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Tests involving the reagent aqueous NaOH solution TABLE 1.

COLOURED SOLUTIONS First addition of reagent Ion Dirty green ppt Pale green Fe (aq) + 2OH (aq) Fe(OH) 2+ (Fe ) Rusty brown ppt Yellow (Fe3+) Fe (aq) + 3OH (aq) Fe(OH) 2+ Blue (Cu ) Pale blue ppt
2+ 3+ -

Reagent in excess
(s) No further change, however at the top of the mixture it may turn brown on standing This is due to oxidation of iron(II) hydroxide to iron(III) hydroxide

Comments

(s)

Bright green (Cr3+) Pink (Co2+)


Pale pink but usually colourless (Mn2+)

Cu2+ (aq) + 2OH- (aq) Cu(OH)2 (s) Blue or blue green ppt Cr3+ (aq) + 3OH- (aq) Cr(OH)3 (s) Blue ppt which turns pink on standing Co2+ (aq) + 2OH- (aq) Co(OH)2 (s) White or cream ppt Mn2+ (aq) +2OH- (aq) Mn(OH)2 (s)

No further change No further change


Ppt dissolves forming a bright green solution Cr(OH)3 (s) + 3OH- (aq)[Cr(OH)6]3- (aq)

No further change
No further change, however ppt may turn brown on standing This is due to oxidation of Mn(II) hydroxide to Mn(III)oxide

TABLE 2. COLOURLESS SOLUTIONS First addition of reagent Ion 2+ Ca No ppt No ppt NH4+ On warming, a colourless pungent gas is evolved which Mg Ba2+ Al3+ Zn2+ Pb2+
2+
turns blue litmus to red + NH4 (aq) +OH (aq) NH3 (g) + H2O(l) White ppt 2+ Mg (aq) + 2OH (aq) Mg(OH)2 (s)

Reagent in excess No ppt No ppt No further change No further change


Dissolves to form a colourless solution Al(OH)3 (s) + 3OH- (aq)[Al(OH)6]3- (aq) Dissolves to form a colourless solution 2Zn(OH)2 (s) + 2OH (aq)[Zn(OH)4] (aq) Dissolves to form a colourless solution Pb(OH)2 (s) + 2OH (aq)[Pb(OH)4]2- (aq)

Comments

Little or no ppt
White ppt Al3+ (aq) + 3OH- (aq) Al(OH)3 (s) White ppt 2+ Zn (aq) + 2OH (aq) Zn(OH)2 (s) White ppt 2+ Pb (aq) + 2OH- (aq) Pb(OH)2 (s)

All three hydroxides of Zn, Al and Pb are amphoteric and form a complex ion:- zincate, aluminate and plumbate respectively.

Tests involving the reagent aqueous ammonia solution TABLE 3. COLOURED SOLUTIONS First addition of reagent Ion 2+ Dirty green ppt Pale green (Fe ) Fe (aq) + 2OH (aq) Fe(OH) 3+ Rusty brown ppt Yellow (Fe ) Fe (aq) + 3OH (aq) Fe(OH) 2+ Blue (Cu ) Pale blue ppt
2+ 3+ -

Reagent in excess
(s) (s) No further change, however at the top of the mixture it may turn brown on standing This is due to oxidation of iron(II) hydroxide to iron(III) hydroxide

No further change
Ppt dissolves to give a deep blue solution Cu(OH)2 (s) + 4NH3 (aq) [Cu(NH3)4]2+ (aq) Ppt dissolves forming a royal blue solution Cr(OH)3 (s) + 6NH3 (aq)[Cr(NH3)6]3+ (aq) Ppt dissolves to form a brown solution which then darkens on standing Co(OH)2 (s) + 6NH3 (aq)[Co(NH3)6]2+ (aq) The darkening is due to the oxidation of Co(II) to Co(III) No further change, however ppt may turn brown on standing This is due to oxidation of Mn(II) hydroxide to Mn(III)oxide

Bright green (Cr3+) Pink (Co2+)


Pale pink but usually colourless (Mn2+)

Cu2+ (aq) + 2OH- (aq) Cu(OH)2 (s) Blue or blue green ppt Cr3+ (aq) + 3OH- (aq) Cr(OH)3 (s) Blue ppt which turns pink on standing Co2+ (aq) + 2OH- (aq) Co(OH)2 (s) White or cream ppt Mn2+ (aq) +2OH- (aq) Mn(OH)2 (s)

TABLE 4. COLOURLESS SOLUTIONS First addition of reagent Ion 2+ Ca No ppt NH4+ No ppt White ppt Mg2+ Mg (aq) + 2OH (aq) Mg(OH) (s) 2+ Ba Little or no ppt White ppt Al3+ Al (aq) + 3OH (aq) Al(OH) (s) 2+ White ppt Zn Zn (aq) + 2OH (aq) Zn(OH) (s) 2+ White ppt Pb Pb (aq) + 2OH (aq) Pb(OH) (s)
2+ 2 3+ 3 2+ 2 2+ 2

