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Arousing curiosity Stimulating

Simulating Safe practice

Immersive Learning Inspiring Teaching Inspiring Learning Collaborative learning

Pedagogy and the Learning Design:


Integrating simulations effectively into the design and delivery of online courses.

Brian Smith

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Arousing curiosity Stimulating

Inspiring Teaching Inspiring Learning

Introduction
Head of Technology Enhanced Learning, Edge Hill University Higher Education Academy National Teaching Fellow Technology Enhanced Learning - The Study off

My focus is on Immersive Learning and Education without Walls


www.edgehill.ac.uk smithb@edgehill.ac.uk 01695 65 7061 Skype:smithbh116

Image courtesy of http://www.stuartrayner.com/

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Arousing curiosity Stimulating

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This session
Three parts to this session: Scene setting - Outline Act 1 - Revisiting what we mean by Pedagogy Act 2 - Adding the e into Pedagogy

Sound courtesy of http://soundjax.com/drum_sounds-1.html

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Pedagogy and the Learning Design: Integrating simulations effectively into the design and delivery of online courses.

Outline

Pedagogy - Literature Fast growing amount of technology available to teachers

The pedagogical application of technology


Design principles - what are the principles we are using with technology to simulate or to stimulate learning
Image courtesy of http://blogs.earthlink.net/living-with-social-media/

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Arousing curiosity Stimulating

Inspiring Teaching Inspiring Learning

Origin - 'Pedagogy'
Freire (1998) - Critical Pedagogy - Education Movement to guide passion and principles to help students develop their skills and freedom to take constructive action. Gagne (1985) - identified five major categories of learning: verbal information, intellectual skills, cognitive strategies, motor skills and attitudes. Vygotsky (1978)- Zone of Proximal Distance; the acquisition of new knowledge based on previous learning. Laurillard (2002) - Conversational Framework;
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Pedagogical origin Greek historical connections meaning leading the child Today, 2013 - It has a morphic meaning; how content is delivered, engagement, use of video and teaching artifacts.

Arousing curiosity Stimulating

Inspiring Teaching Inspiring Learning

Models and Principles


1. Clarify what good performance is 2. Facilitate self-assessment

Nicol, D. & Macfarlane-Dick (2006) Formative assessment and self-regulated learning: A model and seven principles of good feedback practice.

3. Deliver high quality feedback information 4. Encourage teacher and peer dialogue 5. Encourage positive motivation and selfesteem 6. Provide opportunities to close the gap

7. Use feedback to improve teaching


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Arousing curiosity Stimulating

Inspiring Teaching Inspiring Learning

Models and Principles

Nicol, D. & Macfarlane-Dick (2006) Formative assessment and self-regulated learning: A model and seven principles of good feedback practice.

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Arousing curiosity Stimulating

Inspiring Teaching Inspiring Learning

Origin of my pedagogy

Pedagogical origin childhood; watching others when playing games; monopoly, backgammon, chess, then the Rubik cube.

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Arousing curiosity Stimulating

Inspiring Teaching Inspiring Learning

Clinical Education - 'purpose'

Saving lives - immersion into the culture, organisation, profession, community of practice, timely feedback.

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Inspiring Teaching Inspiring Learning

Arousing curiosity Stimulating

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Inspiring Teaching Inspiring Learning

CONCENTRATION ENGAGED EMOTIONAL RESPONSES DESIRE TO SUCCEED

Arousing curiosity Stimulating

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Self-posed Questions
What behaviours do I hope to elicit it in the learning process?

What emotions are likely to be provoked?


What rewards does a learner need? How do you keep the student engaged and communicative? How do you keep the story going? How do I know they are learning?

