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Power Supply ATX, mechanism and operation. Part 1.

Schematic diagrams for free Catalog of electrical circuits; articles on electronics, assistance on the forum. Schematic diagrams for free Catalog of electrical circuits; articles on electronics, assistance on the forum.

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potentiostat- Galvan Repair and modernization Since the power supply is an integral part of the

Since the power supply is an integral part of the PC, to know more details about it will be interesting to everyone associated with the electronics and more. The quality of the power supply depends on the whole work PC.

And so, I think that we should start with the basics for what purpose is the power supply:

- the formation of the supply voltage components of a PC: +3.3 V +5 V +12 (extra-12V and-5V) - galvanic isolation between 220 and PC (to avoid hitting his shock, and there was no leakage current when interfacing components). A simple example is the galvanic isolation transformer. But for the PC power need more power, and thus the larger transformer (comp would be a very great :), and transferred to his family because of the considerable weight, but we passed it :).) For the construction of compact blocks are used in high frequency power supply transformer, with the frequency order of the magnetic flux in the transformer be minimal and is less than the cross section of the magnetic coils. Create a light and compact power supply allows inflated in 1000 and once more frequency voltage transformer. basic principle of BP is the following, the conversion AC line voltage (50 Hz) in the lane. voltage high frequency square wave (would oscilloscope would show an example), which is reduced by a transformer, then rectified and filtered. Block Hema pulsed power supply. 1. Block Converts AC 220V permanent. Composition of the unit: a diode bridge for rectifying the AC

voltage + filter for smoothing the rectified voltage. And also should be (in cheap PSU to save them vpaivaya not, but I just recommend that when alteration or repair them put) filter voltage ripple from the pulse generator, and thermistors smooth current surge when turned on. Pictured filter is indicated by a dotted line , which we found in almost any scheme PSU (but not always on board :)). 2. Block This block generates pulses of a certain frequency, which feeds the primary winding of the transformer. The frequency of generating pulses from different manufacturers PSU is, somewhere in the 30-200kHz range. 3. The unit transformer is put on the following functions: - galvanic isolation; - reducing the voltage across the secondary windings to the required level. 4. Block This block converts the voltage obtained from block 3 into a DC. It consists of a rectifying diode and a voltage ripple filter. Composition Filter: choke and a group of capacitors. Often saving capacitors pose a small-small inductors and chokes. pulse generator in detail. circuit RF transmitter is a high-power transistors that operate in the mode key and pulse transformer. PD may represent a single-ended and push-pull converter:

- single-cycle: open and close one transistor; - two stroke: alternately open and close the two transistors. Enjoying picture. circuit elements: R1 - resistance that specifies the offset to the keys. You need to start the process of a more stable oscillation in the converter. R2 - resistance that limits the base current of the transistors, it is necessary to protect the transistors from failure. TP1 - The transformer has three sets of windings. The first generates the output voltage. The second is the load for the transistors. The third generates a control voltage for transistors. When the first transistor circuit ajar just a little, because it is applied to the base of a positive voltage across the resistor R1. In ajar transistor flows current that flows through the winding II. The current creates a magnetic field. The magnetic field generates a voltage in the other windings. At the III coil creates a positive voltage, the transistor that opens even more. Process until it happens, until the transistor will not get in the saturation regime. Saturation mode is characterized in that when the control current applied to the transistor output current remains unchanged. only when the magnetic field generated by the voltage across the windings, in the absence of the transistor changes as disappears and EMF in the windings of II and III. When the voltage across winding III lost, then the opening of the transistor decreases and hence decrease the output transistor current and the magnetic field that will cause the voltage of opposite polarity. The negative voltage on the winding III further closes the transistor. The process lasts as long as the magnetic field does not disappear completely. When the field is gone, gone negative voltage and the process will go around the circle again. Push-pull converter works the same, but since there are two transistors, one by one, then such use increases the efficiency of the converter and improves its performance. Mainly used push-pull, but if you need low power and size, as well as the simplicity, the single-cycle. discussed above converters have finished devices, but their use is complicated by the spread of various parameters such as load output voltage, and temperature transducer. Key Management PWM controller (494). encoder consists of a transformer T1 and the transistor VT1. Mains voltage through a network filter (SF) is applied to the network rectifier (NE) diode bridge, filter capacitor Cf and through the winding W1 is applied to the collector of the transistor VT1. When applied to the base of transistor rectangular pulse, it is opened and through which the current flows increases Ik. The same current flowing through the primary winding and the transformer T1 causes that increase the magnetic flux in the transformer core and the self-inductance voltage is induced in the secondary winding W2. As a result, the diode VD appear positive voltage. By increasing the pulse duration on the base of the transistor VT1, will increase the voltage in the secondary circuit, and if the duration of the decrease, the voltage will decrease. By varying the pulse width on the base of the transistor, we change the output voltage to the winding W1 T1, and provide stabilization of the output voltages of the power supply. Need a pulse-forming network run and manage their duration (latitude). This scheme uses a PWM (pulse - width modulation) controller. PWM controller consists of: - the driving pulse generator (which determines the frequency of the converter) - control scheme; - a logic circuit, which controls the pulse duration; - protection scheme. This is a topic for another article. To stabilize the output voltage of power supply, the circuit PWM controller should " know "the value of the output voltage. It uses a feedback circuit (or circuit monitoring), performed by optocouplers U1 and resistor R2. Increasing the voltage in the secondary circuit of the transformer T1 will increase the intensity LEDs, and therefore reduce the transition resistance phototransistor (members of the optocoupler U1). This leads to the

