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Introduction Since the begging of 1960s the leisure industry has grown rapidly (Segal 2008).

In the UK this industry have 2.5 million people, many of whom are female and work part-time. The leisure industry not only contributes to the economy, its importance also lies in the contribution it makes to the quality of peoples lives, enhancement of the environment, and the protection of the nations heritage. Thomas Cook Group plc, a leisure travel company, operates under six geographic segments in 22 countries. Six geographic operating divisions are UK, Central Europe, West & East Europe, Northern Europe, North America and Airlines Germany.

Segmentation of the customers of Thomas Cook Group plc The main customers of Thomas Cook Group plc are individuals, families and institutions. The segmentation profile of the existing customers can be explained by describing Age, Gender, Income & Social Class, Reference Groups, Culture & Subculture of the customers. I have explained the segmentation profile of the existing customers by following the classical segmentation model that includes geographic segmentation, demographic segmentation, psychographic segmentation, and behaviouristic segmentation. At first I have explained these segmentation styles and then described above segmentation variables. Geographic and demographic segmentation At first sight, segmentation of the customers by means of the geographic location appears similar to a seduction alternative. While a substance of information, the majority populace today is simply situated. Whether through utilizing the customary telephone otherwise commerce index method otherwise during a variety of websites, the majority particularly the communal ones, anywhere the majority populace are additional than contented to split individual as well as secret in order by means of the rest of the globe. Communal network intended for improved otherwise inferior, promote clearness as well as the requirement of belongingness. The consequences in have populace without cause provide exact information regarding not only their gender, age or even sexual preferences, but about their profits, the creation of the automobile otherwise the preferred product of toilet paper. Horner & Swarbrooke unreservedly confront the significance of this method by on the whole proverb that a sane similar cannot be haggard flanked by the place of a person as well as his unsurprising behavior in the background otherwise position of a traveler customer. An additional method would be to hybrid geographic as well as demographic techniques to make a supplementary sophisticated method of segmentation of the customers. On the other hand, geo-demographics are according to Williams, still comparatively deprived predictor of visitors free time wellbeing as well as linked touristic behavior (Williams, 2008). In additional language, geographic as well as demographic segmentations may be a feasible preliminary end as well as a helpful bottom of study other than proves also narrow sighted to obtain the kind of information contemporary marketer requirement.

Psychographic segmentation Horner & Swarbrooke, (2008) said that Fashionable is as well hard to implement. In now a small verdict the segmentation technique is sweep away as well as deem as impractically. At what time look at it a small piece earlier it makes intelligence for the reason that it may be hard to bind lifestyle of someone to predictable customer behavior in the direction of sightseeing.

To be tremendously real and to the point: might it be likely to forecast by means of a pale quantity of correctness the predictable behavior of a potential tourist fervent concerning climbing by means of merely psychographics. Almost certainly not, since a way of life, as well as the opinion otherwise attitude fond of to it doesnt do a high-quality occupation of effective us what this individual principles. Because well observe by means of the Ark Leisure segmenting replica, that blend three major rudiments of events, principles participate a middle position in the meaning of a exact segmenting. Behaviouristic segmentation The technique focus exclusively on discover the behavior of customers in relative by means of a traveler purpose or manufactured goods as well as categorize them in word of visit attitude towards the purpose, etc(Williams, 2008) Once more, at this time it seem that by means of a behaviouristic segmenting with the additional model talked about on top of is at rest inadequate in the mission of attainment the spirit of customers as well as knowledge concerning the principles all together, not via segmenting the segment so to talk.

Culture Thomas Cook Group plc runs its business in six geographic segments around 22 countries. The demographic area includes UK, Central Europe, West & East Europe, Northern Europe, North America and Airlines Germany. So its customers have varieties of cultures. Culture may be distanced as the norm, attitude as well as ritual that are sole to every individual. The dissimilar factor influences how we exist, converse, as well as imagine concerning sure belongings; culture may as well speak the way of a individual may proceed in a convinced circumstances. In conditions of personality as well as the approval of fundamental tension, the majority populaces seek to please the needs in a method that hysterics communal norm. For instance, it is satisfactory to be an emerald customer, other than gender sightseeing is sight disapprovingly. Consciousness of educational shift is uniformly significant. Such as, smoker is more and more being forbidden as of smoking in communal seats, particularly on convey carrier as well as in restaurant. On the other hand, it is at rest dangerous for sightseeing marketer to contain a sympathetic of dissimilar culture. For instance, Korea contains one of the majority homogenous populations in the globe by means of a small number of educational before ethnic variation, as well as almost no racial minority. In Myanmar, alternatively there are a predictable 135 racial alternative group by means of in excess of 100 language as well as dialect verbal in the state. Additional feature of civilization that are suitable to motivational study comprise language, communal practice, institution, as well as sub-cultures. The broadcast of civilization is first and foremost from side to side the verbal as well as printed utterance, but also during representative gesture, counting the habits in which citizens wait for to be welcome by others. Educational practice comprises how we split the daylight as well as our attitude in the direction of breach hours for shop otherwise restaurant. Institution, for example the churches, the medium, as well as instructive system will influence educational pattern. The churches, for instance, seek to retain a particular daylight for adoration as well as therefore are unwilling to authorize secularization of the day, frequently in resistance to the promoter of sightseeing. Lastly, the majority society includes numerous sub-cultures that show variation of behavior as a consequence of racial otherwise local separation.

