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Relations Discrete Mathematics 1

Relations

Relations Discrete Mathematics 1
Relations Discrete Mathematics 1

Discrete Mathematics 1

Cartesian Product The Cartesian product of sets A and B is denoted A × B

Cartesian Product

The Cartesian product of sets A and B is denoted A×B and defined as follows:

A×B ={(x,y): xA and yB} A={1,3,5,7}, B={2,4,6} A×B={(1,2),(1,4),(1,6),(3,2),(3,4),(3,6),

(5,2),(5,4),(5,6),(7,2),(7,4),(7,6)}

Relations and SetsRelations are sets of pairs (tuples) 20 Notation R(x,y) means (x,y)∈R 10 10 20 R={(x,y):10≤x≤20,

Relations are sets of pairs (tuples)

20 Notation R(x,y) means (x,y)∈R 10 10 20 R={(x,y):10≤x≤20, 10≤y≤20, y≤x}
20
Notation R(x,y)
means (x,y)∈R
10
10
20
R={(x,y):10≤x≤20, 10≤y≤20, y≤x}

Relation: Subset of Cartesian Product Product

All relations are subsets of a Cartesian product.

If RA×A we say R

is a relation on A

A relation can be

specified by listing pairs or defining a predicate.

A

20

10

R 10 A 20
R
10
A 20
Relations:Graph and Matrix Representations Bath Access Relation London B Ba L P E Bristol B
Relations:Graph and Matrix
Representations
Bath
Access Relation
London
B
Ba
L
P
E
Bristol
B
 1
1
1
1
1 
Ba
0
1
0
0
0
Exeter
Plymouth
L
0
1
1
1
1
Directed Graph
P
 0
1
1
1
1
E
0
1
1
1
1
Inverse Relations Given a relation R ⊆ A × B then R - 1 ⊆

Inverse Relations

Given a relation RA×B then R -1 B×A such that:

R -1 ={(y,x):(x,y)R} R={(x,y):x<y} defined on natural numbers R -1 ={(x,y):x>y}

Examples of RelationsA={cat,dog,rat,bird} R={(x,y):x and y have at least one common letter} cat dog rat bird Reflexive

A={cat,dog,rat,bird} R={(x,y):x and y have at least one common letter}

cat dog rat bird
cat
dog
rat
bird

Reflexive

Symmetric

Special RelationsIdentity relation: I A ⊆ A × A I A ={(a,a):a ∈ A} Universal relation:

Identity relation: I A A×A I A ={(a,a):a A} Universal relation: U A A×A U A ={(a,b):a A, b A} A={1,2,3} I A ={(1,1),(2,2),(3,3)} U A ={(1,1),(2,2),(3,3),(1,2),(1,3),(2,1),(

2,3),(3,1),(3,2)}

Equivalence Relations R(x,x) for all x ∈ A (Reflexive) R(x,y)=R(y,x) for all x,y ∈ A

Equivalence Relations

R(x,x) for all xA (Reflexive) R(x,y)=R(y,x) for all x,yA (Symmetric) If R(x,y) and R(y,z) then R(x,z) (Transitive)

a b d
a
b
d
c e f
c
e
f
Example A={1,2,3,4,5,6}, R ⊆ A × A R={(x,y):x ∈ A,y ∈ A,(x-y) is divisible by

Example

A={1,2,3,4,5,6}, RA×A

R={(x,y):xA,yA,(x-y) is divisible by 2} Show that R is an equivalence relation Equivalence classes:

[1]={1,3,5}

[2]={2,4,6} What is the intuitive meaning of this equivalence

Partition of A

Equivalence Classes For x ∈ A [x]={y ∈ A :R(x,y)} [a]={a,b,d}=[b]=[d] [c]={c} [e]=[f] ={e,f} The

Equivalence Classes

For xA [x]={yA :R(x,y)} [a]={a,b,d}=[b]=[d] [c]={c} [e]=[f] ={e,f} The equivalence classes of R partition

the set A

A Logic Example L={P,Q} and SL=the sentences of L R ⊆ SL × SL R={(A,B):A

A Logic Example

L={P,Q} and SL=the sentences of L RSL×SL R={(A,B):AB}

[P]={P,¬(¬P),(PP),(PP),(PQ)(P∧ ¬ Q)…} How many equivalence classes are there?