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Learning design
Tutor planned stimulus Arousing curiosity Modelling behaviour Story telling

Contextual Voice

Critical thinking

Reflection Emotional responses

Communication

Smith B, Reed P & Jones C (2008) Mode Neutral pedagogy. European Journal of Open, Distance and E-learning. June 2008

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Interconnecting

Interconnection

Classroom

Online/Distance

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Findings
Findings and benefits 35% move towards online in the first three weeks. High communication among participants Modelling good practice Application of knowledge into practice Centre point for support Fairness and Equality Accessed 22 hrs out of 24hrs (3am-5am!)

Smith B, Reed P & Jones C (2008) Mode Neutral pedagogy. European Journal of Open, Distance and E-learning. June 2008

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Published - Model Neutral pedagogy


Three key principles that underpin Mode Neutral Pedagogy Role of the Tutor 1. Changing the locus of control from an externally perceived entity to internal for the learner (Rotter 1966). Context-centric Curriculum Design

2. Create a convergence among the constellation of mode of delivery to one of mode of learning.

3. Ensure the learning is context-centric fostering situated learning and student generated learning.

Communication for Learning

Smith B, Reed P & Jones C (2008) Mode Neutral pedagogy. European Journal of Open, Distance and E-learning. June 2008

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Arousing curiosity Stimulating

Simulating Safe practice

Immersive Learning Inspiring Teaching Inspiring Learning Collaborative learning

Curiosity

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Immersion

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Virtual: Place

AGREED TIMES CONFIDENTIALITY RESPECT SHARING FOR SUCCESS

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Inspiring Teaching

Virtual: Creative

Inspiring Learning

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Immersion

Arousing curiosity Stimulating

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Inspiring Teaching

Virtual: Practice

Inspiring Learning

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Immersion

Arousing curiosity Stimulating

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Inspiring Teaching

Virtual: Connecting

Inspiring Learning

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Immersion

Arousing curiosity Stimulating

BUILDING EFFECTIVE RELATIONSHIPS

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Inspiring Teaching

Virtual: Reflecting

Inspiring Learning

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Immersion

Arousing curiosity Stimulating

AFFORDING TIME TO REFLECT

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Inspiring Teaching Inspiring Learning

CONCENTRATION

Immersion
ENGAGED EMOTIONAL RESPONSES DESIRE TO SUCCEED

Arousing curiosity Stimulating

All rights preserved - Images courtesy of http://www.mrtoledano.com/gamers/02

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Making the real world more like the virtual world

How do I inspire my students to:

look and feel like this? Immerse themselves in an epic


adventure?

provide a marvellous experience? stimulate the need to explore


collaboratively?
All rights preserved - Images courtesy of http://www.mrtoledano.com/gamers/02

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Candy Crush
14.4 million daily players King.com believe the game is so family friendly and social. Meant for everyone on any platform

Images courtesy of http://news.cnet.com/8301-1023_3-57576461-93/crushing-competition-candy-crush-creator-crowns-itself-king/

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Many unanswered questions

Have many of us understand the game elements? Have there been any successes in implementing the virtual world design into the real world? Does it success depend upon physical rooms or can Education take place Without Walls?

Is the technology developed enough to keep people immersed in what they are doing? Is the Virtual World a red herring to what should happen in the real world?

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Technology in Education - 'confusion'

Blurred Terminology - Virtual Words, Virtual Reality, Virtual Environment, Blended learning, Distance Education, Hybrid education, trans-model learning and more.

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Activity 1

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Your pedagogy and learning design

In groups, use the flip chart to draw a visual representation of how you structure one of your teaching sessions.
List the pedagogical principles you integrate into your diagram; getting the students to become independent learners, etc

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Plenary 1

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Key learning points from Activity 1


They may include
1. Knowing your learning design and pedagogical principles helps to plan a constructively aligned session
2. Inspire to collaborate, to engage and interact with others 3. Enter into the learning at the correct level, giving you a chance to achieve, 4. Having something specific to do, no sitting back doing nothing or staring into space. 5. Knowing others are waiting to help you achieve your epic mission. 6. Inspiring story, positive feedback and encouragement.

