotics

pharmacology

reactions

Atropine, TCA, H1-blocker, neuoleptics

pharmacology

reactions

metronidazole, some cephalosporins, procarbazine, 1st gen sulphonoureas

pharmacology

reactions

aminoglycosides, vancomycin, loop dieuetics, cisplatin

pharmacology

reactions

(Momma Barb Steals Phen-phen and Refuses Greasy Carbs Chronically) Modafinil, Barbiturates, St. John wart, phenytoin, rifampin, griseofulvin, carbamazepine, chronic alcohol use.

pharmacology

reactions

(MAGIC ROCKS in GQ) Macrolides, amiodarone, grapefruit juice, isoniazid, cimetidine, ritonavir actue alcohol use, ciprofloxacin, ketoconazole, sulfonamides, gemfibrozil, quinidine.

pharmacology

reactions

(Popular FACTSSS) probenacid, furosemide, acetazolamide, celecoxib, thiazide, sulfonamide antibiotics, sulfaasalazine, sulfonylureas

pharmacology

reactions

G = IV and IM. V = oral.

pharmacology

micro

Bind penicillin-binding proteins(transpeptidases), block cross linking of peptidoglycans;most effective on G+, also N. Meningitidis, Treponema; hypersensitivy reaction, hemolytic anema.

pharmacology

micro

bind transpeptidases, penicillanse resistant due to bukly r-group blocking B- Lactamse; S. Aureus, except MRSA; hypersensitivity and interstitial nephritis.

pharmacology

micro

bind transpeptidases, wide spectrum and more penicillinase sensitive. combo with claculanic acid to protect from B-lactams;kills enterococci(HELPSS)H.iB, E.coli,Listera,Proteus,Salmonella,Shigella,enterococci;hypersensitivity reaction,rash,pseudomemrane colitis.

pharmacology

micro

reaction,rash,pseudomemrane colitis. pharmacology micro
reaction,rash,pseudomemrane colitis. pharmacology micro
reaction,rash,pseudomemrane colitis. pharmacology micro
Which has better bioavailibility; amoxicllin or ampicillin? What does clavulanic acid do?
Which has better bioavailibility; amoxicllin or ampicillin? What does clavulanic acid do?
Which has better bioavailibility; amoxicllin or ampicillin? What does clavulanic acid do?
Which has better bioavailibility; amoxicllin or ampicillin? What does clavulanic acid do?

Which has better bioavailibility; amoxicllin or ampicillin?

What does clavulanic acid do?

Ticarcillin,piperacillin(mechanism,use,

toxicity)

List the B-lactamse inhibitors

Cephalosporin(mechanism,use,toxiciity)

give use of cefazolin, cephalexin.

give use of cefoxitin, cefaclor,cefuroxime`

give use of ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, ceftazidime

give use of cefepime.

Aztreonam(mechanism,use,toxicty)

what transpeptidase inhibitor can be used in penicillin allergy?

imipenem/cilastatin,meropenem,etrapenem,

doripenem(mechanism,use,toxicity)

Vancomycin(mechanism,use,toxicty)

How is redman syndrome prevented in vancomycin use?

How does vancomycin resistant occur?

List antibiotic protein synthesis inhibitors

Gentamicin, neomycin, amikacin, tobramycin,streptomycin(mechanism,use, toxicity)

how does resistenace to aminoglycosides occur?

tetracycline, doxycycline, demecycline, minocycline(mechanism, use, toxicity)

how does resistance to tetracyclines occur?

Azithromycin, clarithromycin, erythromycin (mechanism,use,toxicity)

how does resitance to macrolides occur?