Reagent in excess No ppt No ppt No further change No further change No further change
Dissolves to form a colourless solution Zn(OH)2 (s) + 4NH3 (aq)[Zn(NH3)4]2-

Commenets

A complex ion occurs in excess ammonia solution diammine zinc(II) ion

No further change

TABLE 5. Tests with various reagents other than sodium hydroxide and aqueous ammonia Test Observation Inference Silver nitrate solution in the presence of dilute White ppt means Cl- present HCl or HNO ppt dissolves to give a colourless solution
Then followed by aqueous ammonia
3

Comme

Ag+ (aq) + Cl- (aq) AgCl (s)

Partial dissolu addition of th and fact that distinction be

Cream ppt

AgCl (s) +2NH3 (aq)[Ag(NH3)2]+

ppt partially dissolves Yellow ppt ppt remains


Barium chloride or barium nitrate solution Then followed by dilute HCl or HNO3 ppt dissolves to give a colourless solution White ppt Br- present Ag+ (aq) + Br- (aq) AgBr (s) I- present Ag+ (aq) + I- (aq) AgI (s) SO32- or SO42- present SO32- present SO32- (aq) + 2H+ SO42- present SO2(g) + H2O

Dilute nitric o

(aq)

(l)

ppt remains
Addition of HCl or any source of chloride ions sometimes an additional test may be to warm the mixture if a ppt is formed and then allow to cool Addition of aqueous potassium iodide solution sometimes an additional test may be to warm the mixture if a ppt is formed and then allow to cool White ppt ppt dissolves fully when mixture is warmed and recrystallises to form needle shaped crystals when cool Pb 2+ Pb (aq) + 2Cl (aq) PbCl2(s)
2+

Bright yellow ppt

Pb Pb2+ (aq) + 2I- (aq) PbI2 (s)

2+

lead(II) chlorid reduction in t occurs and the NB lead(II) br while lead(II) lead(II) iodide ppt present w true shape of

Red-brown solution which may have black particles.

Potassium iodide is a reducing agent and if a colour change is seen, then a redox reaction has occurred and the sample has oxidizing properties.

Conc. sulphuric acid to a solid halide e.g. sodium chloride, sodium bromide, sodium iodide

Vigourous effervescence white mixture Colourless, pungent gas Turns blue litmus red

Cl- present Gas is acidic Gas is hydrogen chloride displacement of hydrogen chloride by sulphuric acid NaCl + H2SO4 HCl + NaHSO4 Br- present Bromide ions are strong reducing agents and a redox reaction occurs and bromine is produced gas is acidic and it also bleaches which implies the halogen is being produced H2SO4 + 2H+ + 2Br- Br2 + SO2 + 2H2O I- present Iodide ions are strong reducing agents and a redox reaction occurs and iodine is produced gas is acidic and it also bleaches which implies the halogen is being produced H2SO4 + 8H+ + 8I- 4I2 + H2S + 4H2O Since acidified potassium manganate is an oxidizing agent, the sample tested must have reducing properties Since acidified potassium dichromate is an

Con acid oxid

Vigourous effervescence orange/red mixture brown, pungent gas Turns blue litmus red then white

Vigourous effervescence deep purple/black mixture purple, pungent gas Turns blue litmus red then white Addition of acidified potassium manganate solution Addition of acidified Decolourisation i.e. from purple to colourless Goes from orange to green

potassium dichromate solution Addition of dilute acid to a solid sample either dilute HCl or HNO3

Effervescence Solid dissolves No effervescence Solid dissolves Effervescence Colourless, pungent gas evolved turns red litmus blue Effervescence Blue-green solution Brown, pungent gas evolved Turns blue litmus red Brown ring is formed

oxidizing agent, the sample tested must have reducing properties Gas produced sample must be either a carbonate or a sulphite Sample must be either an oxide or hydroxide Gas is basic Gas is ammonia NO3- ion present 3NO3- + 8Al + 5OH + 18H2O 3NH3 + 8[Al(OH)4] Gas is acidic NO2 gas produced (brown gas) NO3- ion present
NO3- + 3Fe2+ + 4H+ 3Fe3++ NO + 2H2O [Fe(H2O)6]2+ + NO [Fe(H2O)5(NO)]2+ (brown ring)

Addition of Devardas alloy to sample in presence of NaOH solution and warm Addition of conc H2SO4with copper turnings present and warm Addition of freshly prepared iron(II) sulphate solution or crystals and then add conc H2SO4 slowly Create a free website with

The conc sulp reacts with th

3Cu(s) + 8HNO3(aq) --> 3Cu(NO3)2(aq) + 2NO(g) + 4H2O(l)

NO3- present