Other Equivalence Relations Congruence mod m on integers E.g. m=5 [1]={1,6,11,16,…} Registered on the same

Other Equivalence Relations

Congruence mod m on integers E.g. m=5 [1]={1,6,11,16,…} Registered on the same course (on a set of undergraduate) Having the same angles (on a set of triangles)

48 6 Example: Partial Ordering 2 Divisibility relation on {2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9,
48 6
48
6

Example: Partial Ordering

2

Divisibility relation on {2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 18} 2|4 4|8 2|8 2|6 3|6 3|9

9|18 6|18 3|18 2|18

3 9 18
3 9
18
Order Relations Some R ⊆ A × A help us order the elements of A

Order Relations

Some RA×A help us order the elements of A Partial Orderings:

Reflexive (R(x,x) ) Transitive (IF R(x,y),R(y,z) then R(x,z) ) Antisymmetric (If R(x,y) and R(y,x) then x=y )

Example: Logic Let A,B be formulas of propositional logic A ≤ B iff A ∨

Example: Logic

Let A,B be formulas of propositional logic AB iff ABB Eg PQ Q Idempotent: AAA Antisymmetric: Sps AB and BA then ABB and BAA. But ABBA and therefore AB

Logic: 2 Transitive: Sps A ≤ B and B ≤ C then A ∨ B

Logic: 2

Transitive:

Sps AB and BC then ABB and BCC therefore C(AB)C A(BC) AC Hence ACC so that AC

{a,b} Hasse Diagrams {a,b,c} {b,c} {a,c} {a} {b} {c} ∅ • Omit all links that

{a,b}

Hasse Diagrams

{a,b,c} {b,c} {a,c} {a} {b} {c}
{a,b,c}
{b,c}
{a,c}
{a}
{b}
{c}

• Omit all links that can be

inferred from transitivity.

• Omit all loops

• Draw links without arrow heads

• Understand that all arrows would point upwards

Example: Subsets{a,b,c} {a,b} {a,c} {b,c} {a} {b} {c} ∅ ⊆ is a partial ordering on P(A)

{a,b,c} {a,b} {a,c} {b,c} {a} {b} {c}
{a,b,c}
{a,b}
{a,c}
{b,c}
{a}
{b}
{c}

is a partial ordering on P(A)

E.g. A={a,b,c}

The directed graph is very messy!

Incomparable Elements8 4 2 10 6 9 3 5 Hasse diagram for divisibility ,10} on {2,3,

8

4

2

10 6 9 3 5
10
6
9
3 5

Hasse diagram for divisibility

,10}

on {2,3,

7
7

Notice that 5 and 6 are not related in either direction. Similarly for 2 and 3 If neither R(x,y) or R(y,x) then x and y are said to be incomparable

Total Orderings A total ordering is a partial ordering in which every pair is related.

Total Orderings

A total ordering is a partial ordering in which every pair is related. For any x,y either R(x,y) or R(y,x)

The Hasse diagram is simply a long chain.

5

4

3

2

Max/Min Examples {a,b,c} t t t 10 8 t 6 9 4 t {a,b} {a,c}
Max/Min Examples
{a,b,c}
t
t
t
10
8
t 6
9
4
t
{a,b}
{a,c}
t,b
5
3
7
2
b
b
{a}
{b}
{c}
b
b
Maximal and Minimal Elements Let (A, ≤ ) be a partially ordered set and C

Maximal and Minimal Elements

Let (A,) be a partially ordered set and

CA then A maximal element of C is any element

t such that xC tx implies that x=t A minimal element of C is any element

b such that xC xb implies that x=b

Upper and Lower Bounds Let (A, ≤ ) be a partially ordered set and C

Upper and Lower Bounds

Let (A,) be a partially ordered set and CA then u is an upper bound of C if xC xu

l is a lower bound of C if xC lx lub is a least upper bound of C if for all other upper bounds x of C, lubx glb is a greatest lower bound of C if for all other lower bounds y of C, yglb

glb,lub vs min and max Let ≤ be the standard total ordering on R Let

glb,lub vs min and max

Let be the standard total ordering on R Let C=[10,20] Min=10, Max=20 Lower bounds =(-,10], glb=10 Upper bounds= [20, ), lub=20

Let C=(10,20) (i.e. [10,20]-{10,20}) No Min, No Max Lower bounds =(-,10], glb=10 Upper bounds= [20, ), lub=20