Chloramphenicol(mechanism,use,toxicity)

amOxicllin has better Oral bioavilability.

pharmacology

micro

B-lactamse inhibitor

pharmacology

micro

transpeptidase inhibitor but extended spectrum;pseduomonas and g- rods, use with claculanic acid due to B-lactamse suspectibilty; hypersensitivity reaction.

pharmacology

micro

(CAST) Clavulanic Acid, Sulbactam,Tazobactem.

pharmacology

micro

inhibit cell wall synthesis but are less susceptible to B-lactamases, are bactericidal;use depends on generation, there are four;hypersensitivty reactions, vitamin K defiency, increased nephrotoxicity of aminoglycosides.

pharmacology

micro

1st generation cephalosporins. PEcK. Proteus, E.coli,Klebsiella. Cefazolin used preop to prevent A.aureus infections.

pharmacology

micro

2nd generation cephalosporins. HEN PEcKs. H.ib, Enterbacter, Neisseria, Proteus, E.coli,Klebsiella, Serratia.

pharmacology

micro

3rd gen. cephalosporins. Serious gram - infections. Ceftriaxone = meningitis and gonorrhea. Ceftazidime = pseudomonas.

pharmacology

micro

increased activity against pseudomonas and G+ bugs.

pharmacology

micro

a monobactem resistant to B-lactamases, prevents binding to PBP3 and is synergistic with aminoglycosides;gram - rods only;very nontoxic, some GI upset.

pharmacology

micro

aztreonam.

pharmacology

micro

broad spectrum, B-lactamase resistent but imipenem needs cilastatin to inhibit renal dehydropeptidase. later carbepenems do not;G+ cocci,G- rods, anerobes. used only in life threating events;skin rash, CNS toxicity, seizures.

pharmacology

micro

inhibits cell wall binding peptidoglycan formation by binding D-ala percursors, is bacterialcidal; G+ only, especially for multidrug resistant onces;NOT - nephrotoxicity, ototoxicity, thrombophlebitis, red man syndrome.

pharmacology

micro

slow infusion and rate and antihistamines.

pharmacology

micro

amino acid change of D-ala D-ala to D-ala D-lac.

pharmacology

micro

AT 30, CCEL at 50. 30S = Aminoglycosides, Tetracyclines. 50S = Chloramphenicol, Clindamycin, Erythromycin, Linezolid.

pharmacology

micro

aminoglycosides, bacterialcidal, block translocation but require oxygen for uptake;ineffective in anaerobes,use in gram - rod infections and before bowel surgery; nephrotoxicty, NMJ block, ototoxicity, teratogen.

pharmacology

micro

transferase enzymes that inactivate the drug by acetylation, phosphorylation, or adenylation.

pharmacology

micro

bacteriostatic, prevents aminoacyl-tRNA binds;Borrela, M. Pneuomo, Rickettsia, Chlamysia; can't take with milk, antacids, iron because ions bind it, GI distress, discoloration of teeth, inhibition of bone growth, contraindication in pregnancy.

pharmacology

micro

decrease uptake into cells or increased efflux by pumps.

pharmacology

micro

bacteriostatic, blocks translocation; atypical pneumonias, chlamydia, gram + cocci; MACRO: increased Motility, arrhythmia, Cholestatic hepatitis, Rash, eOsinophilia.

pharmacology

micro

methylation of 23s rRNA binding site.

pharmacology

micro

Bacterialstatic, blocks peptidlytransferase; Meningitis in adults, used in power countries due to being cheap; dose dependent anemia, dose independent aplastic anemia, gray baby syndrome.

pharmacology

micro

due to being cheap; dose dependent anemia, dose independent aplastic anemia, gray baby syndrome. pharmacology micro
due to being cheap; dose dependent anemia, dose independent aplastic anemia, gray baby syndrome. pharmacology micro
due to being cheap; dose dependent anemia, dose independent aplastic anemia, gray baby syndrome. pharmacology micro
what causes grey baby syndrome? use of chloramphenicol in premature infants, they lack UDO-glucuronyl- transferase.
what causes grey baby syndrome? use of chloramphenicol in premature infants, they lack UDO-glucuronyl- transferase.

what causes grey baby syndrome?

use of chloramphenicol in premature infants, they lack UDO-glucuronyl- transferase.

pharmacology

micro

How does resistance to chloramphenicol occur?

plasmid-encoded acetyltransferase.

pharmacology

micro

clindamycin(mechanism,use,toxicity)

Bacteriostatic. Blocks peptide transfer; anaerobic infections in lung infections and oral anerobes; C. Diff infection, fever, diarrhea.

