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Dispositivi e impianti per la conversione fotovoltaica Claudio Fiegna Mauro Zanuccoli

Argomenti

Effetto fotovoltaico Celle fotovoltaiche


Principio di funzionamento Tecnologie e fabbricazione Caratterizzazione sperimentale

Moduli fotovoltaici Impianti fotovoltaici


Tipologie e classificazione Esempi

Argomenti (2)

Caratterizzazione sperimentale dei dispositivi PV (caratteristiche I-V) Esempio di progetto (con sw dedicato) Integrazione con l'architettura Energy pay-back time Il conto energia GSE Mercato e tendenze del fotovoltaico

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Energiasolareeconversione fotovoltaica
Lapotenzachecolpiscelatmosferaterrestre di circa170milionidimiliardidiwatt(170PW).
InmenodiunorailsoleinviasullaTerrauna

quantitdienergiapariallinteroconsumo complessivomondialeannuale. intermittente

Ilflussodienergiasolaremoltodiluitoed Laconversionefotovoltaicasfruttailmeccanismodi

generazionedicaricaelettricaprodottodalla radiazioneluminosainunmaterialesemiconduttore

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DevelopmentofPVtechnology

Thephotovoltaic(PV)effectwasdiscoveredin1839 byEdmondBecquerel Aftertheintroductionofsiliconastheprime semiconductormaterialinthelate1950s,siliconPV diodesbecameavailable;mainapplications:TLC equipmentsinremotelocationsandsatelites Theoilcrisisof1973ledtopublicinvestmentsfor technologydevelopment Sincethebeginningofthe1990s,ecological considerationsactedasamaindrivingforcein promotingPVsolarenergy

GlobalStatusofSolarPhotovoltaics

Bytheendof2007,thecumulativeinstalled capacityofsolarphotovoltaic(PV)systems aroundtheworldhadreachedmorethan9,200 MW.(1,200MWattheendof2000). InstallationsofPVcellsandmodulesaround theworldhavebeengrowingatan solarelectricityindustrythatitisnowworth morethananannual13billion

SemiconductorsSilicon

Atomic Number: 14 4th Group 4 Valence Electrons Cubic Crystal

Semiconduttori:bandedienergia

Nei solidi cristallini gli elettroni possono assumere valori di energia totale compresi all'interno di bande di estensione finita, separate da intervalli di valori proibiti ( gap). Concetto di banda di valenza e banda di conduzione. Transizioni inter-banda promosse termicamente o da radiazione elettromagnetica. Lacuna: pseudoparticella a carica positiva corrispondente alla mancanza di un elettrone in banda di valenza.

La conducibilit elettrica dipende in modo critico dalla concentrazione di elettroni (lacune) all'interno della banda di conduzione (valenza). Tali concentrazioni sono controllabili mediante drogaggio

SemiconductorDoping

In solar cell production the silicon has dopant atoms introduced to create a p-type and an n-type region and thereby producing a p-n junction. This doping can be done by high temperature diffusion, where the wafers are placed in a furnace with the dopant introduced as a vapour. There are many other methods of doping silicon. In the manufacture of some thin film devices the introduction of dopants can occur during the deposition of the films or layers. A silicon atom has 4 relatively weakly bound (valence) electrons, which bond to adjacent atoms. Replacing a silicon atom with an atom that has either 3 or 5 valence electrons will therefore produce either a space with no electron (a hole) or one spare electron that can move more freely than the others, this is the basis of doping. P-type doping, the creation of excess holes, is achieved by the incorporation into the silicon of atoms with 3 valence electrons, most often boron and n-type doping, the creation of extra electrons is achieved by incorporating an atom with 5 valence electrons, most often phosphorus (see figure)

Interactionoflightwith semiconductors

Whenlightstrikesthesurfaceofa semiconductoritispartiallytransmittedand partiallyreflected; Thetransmittedlightisabsorbedbythe semiconductor; Theenergyassociatedtoabsorbedlight promotesthetransitionofelectronsfrom occupiedstates(e.g.valenceband)tothe higherenergyunoccupiedstates(conductions band.

Solarspectrum

c hc = = f E

Absorptionoflightin semiconductors

M.A. Green, Solar Cells, Univ. South Wales.

Absorption of light in a direct-bandgap semiconductor (right) and absorption coefficient as a function of photon energy in GaAs.

Absorptionoflightin semiconductors

c hc = = f E

M.A. Green, Solar Cells, Univ. South Wales.

Absorption of light in an indirect-bandgap semiconductor (right) and absorption coefficient as a function of photon wave-length in Silicon.

Otherabsorptionmechanisms

Phononassistedabsorptionindirectgap semiconductors; freecarrierabsorption(noelectrohole generation) twostepsabsorptionthroughanenergylevel withinthebandgap electricfieldassistedsubbandgapabsorption effectsofbandgapnarrowingatlargedoping levels

Solarcells

Basicrequirementsforsolarcelloperation:

opticalgenerationofelectronholepairsundersun illumination:thebandgapmustcorrespondto wavelengthincludedinthespectrumofsolarlight. Builtinelectricfieldforseparationofcarriers. lowrecombinationratelowdefectdensity.

PNJunction

Two region with opposite doping type A strong Electric Field is present in the region close to the junction plane

Cellafotovoltaicaconvenzionalealsilicio

Efficienza di conversione: 16% - 22% Massimo teorico: 31% Tecnologie alternative: Film sottile silicio amorfo (7% - 9%) Celle multi-giunzione (fino a 40%) Celle in materiale organico (basso costo, bassa efficienza 5%)

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PNjunctionsolarcell

M.A. Green, Solar Cells, Univ. South Wales.

ConversionEfficiency

Efficiencyrequires:

largeopencircuitvoltageVOC LowsaturationcurrentIO(darkIVcharact.) LargeshortcircuitcurrentISC

LowIO>lowrecombinationrates LargeISC>smallbandgap(downside:energy wastedintoheatgeneration).

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Tellururo di Cadmio

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Ivano Pola, SUPSI