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EGME 462 Lecture Note Set 8

Hydraulic System Components

Hydraulic Pump

Hydraulic System
Why is it important?

Hydraulic Pump

- The heart of a hydraulic system - Converting mechanical e. into hydraulic e.

Hydraulic System
Why is it important?

Hydraulic Pump

- The heart of a hydraulic system - Converting mechanical e. into hydraulic e. Basic Concept: - Mechanical Motion creates vacuum at its inlet - Atmospheric pressure pushes fluid through - The pump pushes the fluid into the system

Hydraulic System
Pump Theory:

Frictional Losses

- Vacuum causes the fluid to be pushed through the inlet by the atmospheric pressure - The pump mechanically pushes the fluid out through the system - The pump only produces fluid
flow

- The resistance to the flow


determines the pressure

Hydraulic System
There are 2 types of pumps: 1.

Hydraulic Pump

Dynamic (nonpositive displacement) pumps. - Low-pressure (limited to 250-300 psi, or 20 bars) - High volume flow - used for transporting fluids - e.g. centrifugal and axial flow propeller pumps

Hydraulic System
There are 2 types of pumps: 1.

Hydraulic Pump

Dynamic (nonpositive displacement) pumps. - Low-pressure (limited to 250-300 psi, or 20 bars) - High volume flow - used for transporting fluids - e.g. centrifugal and axial flow propeller pumps

Hydraulic System
There are 2 types of pumps: 1.

Hydraulic Pump

Dynamic (nonpositive displacement) pumps. - Low-pressure (limited to 250-300 psi, or 20 bars) - High volume flow - used for transporting fluids - e.g. centrifugal and axial flow propeller pumps

Hydraulic System
There are 2 types of pumps: 2.

Hydraulic Pump

Positive Displacement pumps - Commonly used for FP system - Ejecting fixed amount of fluid per rev. of rotation - High pressure capability (up to 12000 psi, 1000 bar) - Compact size - High volumetric efficiency and Consistent - e.g. Gear pump, Vane Pump, Piston Pump

Hydraulic System
External gear pumps

Gear Pump

Hydraulic System
Analysis of Volumetric Displacement

Gear Pump

Do Di L VD N QT

= Outside Diameter of gear teeth (in, m) = Inside Diameter of gear teeth (in, m) = width of rotor (in, m) = Pump volumetric displacement (in3/rev, m3/rev) = rpm of pump = theoretical pump flow rate

Hydraulic System
External gear pumps Volumetric Displacement

Gear Pump

Theoretical Flow-rate

Hydraulic System
External gear pumps

Gear Pump

Actual Flow-rate: - less than theoretical flow-rate - due to the clearance between teeth tips and housing - This is called pump slippage - Indicated by volumetric efficiency (norm 90%)

Hydraulic System
Internal gear pumps

Gear Pump

Hydraulic System
Lobe pumps

Gear Pump

Screw pumps

Hydraulic System
Example 8.1:

Gear Pump

A gear pump has a 75-mm outside diameter, a 50-mm inside diameter, and 25-mm width. If the volumetric efficiency is 90% at rated pressure, what is the corresponding actual flowrate? The pump speed is 1000 rpm.

Hydraulic System
Example 8.2:

Gear Pump

A gear pump has 3-in outside diameter, a 2-in inside diameter, and a 10in width. If the actual flow rate at 1800 rpm and rated pressure is 28 gpm, what is the volumetric efficiency?

Hydraulic System
Basic Design and Operation

Vane Pump

Hydraulic System
Analysis of Volumetric Displacement

Vane Pump

DC DR L VD e emax VDmax

= Diameter of cam ring (in, m) = Diameter of rotor (in, m) = width of rotor (in, m) = Pump volumetric displacement (in3, m3) = eccentricity (in, m) = maximum possible eccentricity (in, m) = maximum possible volumetric displacement (in3, m3)

Hydraulic System
Analysis of Volumetric Displacement Maximum possible eccentricity

Vane Pump

Maximum Volumetric Displacement

Actual Volumetric Displacement

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Hydraulic System
Pressure versus flow for vane pump

Vane Pump

Hydraulic System
Balanced Vane Pump

Gear Pump

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Hydraulic System
Example 8.3:

Vane Pump

A vane pump is to have a volumetric displacement of 5 in3. In has a rotor diameter of 2 in, a cam ring diameter of 3 in, and a vane width of 2 in. What must be the eccentricity?