pharmacology

micro

Sulfamethoxazole(SMX), sulfisoxazole, sulfadiazine(mechanism, use, toxicity)

Bacteriostatic, PABA metabolites inhibit dihydropteroate synthase; Gram +, G- , Nocardia, Chlamydia, UTI; hypersensitivty, hemolysis in G6PD, nephrotoxic, kernicterus, displaces other drugs from albumin.

pharmacology

micro

hypersensitivty, hemolysis in G6PD, nephrotoxic, kernicterus, displaces other drugs from albumin. pharmacology micro
hypersensitivty, hemolysis in G6PD, nephrotoxic, kernicterus, displaces other drugs from albumin. pharmacology micro
displaces other drugs from albumin. pharmacology micro how does resistance to sulfonamides occur? altered
displaces other drugs from albumin. pharmacology micro how does resistance to sulfonamides occur? altered
how does resistance to sulfonamides occur? altered bacterial dihydropteroate or increased PABA synthesis.
how does resistance to sulfonamides occur? altered bacterial dihydropteroate or increased PABA synthesis.
how does resistance to sulfonamides occur? altered bacterial dihydropteroate or increased PABA synthesis.

how does resistance to sulfonamides occur?

altered bacterial dihydropteroate or increased PABA synthesis.

pharmacology

micro

Trimethoprim(mechanism,use,toxicity)

Bacteriostatic, inhibits bacterial dihydrofolate reductase, blocks folate synthesis; used in UTI, PCP (prophylacis and treatment), shigella, salmonella; megaloblastic anemia, leukopenia, granulocytopenia.

pharmacology

micro

ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, levofloxacin, etc (mechanism, use, toxicity)

bactericidal, inhibits DNA gyrase(topo II and IV);G- rods of urinary and GI tracts, Neisseria, some G+;( lones hurt the bones) tenonitis and tendon rupture, superinfections, don't give to kids or pregnant women due to cartilage damage.

pharmacology

micro

how does resistance to fluroquinolones occur?

mutation in DNA gyrase or efflux pumps.

pharmacology

micro

What groups are susceptible to fluorquinolone tendon rupture?

older than 60 or taking prednisone

pharmacology

micro

Metronidazole(mechanism, use, toxicity)

bacterialcidal, forms free radical toxic metabolites that damge bacterial DNA damage; (GET GAP) Giardia, Entamoeba, trichomonas, Gardnerella, Anaerobes, Pylori; causes disulfiram like reaction, headache, metallic taste.

pharmacology

micro

Isoniazid(mechanism,use,toxicity)

decrease synthesis of mycolic acids, bacterial catalase peroxidase(KatG) must activate INH; TB drug, only one used as prophylaxis and in latent TB; peripheral neuropathy, hepatoxic, lupis like drug interaction, pyridoxine antagonist.

pharmacology

micro

Rifampin(mechanism,use,toxicity)

inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase; TB, Leprosy, prophylaxis in meningococcus and Hib type B; hepatotox, p450 inducer, orange body fluids.

pharmacology

micro

Pyrazinamide(mechanism, use, toxicity)

unknown; TB; hyperuricemia, hepatotoxic.

pharmacology

micro

Ethambutol(mechanism,use,toxicity)

decreased carbohydrate polymerization of TB cell wall, blocks arabinosyltransferase; TB; optic neuropathy(red-green color blindness_

pharmacology

micro

Amphotericin B(mechanism, use, toxicity)

binds fungal ergosterol, causes holes in membranes; use in systemtic and CNS mycoses infections; fever/chills, hypotension, arrythmias, nephrotoxic, IV phlebitis, must supplement K and MG.

pharmacology

micro

nystatin(mechanism,use,toxicty)

binds fungal ergosterol;topical only due to high toxicity, used for oral thrush and topical diaper rash or vaginal candidiasis.

pharmacology

micro

Fluconazole, ketoconazole, clotrimazole, itraconazole, voriconazole(mechanism, use, toxicity)

inhibits fungal ergosterol synthesis by binding p450;Fluconazole for suppression of cryptococcus in AIDs patients, itraconazle for blasto, coccio, histo.

