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Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium Proceedings, Moscow, Russia, August 19–23, 2012 1575

A Method of PCI Planning in LTE Based on Genetic Algorithm

Hao Sun, Nan Li, Yanlei Chen, Jiangbo Dong, Na Liu, Yunbo Han, and Wei Liu China Mobile Design Institute, Beijing, China

AbstractPhysical Cell ID (PCI) planning is one of the most important steps in whole Long Term Evolution (LTE) network planning and construction. It is difficult to improve the QoS of Network by some traditional methods, such as antenna adjustment in LTE system. Assigning PCI reasonably is able to decrease interference and increase operation rate and performance of the network. A PCI planning system is presented in this paper. This system would analyze the interference of LTE system and build up an interference matrix. Then this system would use genetic algorithm to adjust the distribution of PIC to minimize the interference. Finally a PCI plan scheme would be given by this system.

1. INTRODUCTION

Physical Cell ID (PCI) is one of the most important cell’s identifier in the wireless network of LTE system. Therefore, PCI planning is one of the most important steps in LTE network planning and construction. To assign and use PCI reasonably could reduce interference and increase resource utilization and QoS of the LTE system. PCI in LTE only has 168 groups, 504 in total [1], which is not enough for needs of LTE commercial networks. The main idea of genetic algorithms is that adaptable individuals in the group have more chance

to

hybrid in order to inherit good characteristics. In this way, the group as a whole could adapt

to

the environment. Genetic algorithm starts with a problem which could have potential results.

Then, based on the principle of survival of the fittest, the problem would get the best approximate solution by the evolution of each generation. In each generation, the most adaptable individuals are picked to produce new population presenting new by combination, crossover and mutation with the genetic operators. This procedure would lead to evolution of the population to much more adaptable as in the nature. The best individual though decoding in the latest population could seem as the best approximate solution of the problem [2].

LTE network needs not only well Reference Signal Receive Power (RSRP), but also high Signal to Interference plus Noise Ratio (SINR). If PCI could not be planned well, it will cause high

interruption of Reference Signal (RS). Then this situation would cause black hole of signal coverage.

A method of PCI planning based on genetic algorithm is presented in this paper to assign PCI

reasonably for LTE networks. This method could improve the PCI plan result to increase the QoS

of LTE network.

2. PRINCIPLES

The theoretical basis of genetic algorithm is schema theorem and building block assumptions. The basic follow of genetic algorithm is shown as Figure 1 [3]. Schema theorem has the character of low order, short length and average fitness of the mode

of degree higher than the population means fitness in the offspring. A schema could contain many

strings, and different strings could link to each other through schema. The string operator in the

genetic algorithm is essentially a mode of operation. Statistics researches show that to obtain optimal feasible solution in random search should make sure that the sample of better feasible solutions must grow exponentially.

2.1. Mathematical Modeling

There are two ways of string and binary encoding in genetic algorithm. Binary encoding method is used in this paper. The result of this problem is presented by an n m two-dimensional matrix F . Figure 2 shows that different antenna numbers in LTE system would get different matrix F . Every

element in this matrix is presented as f ij , which the value is 1 or 0. When PCI j is assigned to cell

m

i, f ij = 1, otherwise f ij = 0. In order to satisfy the demand vector, we need to make

which d i is cell i’s PCI demand, n is number of cell, m is the number of usable frequency [4].

j=1 f ij = d i ,

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generate the initial population (generate several individuals randomly) Evaluate fitness functions Meet Yes
generate the initial
population
(generate several
individuals randomly)
Evaluate fitness
functions
Meet
Yes
optimization
criteria
No
Find the best
individual and
finish
select
cross
mutation
Genetic
operateor

Figure 1: Follow of genetic algorithm.

PIERS Proceedings, Moscow, Russia, August 19–23, 2012

PIERS Proceedings, Moscow, Russia, August 19–23, 2012 Figure 2: Mapping of downlink reference signals. 2.2.

Figure 2: Mapping of downlink reference signals.

2.2. Initial Population

There are two ways to initial population generally, one is random generation, which is used for the situation of solution to the problem without any prior knowledge, and another one is to transfer some prior knowledge to a group of essential requirements, then choose the population randomly from the results which meet the requirement. In order to get the optimal solution faster, the second way is used to initial population in this paper [5].

3. SYSTEM REALIZATIONS

Genetic algorithm is packaged in this paper to realize the function of automatic plan for each cell’s PCI in LTE.

3.1. Theory of Automatic PCI Plan

There are several factors needed to consider during PCI code plan, such as PBCH, PDCCH and so on. In this system, user could choose one or multiple channels as the considerations during PCI plan. As known, the different channel has different parameter. For example, PBCH uses initial parameter

(1)

Cell C Init = N ID

,

Cell

which N

ID

is PCI of this cell. PDCCH uses initial parameter

Cell

C Init = n s /2 2 9 + N

ID

,

(2)

Cell

which n s is number of timeslot in frame, N

ID

is PCI of this cell. PCFICH uses initial parameter

C Init = ( n s /2 + 1) 2 N

Cell

ID

+ 1 2 9 + N

Cell

ID

,

(3)

Cell

which n s is number of timeslot in frame, N

ID

is PCI of this cell.

