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The Road Ahead

The future of MENA water

Lebanon’s Lifeline

Update on Awali-Beirut water project

Industrial Water Reuse

Helps water-starved Jordan

Drilling Deep in Africa

New water borehole code of practice

projects amid political uncertainty

 

February/March 2011 - Vol. 26, Issue 1

 

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Water Industry Continuing Education

   
 

WaterWorldCE is changing the way water and wastewater industry professionals approach continuing education.

 

WaterWorldCE.com offers a mix of technical papers and pre-recorded presentations on drinking water and wastewater topics. The site provides water industry professionals with relevant, topical educational content that is easily accessible, 24 hours a day!

Earn Professional Development or Continuing Education credits from your home or office!

 
 

Visit www.WaterWorldCE.Com Today!

   

by: Allan R. Budris , P. E.

Wr itten

     

Wri tten b y: Allan R. Budri s , P. E.

SPONSORED BY:

             

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18

34

45

                                     
               

Contents

             

February/March 2011 Vol. 26 Issue 1

 

Cover image courtesy of istockphoto. See Middle East/Africa regional spotlight starting on page 18

     

$55 Single copies US & Int’l, $36 Digital (worldwide) To receive this magazine in a digital format, go to www.omeda.com

                                 
 

Regulars

               

Regional Spotlight

MIDDLE EAST

18

What opportunities exist for water and wastewater companies in

Saudi Arabia and Bahrain? WWi visited both countries to find out more.

 
 

5

Perspective

6

16

47

54

55

56

84

     
 

News

     
 

Legal Perspective

     
 

Show Preview: Wasser Berlin

                 
 

Technology Roundup: Corrosion Control

   

24

Engineering Lebanon’s Lifeline: An update on the Awali-Beirut Water

Conveyance project that aims to transport water to urban areas of Beirut.

 

Product Review: Valves, Fittings & Controls

   
 

Diary

   

27

USAID’s water reuse and environmental conversation project in

Jordan aims to improve industrial water reuse. Here’s why.

 
 

Ad Index/Web Promo

     
 

WATER LEADER FOCUS

12

The 2015 goal for the Millennium Development Goals is fast

approaching but how are we progressing towards the drinking water and

sanitation targets? Summary of a WWi live international webcast.

30

Desalination’s fate across a troubled MENA. A look at desalination

project progress before and during the period of civil unrest.

 
 

34

A new code of practice hopes to raise the profession standards of

borehole drilling for rural water supplies across Sub-Saharan Africa.

 
                                     
 

CREATIVE FINANCE

           
 

14

Water and wastewater utilities in Western Europe are poised to spend

an estimated €89.8 billion over the next five years to bring infrastructure up

to the standard of leading countries such as Germany.

Editorial Focus

Technology Roundup

54

Corrosion Control: Pepperl+Fuchs introduces its CorrTran, designed

for corrosion monitoring needs; a flow meter designed for high accuracy

measurement in challenging conditions; low profile sump pump that elimi-

nates corrosion and corrosive resistant materials for tanks and labs.

 
 

PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS

           
 

38

PPPs are now growing in demand and flexibility to meet pub-

lic sector demands. A review of latest international activity.

Product Review

55

Valves, Fittings & Control: the ValveSight from Flowserve Corporation

 

METERING AND WATER DEMAND

42

Increasing tariffs and introducing meters continues to be a politi-

cally sensitive topic but the U.S. is making progress, with one utility set to

increase its average water bill by 206% by 2012.

launched for smart electric actuators; seat ball valves ideal for abrasive sur-

faces; new certified ball valves from Metso and electro pneumatic control valve.

               
 

News Highlights

       
 

TRENCHLESS TECHNOLOGIES

45

Progress update of a trenchless installation to help flood-proof the UK

URBAN REHABILITATION AND LEAK DETECTION

6

Consultation closes on UK “super sewer”

8

9

   
 

Qatari to lead ExxonMobil water research

   
 

Mundaring contract establishes PPP in Western Australia 10 Befesa secures 60,00m 3 /day desalination contract

   
 

46

An update on urban rehabilitation projects across Poland.

             
                 

February/March | 2011

 

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PennWell International Publications The Water Tower, Gunpowder Mill, Powdermill Lane, Waltham Abbey, Essex. EN9 1BN. UK Tel: +44 (0) 7904867746

Editorial Offices PennWell Corporation 1421 South Sheridan Road Tulsa, Oklahoma 74112-6600 USA T: 918-831-9176

   

PUBLISHER

 

Timm Dower

SR. VP & GROUP PUBLISHER:

Tom Fowler

ASIA: SINGAPORE:

   
 

tdower@Pennwell.com

PRESIDENT/CEO:

 

Robert F. Biolchini

Frank T. Lauinger

Joanna Wong-Monis - Advertising Manager

 

CHIEF EDITOR

 

Tom Freyberg

CHAIRMAN

 

T: +(65) 9062 6227 – E: joanna@pennwell.sg

 
 

TomF@pennwell.com

ADVERTISING SALES EUROPE:

HONG KONG:

   

DESIGN EDITOR

 

Heather Skeith

 
 

heathers@pennwell.com

Roy Morris - Sales Manager T: +44 (0)1992 656 613 – E: rmorris@Pennwell.com

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DIGITAL MEDIA EDITOR

Angela Godwin

UNITED STATES/CANADA:

 

JAPAN:

   
 

angelag@Pennwell.com

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PRODUCTION MANAGER

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Design. Inc., 6F Chiyoda Bldg., 1-5-18 Sarugakucho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8449, Japan; Tel: +81-3-3219-3641; Fax: +81-3-3219-

MARKETING MANAGER

 

Gina Godfrey

SOUTHEAST USA:

 

3628; E-mail: konishi-manami@ics-inc.co.jp, masaki.mori@ics-inc.

 

ginag@pennwell.com

Emily Martha Martin

Dottie LaFerney - Sales Manager

MIDWEST & WESTERN COAST USA:

co.jp, takemura-kimie@ics-inc.co.jp

CIRCULATION & AUDIENCE

T: +1 512-858-7927 – E: dottiel@pennwell.com

INDIA:

     

DEVELOPMENT MANAGER

emilym@pennwell.com

Paresh Shingala - Media Representive

RUSSIA:

 

SR VP AUDIENCE DEVELOPMENT & BOOK PUBLISHING

Gloria S. Adams gloriaa@pennwell.com

Amy Bailie - Regional Manager T: +1 918-832-9241 – E: amyb@pennwell.com

T: +(91) 44 535 8075 – E: shingala_asso@vsnl.net

 
   

BULLETIN BOARDS:

 

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CORPORATE HEADQUARTERS, PENNWELL CORPORATION 1421 S. SHERIDAN ROAD, TULSA, OK 74112 USA

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T: +7 095 1136 370 – E: Svetlanas@pennwell.com

 

EDITORIAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE

             

PETER S. CARTWRIGHT President Cartwright Consulting Co. [Oegstgeest, The Netherlands]

FRÉDÉRICK COUSIN, PRODUCT MANAGER Degrémont Technologies [Paris, France]

BEATRIZ LÓPEZ LINARES Environmental Superintendent DaimlerChrysler [Toluca, Mexico]

IAN LOMAX Global Marketing Manager - Desalination Dow Water Solutions [Rheinmuester, Germany]

PAUL OVERBECK Executive Director International Ozone Association-PAG and International Ultraviolet Association [Phoenix, USA]

ANDREW WARNES Senior Product Manager - Systems Pentair Residential Filtration - A Joint Venture of GE & Pentair [Chicago, USA]

SUBSCRIBER SERVICE: P.O.Box 3209 Northbrook, IL USA 60065-3209, Tel: (847) 559-7501 Fax: (847) 291-4816 E-mail: wwi@omeda.com, Water & Wastewater International is published six times a year. Authorization to photocopy items for internal or personal use is granted by Water & Wastewater International. No part of Water & Wastewater International may be reproduced without the express written permission of the publisher. The statements made or opinions expressed do not necessarily reflect the views of Water & Wastewater International or PennWell Corporation. Subscriptions: $271 a year,single $61; Digital-$152, single $40. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to Subscriber Service, Water & Wastewater International, P.O. Box 3209, Northbrook, IL USA 60065-3209

     

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Conference & Exhibition

           
               

®

24-26 October 2011

     

MIDDLE EAST

Doha Exhibition Center Doha, Qatar

   
       

CHANGING

             

WATER SOLUTIONS

     

IN CHALLENGING TIMES

     

CALL FOR PAPERS: DEADLINE FOR SUBMISSIONS 18 MARCH 2011

     

WaterWorld Middle East invites abstract submissions for the inaugural 2011 conference. This event will take place at Doha Exhibition Center, Qatar as a co-located event with POWER-GEN Middle East.