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Activity 2

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Simulating elements of your learning design

In the same groups, use your visual representation from activity 1 and ask each other where can technology simulate/enrich the pedagogical principles within the learning experience. What technology might you consider using: Facebook, Twitter, Video, Google Glass or something else?!

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Plenary 2

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Key learning points from Activity 2


They may include
1. Game-based activity that is fun and increases in difficulty as levels are met.

2. Embedding social media to foster the need for feedback with one another.
3. Delivery of high-fidelity media for learning and stimulating engagement. 4. Knowing others are waiting to help you achieve your epic mission.

5. Inspiring story, positive feedback and encouragement.

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Further reading
Cogill J (2008). Primary teachers interactive whiteboard practice across one year: changes in pedagogy and influencing facto rs. EdD thesis Kings College University of London. Allen, M., Bourhis, J., Burrell, N., & Mabry, E. (2002). Comparing student satisfaction with distance education to traditional classrooms in higher education: A meta-analysis. The American Journal of Distance Education, 16, 83-97. Angelo, T. A., & Cross, K. P. (1993). Classroom Assessment Techniques: A handbook for college teachers (2nd ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Beetham, H. (2002). Design of learning programmes (UK). Dewhurst, D. G., & Williams, A. D. (1998). An investigation of the potential for a computer-based tutorial program covering the cardiovascular system to replace traditional lectures. Freire, P. (1998). Pedagogy of Freedom: Ethics, Democracy, and Civic Courage (Clarke, P., Trans.). Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield. Gagne, R. (1962). Military training and principles of learning. American Psychologist, 17, 263-276. Gagne, R. (1985). The Conditions of Learning (4th.). New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston. Gagne, R. (1987). Instructional Technology Foundations. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc. Gagne, R. & Driscoll, M. (1988). Essentials of Learning for Instruction (2nd Ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Gagne, R. M., Briggs, L. J., & Wager, W. W. (1992). Principles of instructional design (4th ed.). Fort Worth TX.: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. Hannon, P. and Umble, C (2002) Gagne and Laurillard's Models of Instruction Applied to Distance Education: A theoretically driven evaluation of an online curriculum in public health. The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning. 3, 2. Kulik, C. L. C., & Kulik, J. A. (1986). Effectiveness of computer-based education in colleges. AEDS Journal, 19, 81 108. Laurillard, D. (1993). Rethinking University Teaching: A framework for the effective use of educational technology. London: Routledge. Laurillard, D., Stratfold, M., Luckin, R., Plowman, L. & Taylor, J. (2000) Affordances for Learning in a Non-Linear Narrative Medium. Journal of Interactive Media in Education, 2, [www-jime.open.ac.uk/00/2] Laurillard, D. (2002). Rethinking university teaching. A conversational framework for the effective use of learning technologies. London: Routledge Russell, T. R. (1999). The no significant difference phenomenon. Montgomery, AL.: International Distance Education Certification Center.

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Further reading

(2)

Salmon, G. (2000) E-moderating: The Key to Teaching and Learning Online. Kogan Page.

Schulz, K. C., & Dahale, V. (1999). Multimedia modules for enhancing technical laboratory sessions. Campus-Wide Information Systems 16, 81 88. Twigg, C. (2001). Innovations in online learning: Moving beyond no significant difference. Troy, NY: Center for Academic Transformation, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.
Vygotsky, L.S. (1978) Mind in Society The Development of Higher Psychological Processes. Harvard University Press. Cambridge: Massachusetts. Links http://www.jisc.ac.uk/digiemerge http://www.jisc.ac.uk/whatwedo/programmes/elearning/digilifelong.aspx http://www.jisc.ac.uk/whatwedo/programmes/elearning/developingdigitalliteracies.aspx http://www.jisc.ac.uk/uploaded_documents/sb%20conversational%20framework.pdf Laurillard (2010) Conversational Framework https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=97NjUUAdyq0

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