Age and Gender A customary method of segmentation of the market has been by means of age. For instance, a lot of journey supplier is nowadays aiming the rising older markets. The markets are together profitable as well as sole for the reason that it is fewer joined to cyclic journey, involve long trip, as well as is not marital to mid-week otherwise week-end journey, consequently it may increase tenancy tax for commerce as well as free time journey operator. For the older marketplace, as well, apparent worth is a great deal more significant than cost. Following populace retires; they might wait faithful to brand name they are familiar with finest, other than the cost points will have got to be appropriate to a departure profits. Most of the customers of Thomas Cook Group plc are young and middle age people. The customers having 20 40 years are the main customers of this company. But Children, men, and women also travel through Thomas Cook. Though it is thought that womens income level is lower than that of men, the number of women travelers is not lower than the number of men. In a number of societies sex may pressure customer behavior in conditions of the role man as well as woman are predictable to participate. Sex segmentation has extended been old in advertising clothes, hair gel, makeup, as well as periodical. Other than more lately it has been practical to sightseeing in addition to welcome products as well as service. For instance, the figure of woman travelled for labor purpose has been rising progressively for two decades, as well as verbal woman travelers have prejudiced the foreword of better lit parking garage, higher excellence soap as well as lotion in lodge bathroom, as well as enhanced room service charge. Journey business expert speak that woman traveler are additional difficult in addition to discriminating than the gentleman counterpart. The major concern is security as well as refuge, after that soothe as well as expediency.

Social Class Social class is at rest careful to be single of the majority vital outside factor pressuring customer behavior. Upbringing is the place one lives in inside civilization, as well as it is resolute through such factor as profits, wealthy, teaching, profession, relationship status, worth of house as well as neighborhood. On the other hand, the majority of the urbanized country at rest has a group scheme consisting of higher, center, as well as inferior lessons. In the United Kingdom for instance, the center group has been increasing as well as is predict to pass the operational group by 2020 as the main communal collection. An account in turn out by the Future Foundations in 2006, patrician center Britain, establish that 43 percent of Briton speak they are center group, a shape that is increasing (Brean, 2007). Unluckily, that do not denote communal disparity is on the refuse fairly the conflicting.

Lifestyle Marketer is gradually more segmenting the market through customer lifestyle. Ways of life psychoanalysis examine the method populace assign time, power as well as currency. Way of life psychoanalysis tends to keep out demographic character, consequently researchers in advertising contain joint demographic in addition to mental variable keen on an idea named

psychographics. This psychoanalysis attempts to gauge behavior, wellbeing as well as opinions of the people. Through profile the method group of citizens lives, it is probable to forecast the journey motivation as well as purchase. Single of the best known categorization in this region is the VALS scheme. For instance, journey businesses in the United States utilized VALS to recognize as well as appreciate which customers were the majority involved in its particular tour. Through scheming straight mail to petition to beleaguered customers as well as mail to input ZIP code the sail row greater than previous to doubts by 400 percent.

Life Cycle The idea of the relationship life cycle the phases from side to side which family may pass is they grown-up is stand on the basis that at what time populace exist jointly, the behavior alter. Solitary citizens are probable to act in a different way as of couple, as well as if couple then has children, the way of life alter additional fundamentally, as do the level of monetary as well as another promise. A lot of writers have practical the life cycle replica to sightseeing, suggestive of that journey pattern as well as destination differ as populace go from side to side the life cycle (Pearce, 2007). The representation works fine at what time investigate the customary nuclear relationship collected of two parents as well as one otherwise added kids. Tourist might as well alter the behavior pattern in excess of time, consequently if the life cycle representation is utilized to forecast behavior, after that trend in customer behavior requirement to be checked. Reference Groups Knowledge as well takes place from side to side distribution principles as well as prospect by means of another in various communal orientation groups, counting the relations, school, place of work otherwise minster. This bring contact to a normative set of principles, for examples those that place a tenor because to how we be supposed to perform ethically in civilization. For instance, knowledgeable travelers, who have been uncovered to another culture as well as to public who are fewer lucky than they, are supremacy the fresh drift of unpaid helper sightseeing tinted in the Opening Vignettes.

CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR ANALYSIS In analyzing consumer behavior it is helpful to analyze the consumer motivations, consumer and the consumer purchasing process. Here, I have explained these in following ways. Motivations The inner state of psychology of human that drives the people to take action with a view to satisfying their needs is referred to as motivation. Attaining the competitive advantages the clear cut understanding of the motivational needs for the consumers is crucial. The success of the organizations mainly depends on the clear understanding of the forces driving the customer to purchase the tourism or the hospitality product i.e. the intention to visit to a hotel booking. The concept of need is important to any motivational theory. Needs of the people are considered as the major factors playing a vital role in motivating the people like employees or the customers. Thus properly designing the motivational factors it is important for the firm to first determine the core needs of the persons to be motivated.