For information about participating at the conference as a speaker or delegate, please contact:

 
         

Samantha Malcolm

   

Conference Manager

   

Spanning over three days, WaterWorld Middle East 2011 will be a key forum for senior executives and industry leaders from across the globe, to discuss a range of hot topics

T

F

E

+44 (0) 1992 656 619

 

concerning water and wastewater markets, resources and environmental challenges

+44 (0) 1992 656 700

 

within the MENA region and internationally.

paperspgme@pennwell.com

 

Conference Topics:

             

Water Sector Structure & Regulation

• Collection & Distribution Networks

For exhibition and sponsorship opportunities contact:

 

Strategic Planning & Management

• Water Treatment

       

Desalination

• Wastewater Treatment

Roy Morris

T

 
         

Exhibit Sales Manager (International)

 

Don’t miss this prime opportunity to stay ahead of the competition and be part of this

F

E

+44 (0) 1992 656 613 +44 (0) 1992 656 700

   

informative, quality event to reach the region’s key decision makers.

rmorris@pennwell.com

   

To submit your abstract for the conference, or for further information on exhibiting or participating at the event visit

Bridgett Morgan

   
         

Exhibit Sales Manager (North America)

 
   

T

+918-831-9130

   
         

F

+918-831-9834

   
         

E

bridgettm@pennwell.com

 

Owned and Produced by:

Supported by:

   

Flagship Media Sponsors:

 

Supporting Regional Publication:

         

®

     
     

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Perspective

 
   

Blue Peace or Blue Problems?

 
   

A report on water scarcity in the Middle East suggests setting up a collective water council in the region to help bring peace between countries. Changing water's role to an olive branch will be tough.

 
   

A 'master plan' on how water could bring peace to the Middle East couldn't have been published at a more apt time than the middle of February. Entitled, The Blue Peace: Re-

thinking Middle East Water, the report said that unless

below sea level by 2040. If the water surface level in the Dead Sea continues to erode, it will be reduced to a lake in 50 years. Eventually, it could disappear. The report recommended a Cooperation Council

 

Tom Freyberg

for Sustainable Water Management in Turkey, Syria,

 

Chief Editor

 

remedial measures are introduced urgently, the Middle East is likely to plunge into serious "humanitarian crisis due to depletion of water resources". The day after the publication saw Egyptian president Hosni Mubarak resign. Five days later and the protests spread to Libya, with Colonel Gaddafi's son Saif al- Islam admitting days later that much of Eastern Libya remains under rebel control. And this list doesn't even

“The blue peace concept assures that no two countries that have access to adequate, clean and affordable water would ever go to war in the twenty-first century.”

Jordan, Lebanon and Iraq. It is hoped such a council could enable the countries to have common standards for measuring water flows and quality and spread new technologies. The Blue Peace Report suggested that such mea- sures could lead to "broader and sustainable peace between countries in the Middle East". Sundeep Waslekar, president of Strategic Foresight Group, said: "The region can be a harbinger of a new form of peace - the blue peace - a concept that has to be distinguished from conventional peace, which is normally a state of harmony between wars, and green peace that relates to ecological imperative for construc- tive relationship between societies.

 
   

– Sundeep Waslekar, president of Strategic Foresight Group

include Tunisian President Ben Ali fleeing in January or

"The blue peace concept assures that no two coun- tries that have access to adequate, clean and afford- able water would ever go to a war in the twenty-first

 
   

Bahrain's protests in the middle of February. Civil pro- test has spread like wildfire across the region as Middle Eastern nations seek a revision of their political and governmental systems. Given the input, depth and time required to put together such a report, there is no way the company behind it - Strategic Foresight Group - could have fore-

century." Questions have also been raised on how the cur- rent wave of civil unrest will impact on the water indus- try and private sector involvement. Despite a report from Reuters claiming Singapore's Hylux projects in Libya could face delays due to the political uncertainty, contracts and initiatives are still being awarded in the region. Take Bahrain, where the long-awaited Muh- haraq BOT wastewater treatment contract was recently awarded to an international consortium including South

 
   

seen such civil unrest unfolding when planning its pub-

Korea's Samsung Engineering Company. The Middle

 
   

lication in February. It was also supported by the Swiss

East and Africa regional spotlight, starting on page 18,

 
   

Agency for Development Cooperation and the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency. Interestingly, the report was prepared with the input of 100 leaders from Israel, the Palestine Territories, Jor- dan, Lebanon, Syria, Iraq and Turkey. The likes of Tuni- sia, Egypt, Bahrain and Libya were not included. "Our choice of countries is governed by the potential of opportunities to rethink water," the authors said. The paper highlighted some of the key water issues facing the region, such as river flows in Turkey, Syria, Iraq, Lebanon and Jordan being depleted by 50% to 90% from 1960 to 2010. Renewable freshwater, too, has suffered. Take the Mountain Aquifer, shared by the Palestinian Territories, which has been reduced by 7% since 1993. Figures also showed that the water level in the Dead Sea dropped from 390 metres below sea level in the 1960s, down to 420 metres below sea level currently. Predictions show this level could drop to 450 metres

details further market activity and project overviews in the region. In light of the expected growth, I'm pleased to an- nounce that PennWell International will this year be de- veloping what was the Water Track of the Power-Gen Middle East event, into a co-located event called Wa- terWorld Middle East. More information can be found at: www.waterworldmiddleeast.com. To conclude, water, as an essential commodity to life, has been fought over and the cause of disruption and wars for years. It will be interesting to see whether such "blue peace" recommendations will come to frui- tion and make a difference. The Libyan troubles will in- evitably continue to rumble on until embattled Libyan ruler Col Muammar Gaddafi steps down. One truth is for certain: water will continue to be es- sential for life and there will always be a need for public and private sector expertise and technologies. WWi

 
       

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Worldwide News

       

Europe

FIELD NOTES

 

Advanced anaerobic digestion backed to help meet sustain- ability targets

Electricity generated from sludge treatment will play a key role in helping countries meet regulatory goals, such as the Renewables Obligation in the UK requiring 15% of electricity to be gener- ated by renewable sources in 2015. Speaking in Lisbon at the Water and Energy Exchange, experts highlighted the major contribution anaerobic digestion from wastewater has made in the past. Dr Bill Barber from AECOM said that while only 13% of energy in the UK comes from renewable sources, a whole 73% of this total is derived from wastewater biogas. The water indus- try uses 3% of all energy in the UK, he added. Barber said that vast majority of the water sector’s footprint comes from operating facilities, with aeration and pumping contributing a large proportion. He went on to highlight the Davyhulme sludge treatment plant, in Manchester, which he said provides co-generation of