pharmacology

micro

Flucytosine(mechanism, use, toxicity)

inhibits fungal DNA and RNA synthesis by conversion to 5FU; used in systemic fungal infections, especially cryptococcus; bone marrow suppression.

pharmacology

micro

Caspofungin, micafungin(mechanism, use, toxicity)

inhibits fungal cell wall synthesis by inhibiting B-glucan synthesis; invasive aspergillosis, candida; flushing via histamine releae.

pharmacology

micro

terbinafine(mechanism,use,toxicity)

inhibits fungal squalene epoxidase; treat dermatophytes - toe nail infection especially;abnormal LFT, visual disturbances.

pharmacology

micro

Griseofulvin(mechanism,use,toxicity)

interferes with microtubules, stops mitosis in fungi;deposits in keratin so used in superficial infections, stops dermatophytes; teratogenic, carcinogenic, confusion, p450 inducer.

pharmacology

micro

Pyrimethamine use

toxoplasmosis

pharmacology

micro

suramin and melarsoprol use nifurtimox use sodium stibogluconate use Chloroquine(mechanism,use,toxicity) quinidine
suramin and melarsoprol use nifurtimox use sodium stibogluconate use Chloroquine(mechanism,use,toxicity) quinidine
suramin and melarsoprol use nifurtimox use sodium stibogluconate use Chloroquine(mechanism,use,toxicity) quinidine
suramin and melarsoprol use nifurtimox use sodium stibogluconate use Chloroquine(mechanism,use,toxicity) quinidine

suramin and melarsoprol use

nifurtimox use

sodium stibogluconate use

Chloroquine(mechanism,use,toxicity)

quinidine use

artemether/lumifantrine use

Zanamivir,oseltamivir(mechanism,use)

Ribavarin(mechanism,use,toxicity)

Acyclovir,valacyclovir(mechanism, use, toxicity)

Famciclovir use

mechanism for resistance to acyclovir

Ganciclovir,valgangciclovir(mechanism,use,

toxicity)

mechanism for resistance to acyclovir

Foscarnet(mechanism,use,toxicity)

mechanism for resistance to foscarnet

cidofovir(mechanism,use,toxicity)

HAART consist of what?

give mechanism and toxicity of protease inhibitors

Ritonavir does what to be a "booster"

Tenofovir, emtricitabine, abacavir, lamivudine, zidovudine, didansoine, stavudine(mechanism,use,toxicity

Nevirapine, Efavirenz, Delavirdine (mechanism,use,toxicity)

Raltegravir(mechanism,use,toxicity)

Interferons(mechanism,use,toxicity)

What antibiotics must be avoided in pregnancy?

cause direct toxicity to nerves

By what mechanism does isoniazid cause B6 (pyridoxine) loss?

trypanosoma brucei

pharmacology

micro

trypanosoma cruzi

pharmacology

micro

leshmaniasis

pharmacology

micro

blocks formation of heme into hemozoin. Heme accumulates and is toxic to plasmodia;used on all species but falciparum(too much resitance); retinopathy

pharmacology

micro

lifethreatening malaria

pharmacology

micro

p. falciparum killing

pharmacology

micro

inihibits influenza neuraminidase, stops progeny release; treamt of influenze a and b

pharmacology

micro

inhibits sythesis of guanine nucleotides by competitvely inhibiting IMP dehydrogenase; RSV, chronic hep C; hemolytic anemia, severe teratogen

pharmacology

micro

Guanosine analog, inhibits viral DNA polymerase; monophosphorylated by thymidine kinase in HSV/VZV so active in lesions and encephalitis, good for prophylaxis,

pharmacology

micro

used in herpes zoster active infections

pharmacology

micro

mutated viral thymidine kinase

pharmacology

micro

guanosine analog, 5'-monophosphate formed by CMV viral kinase, inhibits viral DNA polymerase;CMV infections;leukopenia,neutopenia, thrombocytopenia,renal toxicity

pharmacology

micro

mutated CMV DNA polymerase or lack of viral kinase

pharmacology

micro

viral DNA polymerase inhibitor, binds to pyrofosphate binding site, doesn't need viral kinase activation;CMV retinitis when ganciclovir fails and acyclovir restitant HSV; nephrotoxic

pharmacology

micro

mutated DNA polymerase

pharmacology

micro

inhibits DNA polymerase, doesn't require activiation by viral kinase; CMV retenitis, acyclovir resistant HSV; nephrotoxic(coadminister with probenacid and IV saline to reduce toxicity).

