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Quality:Dr.Joseph M Juran has defined quality as fitness for use.

Quality is viewed as onethat requires every member of the organization to provide the next person in theprocess with an acceptable product or service. This means that everyone isresponsible to perform a task in such a manner that the product can be usedimmediately and in the most efficient manner possible.As per ISO 9000 quality is the totality of feature and characteristics a product orservice that bears on its ability to safely stated or implied needs. There is an urgent need for observance of quality in all aspects of construction viaquality of materials, quality of workmanship and proper balance in the quality attainedvis a vis the quality desired.STANDARDS AND SPECIFICATIONS FOR MAKING AND TRANSPORTING CONCRETE The quality of construction depends upon right materials used, the correct methodsfollowed and produce end product of acceptable performance. The means of qualitycontrol are tests, inspection, supervision and analysis of data etc. Quality tests areconducted in laboratories and inspection & supervision are carried out on the site andthe data analysis is done by experts in office.SPECIFICATIONS The project authorities prepare the process of working out specifications of variousfacilities where concrete will be used. However, the standards and specifications forconcrete and its various ingredients are universally standardized and they are requiredto be in conformity with same. Indian Standards IS for concrete and its basicingr edients viz cement, coarse and fine aggregates, water admixtures and variousaspects of concreting its placement and final acceptance should be as per ISspecific ations. The quality control of concrete comprises of the following four functions:i.Control of ingredients of concrete viz. cement, coarse and fine aggregates,water and admixtures.ii.Concrete mix proportioning of concrete mix design to attain the requiredstrength specifications.iii.Concrete production and placement operations.iv.Acceptance The responsibility of all the four functions is shared by contractor, the departmentor client and the quality control staff.INSPECTION

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Inspection is the act of physical verification of the subject work on the site andunder normal day to day working conditions. The inspection for quality is done byquality control inspectors who are posted at all active sites and who should bepersons at deputy engineer and above levels. They are member of the qualitycontrol team and unrelated to the production process directly.Once quality standards and other things are laid out inspection becomes a routinematter. Inspection stages are as follow:i.Material inspection at suppliers endii.Material inspection at the stage of receiptiii.Material inspection at the stage of issueiv.Inspection of the process at the time of initial setting of machine /equipmentv .Inspection of the trial run batchvi.Inspection while the execution is in progressvii.Inspection of finished processviii.Inspection before erection and commissioningix.Inspection of commissioningx.Inspection of machinery and equipment commissionedCHECKLISTFollowing items must be checked by Quality control engineer. 1.PRELIMINARY i.Plans and specifications availability at sitesii.Organization chart, job descriptions and work assignmentsiii.Permissible tolerance of measurementsiv.Provisions of records and reportsv.Contractors plant, calibrations, equipment organisation and methods. 2.PROPORTIONING i.Tests of aggregatesii.Proportioning of mixiii.Mix computationsiv.Grading of mixed aggregates, batch quantities , yieldv.Air content

3.MATERIALS i.General ( applies to all materials)ii.Identification, quantities ( used on hand ) ,acceptability, uniformity, storageconditions, handling methods, waste, schedule of testingiii.Cementiv.Sampling for laboratory testv.Protection from dampnessvi.Aggregatesvii.Acceptability testsviii.Gradatio n , organic matter, deleterious undesirablesubstances,soundness,resistance to abrasion, other testsix.Control testx.Moisture, absorption , specific gravity, unit weight, voids 4.STOCKPILING i.Waterii.Admixtureiii.Reinforcing steeliv.Size, bending, surface conditionv.Accessoriesvi.Fixturesvii.Other materials 5.BEFORE CONCRETING i.Lines and gradesii.Excavation, foundations location , dimensions, shape, drainage, preparationfor surfaces 6.FORMWORK i.Specified type of formsii.Locationiii.Alignment , provision for settlementiv.Stability ( bearing ,shores, ties and spaces)v.Inspection of openings