Improved membranes could help turn evaporated steam to drinking water

Improving membrane technology can now recover high-grade water from flue gases and could be a valuable contri- bution to the world’s water shortages. Furthermore, industrial plants could be transformed from water consumers to water producers, according to research from energy services firm KEMA. Research from the firm has shown that captured evaporated water can be recycled for both industrial processes, such as cooling applications or generat- ing steam, as well as consumer use. Tests in collaboration with the Euro- pean Membrane Institute at the University of Twente and a number of Dutch utilities showed how water could be captured on a grand scale through improved gas separate membranes. Studies in industrial plants in the Netherlands and Germany re- portedly demonstrated that at least 40% of the water in the flue gases can now be recovered. This compares to a recovery figure of 20%, the researchers said. As a follow up to the findings, thir- teen partners from Europe, the Middle East and Africa are being led by KEMA

Netherlands and South Africa. It is hoped this follow on project, under the name CapWA (Capture of evaporated Water with novel membranes) will lead to large scale implementation of the technology. Participants in the project (in alpha- betical order) include: Brabant Water (the Netherlands), Gas Natural Fenosa (Spain), Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (Insti- tute for Membrane Technology, Italy), Cut GmbH & Co. KG (Germany), École Natio- nale d’Ingénieurs de Tunis (Tunisia), Israel Electric Corporation Ltd. (Israel), KEMA

Papiertechnische Stiftung (Germany), Sap- pi Ltd. (South Africa & the Netherlands), Stichting Kenniscentrum Papier en Karton (the Netherlands), University of Twente – European Membrane Institute (the Nether- lands), Yodfat Engineers Ltd. (Israel). Pier Nabuurs, chairman of KEMA board of directors, said: “The conse- quences of this new technology are far-reaching. Not only in the field of the environment and cost savings, but cer- tainly also in the field of the drinking water issue in arid areas, as in some African countries.”

10 MW of electricity and treats 91,000 tonnes of dry solids per year.

to develop large scale tests at power sta- tions in Spain and Israel, a geo-thermal well in Tunisia and paper factories in the

(the Netherlands), Kwame Nkrumah Uni- versity of Science and Technology Kumasi (Ghana), Membrana GmbH (Germany),

In Brief

 

Cambi was awarded the contract to provide the thermal hydrolysis plant, comprising four process trains, with Black & Veatch acting as the principle

UK institution partners Hong Kong university

 

contractor on the £75 million project. It is hoped the renewable energy source provided by the installation will help contribute towards the UK’s target requiring 15% of all energy supplied by the national grid to come from renew- able sources. Bastien Fischer, vice president and general manager at Oracle Utilities, said: “Energy is embedded in water and the responsible use of water and energy is one of the most important challenges we need to address.” Meanwhile, Sudhir Murthy highlighted the U.S. approach, discussing DC Wa- ter’s facility as the largest biological nutri-

UK company kick-starts chemical investigation scheme

Severn Trent Water has contracted environmental monitoring specialist enitial a contract to monitor 37 of its wastewater treatment facilities for chemicals such as oestrogen and ibuprofen. The programme aims to identify the effect of wastewater treatment processes on the management of the 33 chemicals deemed to be potentially harmful to the environment according to the European Priority Substances Directive. Environment consultancy, WSP, will be coordinating the programme, which will involve enitial collecting some 3,000

across 37 Severn Trent Water sites. The National Laboratory Service’s (NLS) labo- ratories will be used to analyse the sam- ples. Research consultancy, WatStech, will also be undertaking specialist process analysis in its Wolverhampton laboratories. The contract ties in with Severn Trent Water’s Chemical Investigations Pro- gramme (CIP) - set up by the UK Water Industry Research organisation (UKWIR) in collaboration with the Environment Agency in order to uphold European reg- ulations – namely the Water Framework Directive and the new Priority Substances

The School Of Energy And Envi- ronment, City University of Hong Kong has become the UK’s Char- tered Institution of Water and Environmental Management’s (CIWEM) first International Partner Organisation. The School of Energy and Environment was founded in 2009 and is ranked in the 130 top world’s universities. CIWEM said such partnerships can help raise professional stan- dards, promoting environmental innovation, improving public policy for the benefit of the envi- ronment and informing the public on environmental matters.

Consultation closes on Thames “super-sewer”

Controversial plans for the 20-

ent plant in the continent. Average design flows are 370 million gallons per day. As part of a new biosolids manage-

samples over the 18 month programme

Directive which regulate environmental quality standards. All wastewater treat-

mile long wastewater tunnel un- der London have moved forwards after the initial consultation plans have closed.

ment programme, the company evalu- ated approximately 50 different process combinations. The trials found that thermal hydrolysis, compared to other processes, reduces digester volume, produces high solids content with a belt filter press and benefits include odours are low and less offensive, along with pathogen disinfection.

   

ment companies in Eng- land and Scotland are expected to take part in the CIP, which aims to check concentrations of priority pollutants which are released into the river system. This is to identify any trends and investigate how their removal can be better managed.

The £3.6 billion scheme, a cost which has been questioned by Hammersmith & Fulham Council, would see a storage tank con- structed under the River Thames to increase the capacity of Lon- don’s aging Victoria sewage sys- tem and reduce wastewater es- caping into the river after heavy rainfall. Consultation results are expected to be reviewed before a second consultation begins in late 2011.

6

February/March | 2011

       

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Worldwide News

       

Europe

Sample of average household bills in 2011/12 (including 4.7% rate of inflation) a

Tariff increases in England

Company

Water

Sewerage

Total Change

 

Value

Change

Value

Change

Value

Change

 

££

£

££

%

and Wales remain 10% lower

Water & sewerage companies

Northumbrian

     

than company requests

     
       

Severn Trent

164

5

147

7

13

4.3

The average household water and

Southern

Thames

 

142

11

255

13

24

6.4

 

196

4

123

8

13

4.1

sewerage bill across England and Wales

Regina Finn, chief executive officer at Ofwat, said: “People can shop around for

United Utilities

Water only companies

182

9

194

5

14

3.9

is set to increase by 4.6%, or £16, to £356, over the course of 2011 to 2012.

the best deal on many things, but not wa-

 

Change (water only)

The figure followed water regulator Of-

ter. Our job is to do this for them. No one

Bristol

 

167

13

13

8.2

wat setting out in 2009 how much water

wants to see bills increasing, particular in tough economic times. When we set

Portsmouth

Sembcorp Bournemouth (formerly

Veolia Central (formerly Three

91

2

2

2.5

and wastewater companies could charge customers during AMP5 (asset manage-

limits on prices, we listened to customers and challenged companies hard.

Bournemouth & West Hampshire) c

147

8

8

6.0

ment plan) between 2010-2015.

Valleys) d

169

9

9

5.9

Ofwat said the 4.6% predicted rise,

“That’s why average bills are set to remain broadly in line with inflation up

   

Total change

in line with inflation, is less than 10% of what companies asked for and the bill changes will come into effect on 1 April

until 2015, while companies are invest- ing more than ever before, £22 billion. That’s more than £935 for every property

   

(combined bill)

2011, applying until 31 March 2012.

in

England and Wales.”

   

In Brief

 

Middle East/Africa

     

LIBYA: Libya desalination- projects could face delay

Wastewater treatment contract in Bahrain finally awarded to global consortium

Singapore water treatment firm Hyflux has said that its projects in Libya could be delayed due to political uncertainty in the country, according to Reuters. This followed the firm recently

After much anticipation Bahrain’s Min-

In Brief

a

160,000 cubic metres per day in the fu-

ture. It will serve a strategically important

popular residential zone.

list, including Suez Environment (Degre-

securing the $100 million sea- water desalination contract in

QATAR: Qatari to lead

A research programme that will

istry of Works and Ministry of Finance have awarded a consortium headed by South Korea’s Samsung Engineer-

area of Manama, including the interna- tional airport, a new industrial park, and

mont), Sembcorp Industries and Veolia Water. Park Ki-Seok, president and chief ex-

Tobruk and further negotiation on two projects in Benghazi and Tripoli. Hyflux’s two seawater desalination projects in Algeria

ing Company the Muharraq wastewater

ecutive officer of Samsung Engineering, said

remain unaffected by the dem-

treatment facility contract. The group, also including Abu Dhabi financial services firm Invest AD and the United Kingdom’s United Utilities Interna- tional, will build and operate the treatment plant as part of a BOT (build, operate and

The project includes taking over, up- grading and operating a portion of the city’s wastewater network. Samsung En- gineering and United Utilities will handle operations and maintenance for 24 years after completion.

that as the first BOO/BOT project in Bahrain, this project will serve as an integral part of Bahrain’s sanitary infrastructure. All three partners in the consortium are providing equity for the project, with Samsung committing 45%, Invest AD

onstrations and are progressing as scheduled, the news agency said.