Hydraulic System
Example 8.4:

Vane Pump

A fixed displacement vane pump delivers 1000 psi oil to an extending hydraulic cylinder at 20 gpm. When the cylinder is fully extended, oil leaks past its piston at a rate of 0.7 gpm. The pressure relief valve setting is 1200 psi. If a pressurecompensated vane pump were used it would reduce pump flow from 20 gpm to 0.7 gpm when the cylinder is fully extended to provide the leakage flow at the pressure relief valve setting of 1200 psi. How much hydraulic horsepower would be saved by using the pressure compensated pump?

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Hydraulic System
Example 8.4: (Solution)

Vane Pump

The fixed displacement pump produces 20 gpm at 1200 psi when the cylinder is fully extended (0.7 gpm leakage flow through the cylinder and 19.3 gpm through the relief valve).

Hydraulic System
Axial Piston Pump
Bent-Axis Design

Piston Pump

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Hydraulic System
Axial Piston Pump
Bent-Axis Design

Piston Pump

Hydraulic System
Analysis of Volumetric Displacement

Vane Pump

DC S D Y A N QT

= offset angle (degree) = piston stroke (in, m) = piston circle diameter (in, m) = number of pistons = piston area (in2, m2) = pump speed (rpm) = theoretical flow-rate (gpm, m3/min)

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Hydraulic System
Maximum possible eccentricity

Vane Pump

Volumetric Displacement and Theoretical Flow-rate

Total Volumetric Displacement per rev.

Theoretical Flow-rate

Hydraulic System
Axial Piston Pump
Swash Plate Design (In-Line Piston Pump)

Piston Pump

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Hydraulic System
Axial Piston Pump
Swash Plate Design (In-Line Piston Pump)

Piston Pump

Hydraulic System
Pump Efficiencies 1. Volumetric Efficiency (v)

Pump Performance

2. Mechanical Efficiency (m)

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Hydraulic System
Pump Efficiencies p QT TA N

Pump Performance

= pump discharge pressure (pis, Pa) = pump theoretical flow-rate (gpm, m3/s) = actual torque delivered to pump (in.lb, N.m) = pump speed (rpm, rad/s)

Hydraulic System
Notes:

Pump Perfomnace

Theoretical Torque

Actual Torque

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Hydraulic System
Pump Efficiencies 3. Overall Efficiency (o)

Pump Perfomnace

Hydraulic System
Pump Performance Curves

Pump Performance

Example from 6-in3 var-dis pump at full displacement

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Hydraulic System
Pump Performance Comparisons

Pump Performance

Hydraulic System
Pump Performance Comparisons

Pump Performance

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Hydraulic System
Pump Performance Comparisons

Pump Performance

Hydraulic System
Example 8.5:

Vane Pump

A pump has a displacement volume of 5 in3. It delivers 20 gpm at 1000 rpm and 1000 psi. If the prome mover input torque is 900 in.lb, a. What is the overall efficiency of the pump? b. What is the theoretical torque required? Soln: a.) find the theoretical flow-rate first

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Hydraulic System
Example 8.5:

Vane Pump

A pump has a displacement volume of 5 in3. It delivers 20 gpm at 1000 rpm and 1000 psi. If the prome mover input torque is 900 in.lb, a. What is the overall efficiency of the pump? b. What is the theoretical torque required? Soln: a.) Next, find the mechanical efficiency

Hydraulic System
Example 8.5:

Vane Pump

A pump has a displacement volume of 5 in3. It delivers 20 gpm at 1000 rpm and 1000 psi. If the prome mover input torque is 900 in.lb, a. What is the overall efficiency of the pump? b. What is the theoretical torque required? Soln: b.) Solving for the theoretical torque

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Hydraulic System
Pump Selection Steps

