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# Chapter 3 Matter 1. Everything on earth has mass and occupies space. 2.

Matter is anything that has mass and occupies space. (All livings and non livings things) 3. Example of non-matter : sound, light, heat, electric current, vacuum. 4. Experiment 1: a. c. Aim : To prove that matter has mass. Observation : The plastic stick is tilted because the balloon with air in it has greater mass. d. Conclusion : Air has mass. b. Inference : Balloon A is heavier than balloon B.

5. Experiment 2 : a. c. Aim : To prove that matter occupies space. Observation : - Water did not enter the glass. - Bubbles of air are produced and water is seen entering the glass B and occupying the space in it, cloth is wet. d. Conclusion : Air occupies space. b. Inference : The glass is filled with air.

Water cannot enter the beaker because of the air occupying the space in the beaker
6. Matter also has weight and volume. 7. Matter consists of tiny, discrete particles. 3.2 States of matter 1. Matter exists in three states, i.e. solid, liquid and gas. 2. Water is an example of matter that exists in three states.

3. Matter is made up of many fine and tiny small discrete particles. 4. Matter can be in solid, liquid or gaseous state, depending on the arrangement and the type of movement of the tiny particles in the matter.

## The three states of matter

Solid Has a definite fixed shape Shape or Liquid Has no definite shape; takes the shape of the container it occupies Gas Has no definite shapes; takes the shape of the whole container or space which it fills completely Has no definite volumes; takes the volume of the whole container or space which it fills completely Has are particles that

or

Has are

## particles that fixed a

Has are

particles that

Held in position

Not held in fixed positions Not arranged in a regular pattern Closely packed

Not held in fixed positions Not arranged in a regular pattern Widely spread

## Very closely packed

Has particles that Vibrate in their fixed position Spin in their fixed positions Cannot move past one another

Has particles that Vibrate and move randomly Can move around one another

Has particles that Move freely and randomly in all directions at high speed, colliding with one another Spread out as far as they can to fill the container or any available space completely and quickly

Movement of particles

Very strong

Weak

Very weak

## Experiment (I) : Arrangement of particle in solid

Observation : after a few days the whole test tube of gel is purple colour. Inference : particles of potassium permanganate move into the space between particles of gel. Conclusion : Diffusion of potassium permanganate is very slow. This show that solid particles are arranged very close together and the space between is very small.

## Experiment (II) : Arrangement of particle in liquid

Observation : The water turns blue. The copper (II) sulphate no longer be seen. Inference : particles of copper (II) sulphate move into the space between particles of water. Conclusion : Diffusion of copper (II) sulphate is faster in water than in the gel. This shows that the particles of a liquid are arranged further apart with the particles of a solid.

## Experiment (III) : Arrangement of particle in gas

Observation : the smoke quickly spreads into the inverted gas jar. Inference : the smoke diffuse very fast in the air. Conclusion : the diffusion take place very quickly. This show that the particles of the gas are far apart.

3.3 The Concept of Density 1. The density is the mass per unit volume of a substance.

## 2. Formula for density

Density

Mass Volume
a. the mass is increases, b. the volume is decreases

## 3. The unit of density is g/cm3 (g cm-3) 4. The density of a substance increases if :

Float or Sink
1. When a substance of density i. Less than that of a fluid (liquid or gas) is placed in the fluid, it floats.

## Density of substance less dense than Density of fluid

ii. More than that of a fluid (liquid or gas) is placed in the fluid, it sinks.

## Density of substance is denser than Density of fluid

2. Less dense = float Denser = sink 3. An object which is less dense than a liquid will float on that liquid. 4. An object which is denser than a liquid will sink in that liquid.

5. An object will float on the surface of water if its density is less than the density of water.

## 6. The density of several substances.

3.4

The Use of Properties of Matter in Everyday Life Applying the properties of matter 1. We use matter in different states for different purpose.

2. Solid definite shape and volume Exp: steel, wood building, furniture, bridges Rubber tyres, hoes, gloves Plastic toys, pails, bags, food containers 3. Liquid for drinking, cooking and cleaning. - Store liquids in bottles and tin cans. 4. Gas petroleum and natural gas are used as fuels in homes, factories and power stations. - Oxygen gas is used in hospitals and for diving. 5. a) Storage of petroleum products likes petrol in liquid. b) Gas can be compressed and stored in gas cylinder and aerosol can under high pressure. c) When gas is kept under high pressure, it turns into liquid. d) Storing gas in the liquid form can save space and enable more gas to be stored in the container. e) The liquefied gas will become gas again when the pressure is release. Exp : Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) f) Liquids gasses can be easily transported in cylinder.

Applying the concept of density Application Floats Transporting logs A hot air balloon A submarine A raft Characteristic Children and beginners use floats to help them stay on the surface of water because the float contains air which is less dense than water. Buoys floats on the sea to guide the ships. Plastic balls help the fishing nets to float in the sea. Logs are transported from the forests through rivers to sawmill. Logs float because they are less dense than water. It rises in the sky when the hot air in the balloon is less dense than the surrounding air. It goes down to the ground when the cooled air in the balloon is denser than the surrounding air. It can be made denser or less dense than the surrounding water by pumping water in or out of it. Hence it can sink or float in water. A raft is made of bamboo or logs. A raft is able to stay afloat because bamboo or logs are less dense than water.