resistor R2 connected in series to increase the phototransistor voltage drop and reduce the voltage at the 1 Shimko. Reducing stress causes the logic circuit component of the PWM pulse width to increase until the voltage on the 1 st output does not match the specified parameters. The process of reverse when the voltage decreases. there are two implementations of feedback loops: - "immediate" in the diagram above, the feedback is removed directly from the secondary rectifier - "indirect" is removed directly from the auxiliary winding W3 (see figure below), change the voltage on the secondary winding will change it on the winding W3, which is transmitted through R2 to 1 output Shimka. Below is a diagram of a real PD. 1. The unit is rectified and filtered AC voltage, and there is a filter on the noise being produced by BP. 2. Block This block forms the +5 VSB (Standby power), and feeds the PWM controller. 3. The block on the third block (PWM - Controller 494) put the following functions: - control transistor switches; - the stabilization of output voltages; - protection against short circuits. 4. Unit The structure of this unit comprises two transformers and two groups of transistor switches. transformer generates a first control voltage for the output transistors. one group of transistors amplifies the signal generated TL494 and transmits it to the first transformer. transistor group 2 is loaded on the main transformer, where the main voltages generated supply. 5. The block structure in this block are Schottky diodes for rectifying the output voltage of the transformer and the low pass filter. The composition includes LPF big capacitors (depending on the manufacturer PD) and inductors, and resistors to discharge these capacitors in switched power supply. Some of duty room. differences between standard units of PSU ATX standard AT that the ATX power supply source are standard standby power supply. 9-pin (20 pin, purple wire) terminal voltage is produced +5 VSB which goes to the mat board to power the control circuit power supply. This circuit provides a signal «PS-ON» (14 pin connector, green wire.) In this scheme, the converter operates at a frequency determined by the parameters in the main transformer T3 and nominal values ​​of elements in the base circuit of the transistor key Q5 - capacity of the capacitor C28 and the initial resistance of the resistor offset R48 [1]. Positive feedback on the base of the transistor Q5 comes with an auxiliary winding of the transformer T2 through the elements of C28 and R51. The negative voltage from the same winding after rectifier elements D29 and C27, if it exceeds the zener voltage of ZD1 (in this case 16) is also fed to the base of Q5, inhibiting operation of the converter. In this way, control is performed for the output voltage level. Power supply from mains rectifier to the inverter flows through the current limiting resistor R45, which, when it fails, you can replace the fuse current of 500 mA or eliminate altogether. In the circuit of Fig.1 resistor R56 0.5 ohms nominal included in the emitter of transistor Q5 is a current sensor for excess current of transistor Q5 above the permissible voltage across the resistor R54 has applied to the base of transistor Q9 type 2SC945 opening it, and thereby disabling operation Q5 . Similarly, the Q5 is an additional protection and primary winding T3. R47C29 chain serves to protect the transistor Q5 Surge. As a key transistor Q5 in this model of PD used transistors KSC5027. In my previous article, BP was similar elements (duty room.) Now consider the PD live. 1. Filter elements of network interference generated by the PSU. 2. The diode bridge rectifies AC 220V. 3. Filter capacitance-voltage network. 4. The radiator for the transmitter output transistors and transistor inverter duty room. 5. The main transformer: isolation from the network and the formation of all the stress. 6. Transformer for generating a control voltage output transistors. 7. Transformer inverter-duty forming voltage. 8. The radiator for the Schottky diode. 9. Chip PWM - Controller. 10. Filters output voltages (electrolytic capacitors). 11. Chokes filter output voltages. At this until stop. Thank you all for such a long note. I hope at least someone benefited :) Waiting for comments and suggestions on the amendment. Extension will be

a long note. I hope at least someone benefited :) Waiting for comments and suggestions on

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