ExxonMobil water re- search

transfer) contract. The plant will process 100,000 cu- bic metres per day of wastewater and is scheduled to achieve mechanical completion after 30 months. It is hoped facility will have the capacity to expand to

Bahrain’s Ministry of Works and Min- istry of Finance awarded the concession following a financial and technical evalu- ation of six competitive bids submitted in February 2010. Before this stage, 16 companies made it to the pre-qualified

35% and United Utilities 20%. Developed over three and a half years, the project is being debt financed by the Export-Import Bank of Korea (KEXIM), Japanese lender Sumitomo Mitsui (SMBC), and French banks Natixis and Crédit Agricole.

focus on identifying native plant life to naturally clean industrial water at the ExxonMobil Re- search Qatar (EMRQ) will be led by Qatari national Dr Mohamed Yacob al-Sulaiti. Dr al-Sulaiti will lead the project to investigate water treatment technologies and has a PhD in Civil Engi- neering from Colorado State

BAHRAIN: Wind powered desalination agreement

   

University, where his research focus area was ‘Water Resources and Management- Groundwater Modelling’.

Wind powered desalination has taken a step forward following the signing of a memorandum of understanding between Germany company Synlift Systems and Jade Consultancy in Bahrain. The MoU will see green desalina- tion technologies being introduced to the Gulf for the first time. Feasibility studies will look at combined or single wind energy and reverse osmosis desalination systems. Laboratory studies simulating Gulf region conditions are said to have shown such a concept is technically viable and economical.

SAUDI ARABIA: MED de- salination project in Saudi awarded to Doosan Heavy

OMAN: Water authority awards multimillion dollar contract

 

The Saline Water Conversion Corporation (SWCC) in Saudi

Oman’s Public Authority for Electricity and Water has awarded a five-year contract to international consultancy Arcadis in a bid to professionalise its water management. The multi-million deal will see Malcolm Pirnie, the water division of Arcadis, support Veolia Water in managing the country’s water sector in the Middle East. Responsibili- ties under the contract will include a review of the authority’s information and communication technologies and development of operation manuals and procedures.

Arabia has awarded a contract to Doosan Heavy Industries & Con- struction to co-build what has been touted as the largest single multi-effect distillation (MED)

KENYA: Water and power stations trials prove successful

 

desalination unit in the world. The US$124 million agreement will see the unit constructed for the second phase of the plant at

A series of solar powered water units have been installed in Kenya which have helped bring water to nearly 8000 people per month. Installed by HabiHut in cooperation with Kenyan-based NGO Umande Trust, the pilot project saw each of kiosks supplying on average 2,600 customers per month. Solar panels provided light as well as cell phone charging capabilities. It is hoped the scheme will clean water globally.

Yanbu, which will have a capacity of 15 MIDG (68,190 m 3 /d) and aims to supply potable water for use by 150,000 to 200,000 people.

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Asia/Pacific

     

Worldwide News

Mundaring contract establishes PPP in Western Australia

 

The recently awarded design-build- operate (DBO) Mundaring Water Treat- ment Plant project in Australia has been labelled as the first public-private partner- ship of its type in Western Australia. The Helena Water consortium, com- prising Acciona Agua, United Utilities Australia, Brookfield Multiplex and Royal

Bank of Scotland secured the contract as part of a 35 year concession. It will have an initial capacity of 165,000 m 3 /day and will supply the Goldfield and Agricultural Water System, including Kalgoorlie in the State of West- ern Australia. Bill Marmion, Government Water

Minister in Western Australia, said: “The consortium, which was one of two short- listed for the competitive process by the Water Corporation, brings together a group with extensive experience and success in delivering various water en- vironmental infrastructure projects and a very strong balance sheet.”

This is Acciona Agua’s second major contract in Australia following the design and current build of the Port Stanvac de- salination plant in Adelaide, which it will also operate. As well as water, the company also has 258 MW capacity of wind energy fully operational in the country.

PUB opts for B&V to help expand Changi wastewater facility

As part of the expansion to the Chan- gi Water Reclamation Plant, Singapore’s

ment process to the treatment facility to increase its treatment capacity up to

60,000 m 3 /day of reclaimed water.

B&V said the membrane filtration ex- pansion will observe sustainability best

Ralph Eberts, executive vice presi- dent in Black & Veatch’s global water

national water agency, PUB, selected Black & Veatch (B&V) to provide consul- tancy services valued at S$2.2 million. The expansion involves retrofitting

Already one of largest treatment facili- ties of its kind, the Changi Water Recla- mation Plant’s total capacity is 800,000

practices, occupying a small footprint within the existing site. Equipment will be integrated with existing structures where

business, said: “The result will be even greater treatment flexibility to what is al- ready regarded as one of the most ad-

an additional membrane filtration treat-

m

3 /day.

 

feasible and incur relatively limited capital costs as a result.

vanced wastewater treatment facilities in the world.”

Mumbai airport contracts AECOM/Aquatech new partnership

An agreement has been signed be- tween AECOM’s design-build business in the UK and Aquatech Systems Asia, for the use of biological treatment technology for industrial and municipal applications in the Indian wastewater treatment market.

The partnership will see AECOM’s Cy- clic Activated Sludge System being dis- tributed and a contract has already been signed with the award of an integrated waste treatment and recycle-reuse project at Mumbai International Airport,

which will feature CASS (Cyclic Activated Sludge System) technology. A Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) technology, the process uses a combi- nation of biological selector and variable volume reactor process. The process op-

erates with a single sludge in a single re- actor basin to accomplish both biological treatment and solids-liquid separation. The partnership said CASS SBR technol- ogy installations to date have included capacities in excess of 150,000m 3 /day.

   

   

       

   

   

   

   

   

   

   

   

           
 

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Worldwide News

       

Asia/Pacific

Investment programme to boost water supply in Vietnam

A $2.8 billion programme has been set out to improve clean water access for three million families in Vietnam, including half a million poor households who will receive their own piped water connection for the first time. The programme has been backed to the tune of nearly $1 billion by the Asian Development Bank and supported by the Government of Vietnam. At present, four in every ten families living in Vietnam largest cities are not con- nected to a central water supply system, and only one in three towns have any form

tributes to intermittent service from low pressure. One goal of the water investment program is to reduce water loss in urban areas to less than 20% by 2020, bringing Vietnam’s cities in line with affluent Asian cities, such as Seoul. “When four out of every ten liters of water is lost before it comes out of the tap, this is essentially pouring cash down the drain,” said Ayumi Konishi, ADB’s country director for Vietnam. “Making an upfront investment to plug the leaks gives

through the installation of new pipelines and the repair and extension of existing networks. In addition to infrastructure im- provements, the program will enhance the operational management and commercial viability of water companies. ADB is providing $138 million for the pro- gram’s first project in Ho Chi Minh City, where many poor households are not yet connect- ed to piped water systems, and are paying almost twice the official water tariff. “Poor water coverage hits poor fami- lies the hardest, and this investment pro-

ter Corporation, will improve pressure and coverage for over half a million city residents, and provide almost 20,000 families with their first household water connections. The project is expected to increase water availability in Ho Chi Minh City to over 64 million cubic meters per annum over the next decade. The nationwide water investment pro- gram is a cornerstone of the country’s efforts to attain 90% piped water cov- erage by 2020, with universal coverage targeted by 2025.