Vane Pump

1. Select actuator using load information 2. Determine flow-rate 3. Selecting the system pressure (actuator size, resistive load, friction, amount of power delivered by the pump) 4. Determine pump speed and select the prime mover (using flow-rate calculation, we can determine the pump size) 5. Select the type of pump to be used 6. Select other components 7. Considering other factors, e.g. loss, heat, noise, etc. 8. Re-modify or make adjustment if needed 9. Calculate the overall cost

Hydraulic Cylinder

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Hydraulic System
General Description

Hydraulic Cylinder

Hydraulic System
General Description

Hydraulic Cylinder

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Hydraulic System
General Description

Hydraulic Cylinder

Hydraulic System
General Calculation

Gear Pump

Extended Stroke

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Hydraulic System
General Calculation

Gear Pump

Retraction Stroke

Hydraulic System
General Calculation

Gear Pump

Retraction Stroke

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Hydraulic System
General Calculation

Hydraulic Cylinder

Power

Hydraulic System
Example 8.7:

Hydraulic Cylinder

A pump supplies oil at 20 gpm to a 2-in-diameter doubleacting hydraulic cylinder. If the load is 1000 lb (extending and retracting) and the rod diameter is 1 in, find a. the hydraulic pressure during the extending stroke b. the piston velocity during the extending stroke c. the cylinder horsepower during the ext. stroke d. the hydraulic pressure during the ret. Stoke e. the piston velocity during the ret. stroke f. the cylinder horsepower during the ret. stroke.

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Hydraulic System
Example 8.7:

Hydraulic Cylinder

A pump supplies oil at 20 gpm to a 2-in-diameter doubleacting hydraulic cylinder. If the load is 1000 lb (extending and retracting) and the rod diameter is 1 in, find a. the hydraulic pressure during the extending stroke

Hydraulic System
Example 8.7:

Hydraulic Cylinder

A pump supplies oil at 20 gpm to a 2-in-diameter doubleacting hydraulic cylinder. If the load is 1000 lb (extending and retracting) and the rod diameter is 1 in, find a. the hydraulic pressure during the extending stroke b. the piston velocity during the extending stroke

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Hydraulic System
Example 8.7:

Hydraulic Cylinder

A pump supplies oil at 20 gpm to a 2-in-diameter doubleacting hydraulic cylinder. If the load is 1000 lb (extending and retracting) and the rod diameter is 1 in, find a. the hydraulic pressure during the extending stroke b. the piston velocity during the extending stroke c. the cylinder horsepower during the ext. stroke

Hydraulic System
Example 8.7:

Hydraulic Cylinder

A pump supplies oil at 20 gpm to a 2-in-diameter doubleacting hydraulic cylinder. If the load is 1000 lb (extending and retracting) and the rod diameter is 1 in, find a. the hydraulic pressure during the extending stroke b. the piston velocity during the extending stroke c. the cylinder horsepower during the ext. stroke d. the hydraulic pressure during the ret. Stoke

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Hydraulic System
Example 8.7:

Hydraulic Cylinder

A pump supplies oil at 20 gpm to a 2-in-diameter doubleacting hydraulic cylinder. If the load is 1000 lb (extending and retracting) and the rod diameter is 1 in, find a. the hydraulic pressure during the extending stroke b. the piston velocity during the extending stroke c. the cylinder horsepower during the ext. stroke d. the hydraulic pressure during the ret. Stoke e. the piston velocity during the ret. stroke

Hydraulic System
Example 8.7:

Hydraulic Cylinder

A pump supplies oil at 20 gpm to a 2-in-diameter doubleacting hydraulic cylinder. If the load is 1000 lb (extending and retracting) and the rod diameter is 1 in, find a. the hydraulic pressure during the extending stroke b. the piston velocity during the extending stroke c. the cylinder horsepower during the ext. stroke d. the hydraulic pressure during the ret. Stoke e. the piston velocity during the ret. stroke f. the cylinder horsepower during the ret. stroke.

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Hydraulic System
Special Cylinder Design First-Class Lever System

Vane Pump

Hydraulic System
Special Cylinder Design Second-Class Lever System

Vane Pump

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Hydraulic System
Special Cylinder Design Third-Class Lever System

Vane Pump

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