vi.Preparation of surfacesvii.Final clean up 7.GANGWAY AND LADDERS i.Working platforms , location width, guardrailsii.Scaffoldings of adequate strength securely supported, properly bracediii.Suitable guards on all gangway and stairsiv.Ladders securely fixed 8.PLANT AND MACHINERY i.Availability of spare concrete mixers,vibrators and other machinesii.Adequate electric and petromax lamps for concreting at nightiii.Adequate quantity of tarpaulin to cover concrete in case of rains 9.BATCHING AND MIXING OF CONCRETE i.For each batch, check the quantity of coarse aggregate, fine aggregate ,cement and water, quantity of water being corrected from the viewpoints of dry wet conditions of the coarse and the fine aggregateii.Periodical checking of accuracy, serviceable conditions and cleanliness of allthe measuring equipmentsiii.Checking that water / cement ratio is maintained at the stipulated value.Further control over the amount of water used shall be exercised in terms of slump/compaction factor valueiv.Physical checking of the quantities of the constituents per batch periodicallyv.Checking of workability of concrete at frequent intervalsvi.Checking cleanliness of the mixer machine drumvii.Checking the working of the mixer as per the rating of the mixer ,yieldingconcrete of uniform colour and consistencyviii.Checking cleanliness and adequacy of chairs in the area of concretingix.Checking that concrete is placed and compacted before the expiry of initialsetting time of cement and left undisturbed afterwardsx.Checking that concrete is placed in even layers, each layer being compactedbefore placing the next layerxi.Ensuring that concreting is carried out continuously up to the construction joint

Minimum time, batches delayed in mixer, maximum time, loading, numberof revolutions of drum, water used, mixing capacity of drum, amount of concreteiv.Control of consistencya.Observations of concrete being placed,tests,adjustments of water oradmixtures in mixb.Monitoring of air contentc.Concrete temperature checkd.Conveyinge.No segregation of materials, no excessive stiffening or drying out,time limitsv.Placing uniform and dense concreteContinuous operation, preparation of contact surfaces, mortar bedding,vertic al drop, no dropping against forms or reinforcement, little or no flowafter depositing, depth of layers, water gain, rock pockets, removal of temporary ties and spacers, disposal of rejected batches, placing concreteunder watervi.Contraction jointsa.Locationb.Forming or toolingc.Dowels of ties (if any ) in place and alignedvii.Construction and hinge jointsa.Location, preparation of surfacesb.Dowels or ties (if any) in place and alignedc.Expansion and isolation jointsd.Joint filler material,location,alignment,stability,fr eedom frominterference with subsequent movementviii.Finishing of formed surfaces shallow surfaces, layer of mortar, water gain, noover working first floating, alignment of surface, final hard trowelling, plasticshrinkage cracksix.Finishing of formed surfaces condition of surfaces upon removal of forms(honeycomb peeling, ragged tie holes, ragged from lines), repair of defects,surface treatment, no surface dryingx.Schedule of testing 13.AFTER CONCRETING

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i.Protection from damage impact, overloading of surfacesii.Time of removal of formsiii.Curing surface continuously moist, time of beginning curing, length of curingperiod, concreting in cold and hot weather required precautionsiv.Joints clean and sealv.Tests of concretevi.Records and reportsa.Records,materials,mix computations, batching and mixing, placing andcuringb.Rep orts, daily, summaryc.Diaryd.Photographs, video recordingQUALITY ASSURANCEQuality assurance refers to the managerial process which determine the organisationsdesign, objectives and resources, the project team, funding agencies, performancestandards and feedback on the projects performance, appropriate actions to deal withdeviations and all steps necessary for promoting quality awareness at all levels and inall parts of the project organisation.A typical quality assurance programme addresses itself to the following:i.Organisation structure of the project team and quality assurance departmentii.Responsibilities and powers of the various personnel involvediii.Identification of the coordinating personneliv.Quality and its programmesv.Quality education and awarenessvi.Quality circlesvii.Trainingviii.Setting up of MIS for qualityix.Resolution of technical differences and

disputesx.Preparation of quality assurance manuals and their checklistsxi.Vendor survey procedurexii.Vendor surveillance procedureQUALITY ASSURANCE ORGANISATION/ UNIT AT SITE

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At construction site generally a Quality control engineer is responsible for the qualityassurance and quality control. He has mainly four functions as follow:i.Setting up of standards and specificationsii.Evaluating materials, processes and outp uts through appropriate tests,inspection etciii.Appraising failures to these standard and acting when standards are not beingadhered toiv.Planning improvements in the standards and specifications.Quality control engineers functions include the following:i.Development of specificationsii.Interaction with project designersiii.Reliability and development testingiv.Process capability studiesv.QC of incoming materialsvi.Vendor QC and vendor developmentvii.Quality planning for control of construction processviii.Inspection and testing during constructionix.Interaction with services engineeringx.Records and procedures-QC record accumulation procedureDocument control procedure-In built drawing control procedure-Non conformance control procedureBIBLIOGRAPHY / REFERENCE1.Construction Quality Management, Published by NICMAR ,20082.Total Quality Management by Parag Diwan,Published by Golden Books CentreSdn.Bhd.Kuala lampur,1999