pharmacology

micro

[2 NRTI] +[1 NNRTI OR 1 protease inhibitor OR 1 integrase inhibitor]

pharmacology

micro

all end in -NAVIR! stops HIV mRNA cleavage into functional parts; hyperglycemia, GI upset, lipodystrophy.

pharmacology

micro

inhibits cytochrome p-450, boosting concentration of other drugs.

pharmacology

micro

(NRTI)competitively blocks binding of nucleotide to reverse transcriptase, only tenofovir doesn't need to be activated;all NRTIs, zidovidine used in pregnancy to reduce fetal transmision; bone marrow suppression, lactic acidosis, peripheral neuropathy.

pharmacology

micro

(NNRTI) bind at a site different from NRTIs, no don't require activation don't compete with nucleotides; bonow marrow suppression, peripheral neuropathy, lactic acidosis,

pharmacology

micro

inhibits integrase, which stops HIV integration into host cells;HIV; hypercholesterolemia

pharmacology

micro

glycoproteins synthesized my virus infected cells, block RNA and DNA virus replication; INFa- chronic hep b and c, Kaposi sarcoma, IFN-b -MS, INF-gamma -NADPH oxidase defiency; neutropenia, myopathy.

pharmacology

micro

SAFe Children Take Really Good Care. sulfonamides(kericterus), aminoglycosides(ototox), fluoroquinolones(cartilage damage), Clarithromycin (embryotoxic), Tetracycline(teeth,bone damage),Ribavarin(teratogenic), Griseofulvin(teratogenic),Chloramphenicol(grey baby)

pharmacology

micro

vincristine and paclitaxil

pharmacology

reactions

isoniazid structurally similar to B6, which causes renal excretion of B6 and competes for B6 binding sites.

pharmacology

micro

structurally similar to B6, which causes renal excretion of B6 and competes for B6 binding sites.
structurally similar to B6, which causes renal excretion of B6 and competes for B6 binding sites.
structurally similar to B6, which causes renal excretion of B6 and competes for B6 binding sites.
What medications can be given before Amphotercin B infusion to lessen side effects? Does digoxin
What medications can be given before Amphotercin B infusion to lessen side effects? Does digoxin
What medications can be given before Amphotercin B infusion to lessen side effects? Does digoxin
What medications can be given before Amphotercin B infusion to lessen side effects? Does digoxin

What medications can be given before Amphotercin B infusion to lessen side effects?

Does digoxin cause hyper or hypokalemia? which states increases patient susceptibility to digoxin toxicity?

list signs of ammonia overdose

cause restrictive lung disease

Contrast urine Ca with loop diuretics and thiazides

What is a sensitive indicator of alcohol abuse?

What is the treatment for delirium tremens?

Why is the naloxone-buprenorphine combo used for heroin addiction treatment?

What is neuroleptic malignant syndrome? What is the treatment?

What is tardive dyskinesa? Is it reversible?

What is serotonin syndrome? what is the treatment?

What can long term Phenactin use cause?

What are the teratogenic effects of ACE inhibitors?

What are the teratogenic effects of alkylating agents?

What are the teratogenic effects of aminoglycosides?

What are the teratogenic effects of carbamazepine?

What are the teratogenic effects of diethylstilbestrol?

What are the teratogenic effects of folate antagonists?

What are the teratogenic effects of lithium?

What are the teratogenic effects of phenytoin?

What are the teratogenic effects of tetracyclines

What are the teratogenic effects of thalidomide

What are the teratogenic effects of valproate?

What are the teratogenic effects of warfarin?

At what time period is a fetus most susceptable to teratogens?

What are the teratogenic effects of vitamin a?

What are the teratogenic effects of cocaine?

What are the teratogenic effects of smoking?