Lattice Example: Consider the partial order “is a factor of” on the set A={3,9,12,15,36,45,180} 180

Lattice Example:

Consider the partial order “is a factor of” on the set

A={3,9,12,15,36,45,180} 180 36 9 12 3
A={3,9,12,15,36,45,180}
180
36
9
12
3

45

15

Meet=greatest common

divisor

Join=least common

multiple

LatticeA partially ordered set ( ≤ ,A) is a lattice if every pair of elements

A partially ordered set (,A) is a lattice

if every pair of elements {a,b} has a

l.u.b and a g.l.b In this case the l.u.b of {a,b} is called the join of a and b and written ab

The g.l.b of {a,b} is called the meet of

a and b and written ab

Properties of Meet and JoinIf a ≤ b and c ≤ d then a ∨ c ≤ b ∨

If ab and cd then acbd and acbd bbd (rhs is an upper bound of b) dbd (similarly) ab and cd (given)

Hence, bd is and upper bound of a and c But ac is l.u.b of {a,c} therefore acbd as required

Closure of Relations If a relation R fails to have a certain property P then

Closure of Relations

If a relation R fails to have a certain property

P then it may be possible to extend R to R + so the R + does satisfy P R + is an extension of R if RR +

R + is the closure of R under P if it is an extension of R and… R + satisfies P and… For any other extension R ++ satisfying P

R + R ++

Examples of Closure:2 R Reflexive Closure 1 1 2 3 2 3 Symmetric Closure 1

Examples of Closure:2

R Reflexive Closure 1 1 2 3 2 3
R Reflexive Closure
1
1
2
3
2
3
Symmetric Closure 1 2 3
Symmetric Closure
1
2
3
Examples of Closure A={1,2,3} R={(1,1),(1,2),(1,3),(3,1),(2,3)} Reflexive closure: R={(1,1),(1,2),(1,3),(

Examples of Closure

A={1,2,3}

R={(1,1),(1,2),(1,3),(3,1),(2,3)}

Reflexive closure:

R={(1,1),(1,2),(1,3),(3,1),(2,3),(2,2),(3

,3)}

Symmetric closure:

R={(1,1),(1,2),(1,3),(3,1),(2,3),(2,1),(3

,2)}

Composition of Relations R be a relation on A × B and S be a

Composition of Relations

R be a relation on A×B and S be a relation on B×C. The composition S ° R is a relation on A×C defined by S ° R={(x,z):(x,y)R and (y,z)S for some yB}

S ° R(x,z) C A B S(y,z) x R(x,y) z y
S ° R(x,z)
C
A
B
S(y,z)
x R(x,y)
z
y
Example of a Composition C=set of courses E=set of engineering undergraduates D=set of departments R

Example of a Composition

C=set of courses E=set of engineering undergraduates D=set of departments RE×C R={(e,c):student e studies course c} SC×D S={(c,d):course c is run by department d} S ° R={(e,d):student e studies a course run by department d}

Example of Transitive Closure A={1,2,3} and R={(1,1),(1,2),(1,3),(3,1),(2,3)} R 2

Example of Transitive Closure

A={1,2,3} and R={(1,1),(1,2),(1,3),(3,1),(2,3)} R 2 ={(1,1),(1,2),(1,3),(3,1),(3,2),(3,3),(2,1)} RR 2 ={(1,1),(1,2),(1,3),(2,3),(3,1),(3,2),(3,3),(2,1),} RR 2 R 3 ={(1,1),(1,2),(1,3),(3,1),(2,3),(3,2),(3,3),(2,1)

,(2,2)}

R

1 2 3
1
2
3
R + 1 2 3
R +
1
2
3
Transitive Closure Let R 2 = R ° R, R 3 = R ° R

Transitive Closure

Let R 2 = R ° R, R 3 = R ° R ° R etc Transitive closure is:

R + =RR 2 R 3 R k Where R k is the smallest value such that R + is transitive

Google and Relations P=set of all web pages Links ⊆ P × P Links={(x,y):page x

Google and Relations

P=set of all web pages LinksP×P Links={(x,y):page x contains a link to page y} Links –not symmetric, reflexive or transitive If we represent as a matrix, the sum of each column=number of links to a page

This is an important component of Google page rank Much of Google’s power arises from calculations on the Links relation