of piped water supply. Many piped water systems in urban

consumers a more dependable water supply, enhances public health, and pro-

gram will benefit these families most,” said Konishi. “When poor families are

In Brief

 

areas urgently need upgrades, with as much as 30% to 40% of water lost be- fore it reaches the end consumer, due foremost to leaky pipes. Water loss con-

vides water companies with significant cost savings.” The program will help water compa- nies improve and expand clean water supply in some of Vietnam’s largest cities

provided with piped water connections it measurably boosts their income and improves their well-being.” The Ho Chi Minh City project, which will be implemented by the Saigon Wa-

CHINA: RO market contin- ues to show growth

Americas

       

CHINA: Toray has secured two orders to supply reverse osmosis (RO) membranes to seawater de-

Suez to lead water recovery plan in Haiti

salination plants Qingdao (Shan- dong) and Caofeidian (Tangshan, Hebei) in China. The two facilities will produce a combined total of 150,000m 3 /day. The Qingdao facility is scheduled to start op-

As part of a rehabilitation process following the devastating earthquake in January 2010, Haiti’s National Director- ate for Drinking Water and Sanitation has selected Suez Environnement for a three- year plan to restore drinking water and sanitation services in the metropolitan

area of Port-au-Prince. The project will be led by the firm’s French, Spanish and U.S. subsidiaries, Lyonnaise des Eaux, Agbar and United Water and investments needed for the project will be financed by the Inter-American Development Bank and the Spanish Agency for International

Development Cooperation (AECID). As part of the collaboration, solutions will be provided to meet the urgent require- ments of the 2.5 million inhabitants of the Port-au-Prince region and the long-term management of its essential water and sanitation services.

erations in 2011, currently under construction by Befesa and has been touted as the “largest RO membrane desalination plant in China”. Drinking water will be supplied to 7.5 million residents in the city. Water produced from the Caofeidian facility will mainly be used as industrial water in the industrial development zone.

U.S. Water Prize winners announced by CWAA

 

The Clean Water America Alliance has announced winners of the 2011 U.S. Wa- ter Prize for watershed-based approach- es toward water sustainability. Winners, in alphabetical order in- cluded the City of Los Angeles, Milwau- kee Water Council, National Great Rivers Restoration & Education Center, New York City Department of Environmental

proaches and increasing resource recovery through water reuse and other cutting edge technologies. Both cities are maxi- mising their resources through community partnerships and involvement. The Milwaukee Water Council is es- tablishing public-private collaborations that advance water technology and pro- mote economic development.

communities around the confluence of two rivers and creating a national and in- ternational center for science, education and public outreach. The Pacific Institute is said to be consistently in the vanguard of water is- sues from water use efficiency to climate change, informing political debate and elevating public awareness.

GHANA: Befesa secures 60,000 m 3 /day desalina- tion contract

A US$110 million contract has been signed between the Gov- ernment of Ghana and Spanish firm Befesa Agua. Signed by the minister of Water Resources, Works and Housing, Alban Bagbin, the reported 60,000 m 3 / day desalination facility will supply drinking water to the Teshie-Nungua and neighboring communities.

CHINA: Hyflux to develop

Protection, and the Pacific Institute. The City of Los Angeles, particularly, the Department of Sanitation, and New York City Department of Environmental Protec-

As a result, the Milwaukee area is be- coming known as a “World Water Hub”, according to Clean Water America Alli- ance. A state-of-the-art facility, the Na-

“These five water champions reflect the diversity of America and set a shin- ing example for innovating, integrating, and collaborating from coast to coast to

wastewater treatment plant in Zunzi, Guizhou

tion are planning, integrating, and incorpo- rating innovative green infrastructure ap-

tional Great Rivers Research & Education Center (Alton, Ill.) is mobilising volunteer

sustain America’s most precious liquid asset,” said Ben Grumbles, president.

Clean water technology research MOU signed between Singapore water agency PUB and Ontario goverment

Hyflux, through its subsidiary in China, will develop a wastewater treatment plant to treat up to 150,00m 3 /day for Zunyi City in north Guizhou province, China. The build-own-transfer (BOT) ar- rangement will see the company operate and maintain the plant

Tihe Government of Ontario in Can- ada has entered into a strategic alliance with Singapore’s national water agency, PUB, to conduct advanced clean water research and development. Under a Memorandum of Under- standing (MOU), Ontario and PUB will collaborate in the areas of clean water technologies and exchange knowledge and expertise that leverage each jurisdic-

tion’s resources. “This MOU bodes well as Singapore aims to draw world-class research and development of talent and companies in the water sector, in line with our aspiration to build Singapore as a hub for water knowledge and solutions,” said Khoo Teng Chye, executive director of the environment and Water Industry Pro- gramme Office (EWI) and chief executive of PUB.

Ontario is the first North American juris- diction to enter into such an agreement with Singapore, even though more than 70 water companies and 14 corporate research and development centres have already set up facilities and offices in Singapore. The first Lee Kuan Yew Water Prize winner, Dr. Andrew Benedek, is a Cana- dian citizen who founded Zenon, which is based in Ontario.

on a 30-year concession. The project is scheduled to complete construction in the second half of 2012 and investment cost is estimated at approximately RMB 200 million, which will be funded through internal resources. The two main districts of Zunyi City have a combined population of about 800,000 people, and the whole region has a population of approximately seven million.

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Making Ripples: Water Leader Focus

     

MDGs: the next stage

     

As part of a live webcast that discussed the future challenges of meeting the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), WWi brought together some of the industry’s leading experts. Tom Freyberg summarises what the Stockholm International Water Institute, International Water Association and WaterHealth International had to say.

 

I t was in 2000 that the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)

were set out by world leaders at the United Nations Millennium

Summit. A goal was set out to reduce, by half, the population

of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water by

2015. Two years later, the World Summit on Sustainable Devel-

opment added a second target: to halve, by 2015, the proportion of people who do not have access to basic sanitation. It is the latter

 

that is proving more of a challenge. The following excerpts have been

 

taken from the Virtual H20 event and archived webcasts can still be

 

found online at: www.virtualh2oevent.com.

 
         

MDG status and future goals

 
 

“With regards to MDG on sanitation, the world is doing quite badly. Between 1990 and 2008 there were 1.3 billion people who gained access to improved sanitation. The problem is that during the same period population growth was 1.5 billion, so we effectively lost 0.2 billion people [with access to improved sanitation]. And today, figures show that 2.6 billion people still do not use improved sanitation

up. This is a good indication that we are, in this part, doing well. While 87% of the world’s population now use drinking water from improved sources, sub-Saharan Africa and Oceania are still lagging behind. Just 60% of the population in sub-Saharan Africa and 50% of the popula- tion in Oceania use improved sources of drinking-water. Furthermore, in China, 89% of the population of 1.3 billion has access to drinking-water from improved sources, up from 67% in 1990.

ECONOMIC CASE FOR INVESTING IN WATER

 

Jens Berggren,

facilities. So even if, in the 18 years between 1990 and

 

director, World Water Week, Stockholm International Water

Institute (SIWI)

2008, we managed to serve 200,000 people per day with improved sanitation (almost two people per second), we

are still not able to keep up with population growth.

WATER SUPPLY

The situation with regards to water supply is far better than sanitation.

