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KEY FORMULAS

Lind, Marchal, Wathen, and Waite • Basic Statistics for Business and Economics, 1st Canadian Edition

CHAPTER 3

Population mean, raw data

X

N

Sample mean, raw data

X

Population mean, raw data X N • Sample mean, raw data X X n • W

X

n

• Weighted mean

X w w 1 X 1 w 2 X 2 · · · w n X n w 1 w 2 · · · w n

Geometric mean

GM 2(X 1 )(X 2 )(X 3 ) · · · (X n )

n

Geometric mean rate of increase

GM

B Value at start of period

n

Value at end of period

1

Range Highest value Lowest value

Mean deviation

MD X X

n

Population variance

2 (X ) 2

N

Population standard deviation

B (X ) 2

N

Sample variance (deviation)

s 2 (X X) 2

n 1

Sample variance (direct)

X 2 ( X) 2

s 2

n

n 1

Sample standard deviation (direct)

s R X 2 ( X) 2

n

n 1

Coefficient of variation

s

CV X (100)

Coefficient of skewness

sk 3(X median)

s

Location of percentile

L p (n 1)

P

100

Sample mean grouped data

X fM

n

Sample standard deviation, grouped data

[3–1]

[3–2]

[3–3]

[3–4]

CHAPTER 4

s R fM ( fM) 2

n

n 1

• Special rule of addition

P(A or B) P(A) P(B)

Complement rule

P(A) 1 P(~ A)

General rule of addition

P(A or B) P(A) P(B) P(A and B)

[3–5]

[3–6]

• Special rule of multiplication

P(A and B) P(A)P(B)

General rule of multiplication

[3–7]

[3–8]

[3–9]

[3–10]

P(A and B) P(A)P(B|A)

Number of permutations

n P r

n!

(n r)!

Number of combinations

CHAPTER 5

n C r

n! r!(n r)!

Mean of a probability distribution

[xP(x)]

• Variance of a probability distribution

[3–11]

[3–12]

[3–13]

[3–14]

[3–15]

[3–16]

2 [(x ) 2 P(x)]

Binomial distribution

P(x) n C x p x (1 p) n - x

Mean of a binomial distribution

np

• Variance of a binomial distribution

2 np (1 p)

Hypergeometric probability distribution

P(x) ( S C x )( N S C n x )

N C n

Poisson probability distribution

CHAPTER 6

P(x) x e x!

Standard normal value

z

X

[3–17]

[4–2]

[4–3]

[4–4]

[4–5]

[4–6]

[4–8]

[4–9]

[5–1]

[5–2]

[5–3]

[5–4]

[5–5]

[5–6]

[5–7]

[6–1]

CHAPTER 7

Standard error of mean

X

1n

z-value, and known

X
z

/ 1n

[7–1]

[7–2]

z-value, population shape and unknown

CHAPTER 8

z X

s/ 1n

Confidence interval for , n > 30

s

1n

Confidence interval for µ, unknown

X z

X t

s

1n

[7–3]

[8–1]

[8–2]

Confidence interval for proportion

pˆ z p where p

B p(1 p)

n

[8–4]

Standard error of sample proportion

s p

B pˆ(1 pˆ)

n

[8–5]

Confidence interval for population proportion

pˆ

z

B pˆ(1 pˆ)

n

[8–6]

Sample size for estimating population mean

n a zs b 2

E

[8–9]

Sample size for population proportion

CHAPTER 9

n pˆ(1 pˆ)a

z

E b 2

z distribution as a test statistic

z statistic, unknown

z

z

X

/ 1n

X

s / 1n

[8–10]

[9–1]

[9–2]

• Test of hypothesis, one proportion

z

pˆ p

D p(1 p)

n

[9–4]

One sample test of mean, small sample

CHAPTER 10

t X

s/ 1n

[9–5]

• Test statistic for difference between two large sample means

z

X 1 X 2

D

s

n

2

1

1

s 2

2

n

2

[10–2]

• Two-sample test of proportions

z

pˆ 1 pˆ 2

D p c (1 p c ) p c (1 p c )

n

1

n

2

Pooled proportion

Pooled variance

p c X 1 X 2 n 1 n 2

s

p (n 1 1) s 2 (n 2 1) s 2 n 1 n 2 2

1

2

2

• Two-sample test of means—small samples

Paired t test

CHAPTER 11

t

X 1 X 2

D s

p a

2

1

n

1

1

n

2

b

t

d

s d / 1n

• Test for equal variance

F s 2

s

1

2

2

Sum of squares, total

SS total =

X 2 ( X) 2

n

Sum of squares, treatments

2

c

SST c T n

c

d ( X) 2

n

Sum of squares, error

SSE SS total SST

Confidence interval for means

CHAPTER 12

(X 1 X 2 ) t B MSE a

1

n

1

1

n

2

b

Coefficient of correlation

r

n( XY) ( X)( Y)

1 [n( X 2 ) ( X) 2 ] [n( Y 2 ) ( Y) 2 ]

Correlation test of hypothesis

t r 1n 2

21 r 2

Slope of a regression line

b n( XY) ( X)( Y) n( X 2 ) ( X) 2

Intercept of a regression line

a Y ba X b

n

n

Standard error of estimate

s y·x =

B Y 2 a( Y) b( XY) n 2

[10–3]

[10–4]

[10–5]

[10–6]

[10–7]

[11–1]

[11–2]

[11–3]

[11–4]

[11–5]

[12–2]

[12–3]

[12–5]

[12–6]

[12–8]

Confidence interval

Y' ± t(s y·x )

R

1

n

(X X) 2

X 2 ( X) 2

n

• Prediction interval

CHAPTER 13

Y' ± t(s y·x )

R 1 1

n

(X X) 2

X 2 ( X) 2

n

Multiple regression equation

Y' = a + b 1 X 1 b 2 X 2 + · · · + b k X k

Multiple standard error

s y · 12 · · · k =

(Y Y') 2 B n (k 1)

[12–9]

[12–10]

[13–3]

[13–4]

Coefficient of multiple determination

R 2 =

SSR

SS total

Global test of hypothesis

F

SSR /k

SSE /(n (k 1))

[13–5]

[13–6]

• Testing for a particular regression coefficient

CHAPTER 14

t b i 0

s

b i

Chi-square test statistic

2 =

c (f o f e ) 2

f

e

d

Expected frequency

f e =

(Row total)(Column total) Grand total

[13–7]

[14–1]

[14–2]