Figure: Maslows Hierarchy of Needs related to the needs of traveler

Maslow (1943) provided his hierarchy theory of motivation designing the human needs into five categories. The above figure illustrates the Maslows theory of motivation. In Maslow theory the needs of human beings are thought to be hierarchical, once the prior needs fulfilled the other becomes emerged to the people the process continues until the self actualization. Maslows theory of motivation was regarded by Mills and Morrison (2008) they tried to relate all stages in the motivation in Maslow theory to the motivation of the tourist (the major consumer of hospitality). Travel is considered as the need to be satisfied by the tourist they showed how the hierarchy theory relate to this needs (Morrison and Mills, 2008). Nine motives are identified by them among which seven are categorized as push or socio psychological motives the pull and cultural motives are the other two. The social interaction of facilitation, kinship relation of enhancement, regression, prestige, evaluation and exploration, relaxation, earthy environment mainly drive the push motives. According to (Crompton, 2009) the education and the novelty are considered as the pull motives. The perception, attitudes, beliefs and learning are the other factors affecting the purchase and motivation of the customers. The perception possessed by the people in most of aspects of their life is referred to as the beliefs. Along with the destinations and the tourism offerings the customer possesses the beliefs regarding the products and services of the products of the companies. The information the people receive, filter and retrieve are shaped by the peoples perception regarded as the overall mind picture of the world. Hence the perception of the customer to the tourism is seemed to be bound to the distortion and bias concepts. The products of tourisms are thought to be bundles of benefits particular to the customers. However this factor is thought to be technical stimuli looking for the marketers for changing the perceptions of the customers.

The Buying Process

The buying process of the customers is affected by different situations faced by the customers. Based on the nature of the purchase the customers are thought to be displaying different stages of commitment at first. According to Howard and Sneth (2009) there are three levels of commitment.

1. Extended problem solving: in this case the customers are willing to possess the depth level of commitment, to form the comprehensive comparison of the alternatives, to construct the searching of information in detail with a view to taking a long-haul holiday.

2. Limited problem solving: in this case the consumers are somewhat knowledgeable along with some experience but in this case the search of information is somewhat limited and many factors are taken in consideration. In this way the second holiday in the popular skiing goals may also be purchased in this case.

3. Habitual problem solving: it is considered as the buying of tested and tried leisure on excursion of day and it does not require any evaluation. In this the purchase made by the customers are on the basis of the previous elated experience along with the positive understanding about the hospitality offerings and the tourisms. It becomes some time difficult to recommend a decision making process for the travelers based on the variation in decision making style. Based on the paper delivered by Snelders and Decrop (2007) there are six types of vacationers such as constrained, opportunistic, hedonic, rational and habitual. This construction of the types is on the basis on the Belgian travelers but as mentioned by the author such six types of vacationer can also be applied into the rest of the world. The buying process of the consumers in tourism is considered as identical compared to the other products buying process. The intuition in this case is the consumer involves the five stages of the purchase to purchase the tourism products. The stages are illustrated in the following figure.

Figure: the Consumer Buying Process The first process awareness may be facilitated by the firms promotional activities like word of mouth, advertisements, and online ads and so on. Then the buyers collects information based on his interest about the product or services. Selection of the booking for the tourism by the travelers in recent times is mostly influenced by the use of internet. The search of the information by the travelers involves the perception of them along with the existing attitudes and reinforcing attitudes about the selection of the tourism company.

The buyers compare the products or services they consumed with the other companies offerings in the evaluation stage. As for example the facilities and comfort provided by the companies in the tourism industry are compared to the other companies along their prices and other financial dealings by the consumers in the evaluation stage. The last stage of the buying process is the post purchase behavior by the customers. If the customers become satisfied then there may a repeat purchase by them in future. Although this is sometimes ignored some studies recommend it as most important to retain the customer. The research by Zeithaml et al (2007) found that there exist significant positive relationship between the service quality provided by the company and the interest of the customers to purchase again the same company product or service.

Conclusion In operating a business successfully it is obvious to understand the decisions making process of the customers. Segmenting the customers according their needs and other variables is also important to satisfy the target customers. The segmentation profile of the customers of Thomas Cook plc indicates that young and middle age people are the core customers of it. Both man and woman strong preference to spend their leisure time with Thomas Cook. Generally the customers belong to higher social class and are influenced by reference group. The increasing desire of tourists to give time, talent and financial resources to further the well-being of the places they visit. Thomas Cooks Director of IT when designing a websites should ensure the following issues: i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. Competitive prices are offered in the website; The selection of products are good; The needs of customers are understood by the website; Information is provided in-depth throughout the website; Surfing the website customers enjoy and feel comfort; The valuable time of customers is not waste by using the site;

To maintain security and privacy of the customers he should ensure that: i. Having performed the transaction the customers feel safe about their privacy and security; ii. There are adequate number of security features in the websites; iii. The customers are in confidence that their security and privacy are safe on the website.


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