World Bank estimates suggest that if you invest in water supply and sanitation, you would get between US$3 to US$34 back per US$1

 

To date progress has not been very good. In developed regions 99% of the population use improved facilities compared to 52% in developing regions. Furthermore, at the current rate of progress, the world will miss the MDG sanitation target by almost one billion people.

invested, depending on the region. In addition, if you go beyond what is mandated by the MDGs for improved water quality, you could get back between US$5 to US$60 per US dollar invested. So what will it take to achieve the MDGs? We have all of the necessary resources, apart from political will, to meet the MDGs. We need to remove the political obstacles to improve water supply and

 

For a large part of the world we are able to serve the population. Two billion more people have access to safe drinking water compared to 20 years ago. The world has outperformed global population growth and progress has seen more than eight million people (the population of Sweden) gaining access to safe drinking water every month, over the past 20 years. And the achievements in the water sector, with regards to the water, were highlighted in the UN MDG Summit held last year in Sep- tember. There it was stated that water and sanitation were areas of suc- cessful policy implementation in need of political commitment for scaling

sanitation. Some people have stated that we need more R&D to provide cost effective ways of providing water supply and sanitation to developing countries. However, if we have the return figure of between $3 to $35 per dollar invested, I don’t think we need to go much further on this. We need political action and commitment - very few politicians like to talk about sanitation. It’s still a taboo subject and politicians do not like to talk about sanitation or to be known as the “sanitation champion”, incase it affects their political career. We have a very posi- tive message to relay to political decision makers. There is a lot of low hanging fruit but it’s ripe for picking and we can do it.”

 
   

Meeting MDGs in the developing urban environment

 

Glen Daigger, chief technology officer at CH2M Hill and president of the International Water Association

“It’s important to understand, when we are discussing sani- tation, that we are talking about people who have access to toilets. Firstly, of the wastewater generated on this planet, only about 25% is actually treated. We are woefully behind in terms of meeting this narrow goal and when we’ve accomplished this, we still have a lot of work to do. It’s important to realise that the MDGS are very important points but they are really signposts to improve water and sani- tation. We are not done when we’ve achieved the MDGs. We are at a time when we are reinventing how we are using water in the urban environment. Nearly half of the hu- man population will live in areas of water stress by 2025.

12

12

February/March | 2011

It’s important to note that nearly all population growth in the first half of the 21st Century is expected to be in urban areas in developing countries, which is a challenge yet an opportunity for us. However, there is a lack of support for these urban water management utilities. Our focus and our need for reinvention in the water industry is the idea of integrated water and resource management. Principles that we use in the water management remain the same, but the strategies and practices that we use need to change, and are changing. We are moving from managing water in individual components to managing water in an integrated fashion. We have a tremendous toolkit to use here. All of the methods are being used in multiple locations around the world, and we are gaining

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Making Ripples: Water Leader Focus

experience with this toolkit, learning how to pull these tools together that can perform at a much, much higher level. Drinking water, used water, storm water and rainwater need to be managed in an integrated fashion that captures the synergies be- tween them to provide an integrated supply. This requires a change in technical perspective, financing and planning.

Historically, cities have been planned and then the water industry has come along afterwards. This is no longer the plan we can follow. Water professionals need to be involved in the planning of the city, so that the water infrastructure is part of the design and fabric of the city. This is starting to happen in developed as well as developing countries.

 
         

Decentralised water purification

 
 

Sameer Mithal, executive vice president for business development at WaterHealth International (WHI)

 
 

“Most people understand the problems we face on water globally. Whether you are talking about 2015 or 2025, water is a major human issue we are trying to tackle. Where you have communities of several thou- sand people, there is usually a water

times ultra-violet dosage, with an effective high water turbidity (up to NTU) and no degradation in UV dose due to fouling. The implementa- tion is what is different, not the technology. We are also in the process of introducing new technologies, com- mon in other industries but not this one. This includes remote moni- toring - putting in wireless sensors at different points in our system that feed data back. This way we can monitor centres remotely. WWi Enquiry No. 111

source. In our experience most habi- tations have some access to water, otherwise they would not exist. However, if it’s a standing source, it is commonly contaminated. Most governments we work with in these communities are overwhelmed - they are focused on water availability and not quality issues. The scale of the problem overwhelms gov- ernments and availability of safe water can be as- sured through the use of decentralized solutions.

Real-time Heavy Metals testing for the Global Water Supply

BUSINESS MODEL

             

Our method is that we build the WaterHealth cen- tres, take the water source used by the community such as rivers, lakes or ponds which can be con- taminated as the raw water input. Once it has been purified to World Health Organisation (WHO) stan- dards, it is sold to the community. We sell it at a price point which is affordable. For example, in Ghana, where we operate, the sachet water that people buy - around half a litre - is 20 times more expensive than the water we supply, at a 20 litre capacity level. We use half of the money that we generate [from the tariff] for the operation of the plant, so we hire people from the community to operate the facility, train and

 

One Minute One Button Zero Waste

 

pay them. From the balance of the money that comes from the centres, we take a share of the profit and share the remainder back with the community, which we call a community development fund. Community leaders then decide how and where to spend it.

 

Ideal for field testing for Lead, Uranium, Copper and Mercury

 

Regarding the commitment made at the UN Summit at the end of last year, we’ve just entered into a joint venture with the International Finance Corporation and a local partner to install 50 cen- tres over the next year in Bangladesh. Centres have

 

We are searching for regional distributors globally, Contact us

 

been pre-funded and the money is used to install and operate these systems. The total of 50 centres should address the needs of between 300,000 and 500,000 people, with each centre supplying water

 

marketing@andalyze.com +1 217.328.0045 www.andalyze.com

 

for between 5,000 and 10,000 people on average. The plan is to build several hundred more across Bangladesh.

TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY

It’s a very simple process - it uses blended RO (re-

Test for heavy metals in water such as lead or uranium quickly and at the push of a button. Ideal for field testing water sources, process water quality control,

For Info. http://wwi.hotims.com RS# 8

verse osmosis), ultrafiltration and arsenic, iron and fluoride removal technologies where needed. The patented UV WaterWorks delivers three to five more

home inspection and in home water services. Starter kits from ANDalyze sold at www.shop.andalyze.com includes device, 50 test sensors and all needed acces- sories. Copyright ANDalyze, Inc. 2011

       

February/March | 2011

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Creative Finance

           

Western Europe

     

Poised for Major Investment

     

To catch up with water leaders such as Germany, the rest of Europe is in prime position to attract investment and bring its water and wastewater infrastructure up to scratch. The eco- nomic situation may delay and lead to some projects being shelved, but in the west utilities are set to invest €89.8 billion over the next five years. Nuno Oscar Branco reports.

 

W estern European water and wastewater utilities supply drinking water and sanitation services to 390 million people across 17 countries. The Eu- ropean water industry is valued at approximately €47.8 billion per year. Of this amount, 10% is

made up of water and wastewater treatment technologies, 1.6% in

To put a price on this future challenge, Western European water and wastewater utilities are expected to invest €89.8 billion over the next five years to rehabilitate water and wastewater infrastructure. Such a figure should not come as a surprise. The European Federation of National Associations of Water and

 

water management and the remaining 88.4% in asset management, which includes capital expenditures (CAPEX) and operational expen- ditures (OPEX).

Wastewater Services (EUREAU) estimates that there are approxi- mately 2.9 million kilometres of water and 1.9 million kilometres of wastewater networks across Europe. Other infrastructure that must

 

Figure 1. Drinking water and wastewater coverage and treatment

be managed by the utilities comprises water abstraction facilities, storage and treatment and for wastewater collection and treatment.

 

100

               

% Population covered

80

60

40

20

0

     

GERMANY LEADS THE PACK

   
               
     

Germany has the best water infrastructure in western Europe, as well

 
     

as low water losses and few disruptions to supply. It is also no co- incidence that the country is more advanced when it comes to the

 
     

adoption of the EU regulation.

 
       

United Ireland

Germany

Kingdom

Portugal

Switzerland

Austria Greece

France Italy

Netherlands

Spain

Beglium

Western European countries

Denmark

Finland

Norway

Sweden

Furthermore, in Germany, investments in the water and waste- water sector are fully paid by the end-users as water and waste- water utilities already price water and wastewater services following the cost-recovery principle of the Water Framework Directive. Thus,

 

Drinking water coverage

Wastewater collection

Wastewater treatment

consumers of these services in Germany directly finance investments

 

It is worth noting that 20% of the investments made by Western European Utilities are in the rehabilitation of the networks and treat- ment plants. Infrastructure of the water and wastewater utilities is very capital intensive. Drinking water and wastewater networks have

service life of up to 100 years and reservoirs have an even longer

a

in the sector and not the government, as is often the case in other western European countries such as Ireland. To reach this stage, Germany invested just over €100 billion over the last 15 to 20 years. In order to catch up with Germany’s rate of water losses and overall operational efficiency, other European countries in the west now have similar objectives and utilities in these

 

countries have set up plans rehabilitate their water infrastructure.