Correlation of scrambling code in LTE is calculated by R ab =

1

N

N

i=1

a i ·b i . Considering the delay

of LTE system, an improved method is used as follows:

R ab = 1

N

N

i=1

a M · b i ,

M = (i N, + m) mod N,

(i + m) mod (i + m) mod

N = 0

N

= 0

(4)

PCI plan

system

Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium Proceedings, Moscow, Russia, August 19–23, 2012 1577

input PCI plan requirement Interference matrix Database PCI plan (genetic output algorithm ) solution
input
PCI plan requirement
Interference matrix
Database
PCI plan (genetic
output
algorithm )
solution

Figure 3: Construction of PCI plan system.

start 1. select cells 2.generate PCI plan requirement list 3. select usable PCI 4. generate
start
1. select cells
2.generate PCI plan
requirement list
3. select usable PCI
4. generate cell
interference matrix
5. initial populate
6. evaluation
10. mutation
Yes
11. adjustment
9.cross
Is get the best
approximate
solution
No
8. selection
12. output
7. Save the best
individual, or
replace the worst
individual
finish
Figure 4: Flow of PCI plan algorithm.

3.2. PCI Automatic Plan

PCI plan module is used for assisting LTE network plan and optimizes and gets best solution of PCI plan. System would obtain cell information, such as frequency, and measurement report, etc. before PCI planning. Then system would assign PCI for cells in order to reduce the interference of the whole LTE network as far as possible. At last, the system would output the solution for users. PCI plan module is shown in Figure 3, which, the flow of PCI plan algorithm is shown in Figure 4.

4. SIMULATION RESULT OF PCI PLAN

All the algorithm and method introduced above are coded with C# and used in LTE plan tool ANPOP. This PCI plan system also needs Geographic Information System (GIS) as an addition condition. In this section, we use RS and PBCH’s SINR to evaluate the effect of PCI plan method based on genetic algorithm by compare with the simulation result of manual and automatic PCI plan. At the same time, Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is also launched in this paper. Assuming there are 5 UEs every cell, service type is Full Buffer FTP. The result of MC shows as follows:

Manual PCI plan, average cell throughput is 16.3 Mbps, average cell edge throughput is 0.43 Mbps; Automatic PCI plan using genetic algorithm, average cell throughput is 20.1 Mbps, average cell edge throughput is 0.65 Mbps.

To compare the two results, we could know that, using the second method could increase cell throughput 23.3%, and cell edge throughput 51.2%. According to the results above, the algorithm mentioned in this paper could reduce same fre- quency disturbance and improve SINR coverage of the network, and also could increase the through- put of the LTE network.

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PIERS Proceedings, Moscow, Russia, August 19–23, 2012

1578 PIERS Proceedings, Moscow, Russia, August 19–23, 2012 RS simulation result by PCI plan manually RS

RS simulation result by PCI plan manually

RS simulation result by PCI plan of genetic algorithm

RS SINR

15.0 =< X < 10.0

2

Area (km )

0.025

− 15.0 =< X < − 10.0 2 Area (km ) 0.025 Persentage (%) RS SINR

Persentage (%)

RS SINR

0.1 15.0 =< X < 10.0

Area (km )

2

Persentage (%)

0.000 0.0

0.025 Persentage (%) RS SINR 0.1 − 15.0 =< X < − 10.0 Area (km )
− 10.0 Area (km ) 2 Persentage (%) 0.000 0.0 − 10.0 =< X < −
− 10.0 Area (km ) 2 Persentage (%) 0.000 0.0 − 10.0 =< X < −

10.0 =< X < 3.0

4.988

3.0 =< X < 5.0

4.187

5.0 =< X < 10.0

8.137

10.0

=< X < 20.0

15.330

20.0

=< X < 40.0

4.016

40.0 =< X

0.000

=< X < 40.0 4.016 40.0 =< X 0.000 13.6 − 10.0 =< X < −
=< X < 40.0 4.016 40.0 =< X 0.000 13.6 − 10.0 =< X < −

13.6

10.0 =< X < 3.0

0.025

0.1

11.4

3.0 =< X < 5.0

4.988

13.6

22.2

5.0 =< X < 10.0

4.187

11.4

41.8

10.0

=< X < 20.0

8.137

22.2

10.9

20.0

=< X < 40.0

15.330

41.8

0.0

40.0 =< X

4.016

10.9

20.0 8.137 22.2 10.9 20.0 =< X < 40.0 15.330 41.8 0.0 40.0 =< X 4.016
20.0 8.137 22.2 10.9 20.0 =< X < 40.0 15.330 41.8 0.0 40.0 =< X 4.016
20.0 8.137 22.2 10.9 20.0 =< X < 40.0 15.330 41.8 0.0 40.0 =< X 4.016

Figure 5: Simulation results of RS’s SINR.

5. CONCLUSIONS

From the simulation result above, we could get the conclusion that assigning PCI reasonably is able to effectively reduce the interference in LTE system, especially in the case of constructing network using the same frequency, and to improve coverage and QoS of the network. As a result, PCI plan algorithm presented in this paper is suitable for multi-antenna LTE system.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

Especially thanks to my lovely wife; I cannot finish this paper without her support.

REFERENCES

1. 3GPP, “Evolved universal terrestrial radio access (E-UTRA); Physical channels and modula- tion (release 8),” 3GPP TS 36.211, 72–74, Dec. 2009.

2. Shen, J. and S. Suo, 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) Technical Principle and System Design, Posts & Telecom Press, Beijing, 2010.

3. Ngo, C. Y. and V. O. K. Li, “Fixed channel assignment in cellular radio networks using a modified genetic algorithm,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 47, No. 1, 163– 172, 1998.

4. 3GPP, “Evolved universal terrestrial radio access (E-UTRA); Radio resource control (release 8),” 3GPP TS 36.331, 75–76, Dec. 2010.

5. Wang, X. P. and L. M. Cao, Genetic Algorithm — Theory, Application and Software Imple- mentation, Xi’an Jiaotong University Press, Xi’an, 2003.