 

lifetime expectancy. Treatment plants are rehabilitated to assure se- curity of supply and high quality drinking water and environmentally

PRIORITIES OF THE EU WATER AND WASTEWATER UTILITIES

 

safe wastewater and sludge. Rehabilitation of this basic infrastructure

is

fundamental to preserve physical assets for future generations.

European Water utilities must implement the EU Treatment Direc-

 
 

Figure 2. CAPEX revenue splits 2007-2017

   

tives by providing high quality drinking water to 100% of the popula- tion and protecting the environment by performing wastewater and

 

100

     

sludge treatment. In some countries water and wastewater utilities

 

80

     

still need to reach 100% of the population with these basic services and are pressed by the European Union to reach these goals by

 

Revenue share (%)

60

40

20

     

2015.

       
     

However, at par with investments in new water and wastewater

 
     

networks and new treatment capacity the utilities must also maintain and rehabilitate the old networks and treatment plants, ensuring a

 
     

good operational performance. With regards to rehabilitation, the priorities of water networks are

 

0

     

to improve drinking water supply and preserve the infrastructure for future generations. This includes reducing water losses, expanding

 

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

       

14

14

New build

February/March | 2011

Year

Refurbishment

 

and maintaining the wastewater network and water and wastewater treatment plants.

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Creative Finance

   

Figure 3. Water network and water losses per country, Western Europe

   
   

Water network per country (km)

 

Water lost as a percentage of total water distributed

REDUCING WATER LOSSES

 

1,000,000

878,000

   

35

   

Kilometres

In most western European countries the wa-

800,000

   

Water loss as % of total

30

25

20

15

10

5

   

ter network is older than the wastewater net-

         

work, hence in need for more rehabilitation

600,000

500,000

     

investments. Frost & Sullivan estimates that,

 

406,000

133,200

     

across Western Europe, more than 40% of

400,000

322,968

115,000

     
 

101,025

67,000

   

the networks need to be rehabilitated. Ger-

   

83,000

54,000

   

200,000

 

70,000

47,000

   

many, according to a recent study by the

   

68,596

41,000

   

BDWE (Bundesverband der Energie- und Wasserwirtschaft e. V.), is the country that in-

Germany

France

0

Italy

Netherlands

Belgium

Finland

Spain

Austria

Norway

Denmark

Portugal

Switzerland

Ireland

Sweden

5,105*

Greece

Italy

France

Greece

Portugal

Ireland

0

Norway

Denmark

Belgium

Finland

Switzerland

Spain

Sweden

Austria

Germany

Netherlands

United Kingdom

United Kingdom

vests more in the drinking water sector (€0.54 per m 3 ) followed by England (€0.53 per m 3 ) and France (€0.33per m 3 ). Water networks

are being replaced to prevent contamination from lead pipes, to reduce water losses and improve the management of the network by introducing control and monitoring instrumentation.

*No data available for Greece

also planning to introduce measures to improve operational perfor- mance and improve its economic efficiencies.

 

EXPAND AND MAINTAIN THE WASTEWATER NETWORK

According to the European Union, for sensitive areas “more strin- gent treatment is in place for 72% of the pollution load, with a compli-

 

Just like with the water sector, Germany is also the country in Europe that invests more into its wastewater sector (1.27 €/ m 3 ), followed by England and Wales (€0.91 / m3), France (€0.72 / m 3 ) and Italy with (€0.11 /m 3 ), respectively. According to the BDWE Germany spent $7 billion in the wastewater in 2006, the lowest

ance rate of 85%”. Only the Netherlands, Germany and Austria are 100% compliant with the directive. The other member countries of the EU are required to comply with this directive by 2015, thus antici- pating new investments in tertiary and advanced treatment technolo- gies are expected.

 

amount since 1998 because of the “phasing- out of investments within the implementation of

Figure 4. Wastewater treatment plants and conformity with EU legislation treatment directives

 

Wastewater treatment plants per country

Wastewater treatment per country

 

the EC Directive on Urban Wastewater Treat-

20,000

   

100

   

ment”. However, according to the same report

 

17,302

       

by the BDWE “approximately 20% of the pub-

Number of treatment plants

15,000

10,000

5,000

9,994

   

80

   

lic sewage systems are in need of rehabilita-

         

tion in the short to medium term and another 21.5% show small damages and need to be

   

60

   

rehabilitated in the long term”. Thus, Germany

9,000

10,375

 

% share

40

   

will remain an important market for rehabilita-

       

tion in Europe moving from water to wastewa- ter networks. We estimate that utilities in other

         
 

2,158

20

   

countries will follow the same investment pat-

 

1,720 553 392 1,500 900 400 785 1,291

530

2,000

     

terns and will also invest in the rehabilitation of

478

     

0

   

0

   

its wastewater networks in the short to medium term.

Germany

Ireland

Italy

Netherlands

France

Belgium

United Kingdom

Spain

Austria

Denmark

Greece

Portugal

Switzerland

Finland

Sweden

Germany

Denmark

Netherlands

Norway

United Kingdom

Switzerland

Austria

Norway

Italy

France

Ireland

Finland

Spain

Sweden

Greece

Portugal

Belgium

WATER AND WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS

   

Countries

Countries

 

The rehabilitation of the water and wastewater treatment plants

FUTURE INVESTMENTS

     

allows utilities to address different objectives. Firstly, to improve op- erational performance. Secondly, to improve treatment performance and finally, to improve economic efficiencies. Planning is fundamen- tal to achieve these three objectives in parallel, as they are aligned towards a similar goal which is cost reduction, security and quality of supply and treatment. The majority of investments are expected to take place in the rehabilitation of wastewater treatment plants. In Europe there are 60,000 wastewater facilities and most of them still need to comply

Investment priorities of European utilities vary according to location and cost structure. The current economic situation, especially in the southern European countries, might lead to cancellation or post- ponement of some projects. However, utilities across the continent need to invest in rehabilita- tion in a bid to help reduce maintenance and operational costs. Such investments will be important to mitigate future major problems that could present even heftier costs. WWi

Author’s note: Nuno Oscar Branco is an industry analyst at Frost

 

with the EU treatment directives and be upgraded to perform nutri- ent removal. A priority for wastewater utilities is to comply with the Urban Wastewater Treatment directive by 2015. We estimate that most sewage purification plants partly need to be retrofitted by 2015 to meet stringent EU Wastewater treatment legislation, requiring nu- trient removal in sensitive areas. In parallel with rehabilitation invest- ments necessary to address the UWWTD, wastewater utilities are

& Sullivan. This article is based on some of the key findings of the current research by Frost & Sullivan analyzing the Western European Water & Wastewater Utilities Market. For further information please email Fredrick Royan at froyan@frost.com. Enquiry No. 107

 
       

February/March | 2011

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Legal Perspective

           
 

The second in a series of legal columns to bring the industry up to speed with regulatory changes, Sarah Thomas addresses the challenges with water or wastewater treatment build-operate-transfer contracts adapting the FIDIC’s Design, Build Operate form.

 
 

Sarah Thomas- Partner with Pinsent Masons LLP

       

DBO - Gold Dust for Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) Contracts?

 

FITNESS FOR PURPOSE

   

a

I t was at the end of 2008 when many in the water industry ques-

tioned whether there would be a new era of standardisation for

water/wastewater BOT projects. This was a result of the FIDIC (In-

ternational Federation of Consulting Engineers) first launching its

Design, Build Operate form, which combined design & build and

20 year “Operation Period” within a single contract. Such a contract

such an established brand internationally for design and build.

it

has no financing element - there is no responsibility either for the

Taking a wastewater treatment plant as an example, there is the em-

 

ployer’s obligation to supply raw sewage within a defined catchment

 

to allow the plant to operate. This would require amendment of the

 

FIDIC Clause 10.4 (Delivery of Raw Materials) under which the Em-

 

was particularly ground-breaking as FIDIC was already considered

ployer is responsible “for the free issue and supply and delivery to the Site… of the raw materials, fuels, consumables and other items

 

The form itself adopts the “Green Field Model” - a potential down- side for water projects that are more typically a mix of upgrades to ex- isting facilities, alongside new builds. But FIDIC too has since recog- nised this limitation and plans to issue guidance which will make the DBO form usable for Brownfield projects. Another limitation is that

specified in the Employer’s Requirements”. The clause goes on to say that the Employer is responsible that “all such items are fit for pur- pose and comply with the requirements of the Contract in respect of quality, purpose and function”. Obviously we would need to include a provision for both influent quality and capacity parameters. This is the sewage equivalent of fitness for purpose!

 

financing of the project or its ultimate commercial success (which means that payment cannot be tied to tariffs). But even with these limitations, is it suitable for water BOTs?

Equally, there would a need to be more extensive provision for relief during the Operation Service Period. The provisions in the Gold Book are somewhat unusual, certainly when compared with typical

 

OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE PROVISIONS

water BOTs. Clause 10.6 simply says that if delay, interruption or any failure to achieve outputs is “caused by… or due to a cause for which

 

The design build obligations more or less replicate FIDIC’s Yellow Book (Design and Build) – albeit now improved to introduce flexibility into the time period for giving notice of claims. Under clause 10, the contractor has to operate and maintain the completed plant as set out in the Employer Requirements. This is as well as comply with the procedures and requirements for operations and maintenance, pro- vided by the Employer Contract Data (the Operation Management

the Contractor is responsible” - in other words, is not down to an “Employer Risk”. The Contractor is responsible for the consequential losses of the Employer (ie. any losses including loss of revenue, loss of profit and overhead losses). Apart from the uncertainty of what those consequential losses might be, where the employer is say, a municipality, there may not be any losses at all. I would suggest a return to the more traditional combination of KPI measures which weigh performance failures ac- cording to their significance.

 

“This raises the prospect of a running dispute where the employer may be very keen to proceed

TECHNOLOGY

     

and the contractor is not happy with the price adjustment”

System), the O&M Manuals and his own O&M plans. He is paid the

Maintenance Retention Guarantee) are released at the end of the

a

term, following issue of the “Contract Completion Certificate”.

let alone 20 years.

Another point relevant to a water treatment plant and long-term op-

Sarah Thomas is a partner with Pinsent Masons LLP spe-

 

amount in the Contract Price for Operation and Maintenance. This includes funds payable from an “Asset Replacement Fund” (ARF) but with two essential catches. He cannot access this fund either if the item was not identified in the fund in the first place (even if replacement was “unforeseeable”, to coin a FIDIC term). The Contractor is incentivised to outperform the ARF as payout of any excess (according to agreed share percentages) and also of the Employer’s additional security, the “Maintenance Retention Fund” (or

eration is innovation and the use of new technology or new materials. The employer’s representative may instruct the contractor to use new technology, new products or new materials but what if those inputs have an impact on the quality of the Operational Service? The con- tractor can only object if the instruction “will have” an adverse effect on operations, not if it may, or is likely to have such an impact. Ultimately protection to the operator may arise simply from the fact that he is not obliged (during the Operation Service Period) to pro- ceed until the adjustment to the contract price has been agreed. But there is no mechanism for arriving at that adjustment. This raises the

 

prospect of a running dispute where the employer may be very keen

 

In DBO projects with a financing element, the problem of fitness for purpose liability over a 20 year period is solved by the introduc- tion of special purpose vehicle. This makes a return on its equity and effectively “wraps” the risk between the end of the D&B contractor’s liability (say 12 years in English law) and any cap on the operator’s liability. But there is no suggestion that this structure is envisaged un- der the Gold Book because there is no financing element. This will cause particular problems for water projects where typically, the DBO contractor employs specialist suppliers to supply plant and equip- ment and these contracts often have express liability expiry dates that don’t extend beyond a three year warranty period post completion

to proceed (perhaps to ensure consistency with a wider network) and the contractor is not happy with the price adjustment. This is obvi- ously not healthy in the context of a 20 year relationship. So is this DBO form genuinely “gold dust” for water BOT’s and the shape of things to come, or is the “price of gold” too high? It is prob- ably the only standard form around at the moment and may have po- tential for use where procurers are not seeking financing and simply want design & build and operations & maintenance combined within the same contract. However, there is still a long way to go to adapt this form for use on water or wastewater treatment BOT’s. WWi

cialising in water and mining projects and can be contacted:

 

16

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February/March | 2011

   

sarah.thomas@pinsentmasons.com Enquiry No. 109

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©2010 Baldor Electric Company

           

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Regional Spotlight: Middle East & Africa

   

Land of the Black

     

[& Blue] Prosperous Gold

     

Political uncertainty has spread across the Middle East over the last couple of months but future demand for freshwater supplies will continue to grow. Tom Freyberg visited Saudi Arabia and Bahrain before civil unrest swept across the Arab world to find out what opportunities exist when it comes water supply and wastewater treatment.

 

J anuary is an ironic time to visit the Kingdom of Saudi Ara- bia. Ironic because in a country in such desperate need of fresh water, not to mention year round desert conditions, it’s raining. In fact it’s raining heavily. So much so that many streets in Jeddah are flooded.

       

The fact that road drainage is an alien concept here means one of the main methods in shifting water is natural evaporation. Lucky for the local population the following day is sunny and 25 degrees, then. The city wasn’t so lucky in 2009. In November devastating floods washed through Jeddah, leaving thousands homeless. Desert country cities, such as Jeddah, experience rain so rarely that when it rains torrentially, the city isn’t geared up to cope with it. Cue a real opportunity for a country well versed on dealing with wet weather to help out; the UK. As part of a UK Trade & Investment and British Water mission

Saudi Arabia’s major oil producer, Saudi Aramco, is interested in partnering with international water monitoring companies

that the investment needed in sewerage systems and wastewater

 

to Saudi Arabia and Bahrain, I am joined by a delegation offering a wide-variety of products and services. From global, multi-million turn- over environmental consultancies, to SMEs providing pipe fittings and safety equipment; the mission hopes to partner individuals with Middle Eastern companies and agencies in need of such services. An example of international supply and demand at its best. And the need for such work could not be so urgent. While pre- dictions show Saudi Arabia could struggle to meet its water supply needs by 2025, more worrying is the fact that only 45% of the urban population has access to a sewerage system. It’s been estimated

treatment over the next 20 years will amount to £10 billion. That’s a lot of money and key indicator why companies not already operating in Saudi Arabia are so keen to do so. Companies shouldn’t be too hasty, however, when trying to se- cure a slice of the market. “Do your homework and don’t expect to come out first time and return with a big fat contract,” advises Edward Ogilvie, chairman of the British Businessmen Group in Jeddah. “This is very rare. It takes

 

18

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March/April | 2011

   

Under a protection programme the oil giant takes water samples regularly from more than 400 groundwater monitoring wells

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Regional Spotlight: Middle East & Africa

time to build business in this country and it’s important for the same person to return.” An example of the time it takes to build business can be seen from previous trade missions. A water and wastewater services pro- vider recently signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with

       

Saudi Arabian company, a whole two years after meeting them during a previous water mission.

a

       

INSUFFICIENT INFRASTRUCTURE

           

With this in mind, the water delegation visits the National Water Com- pany (NWC). When the firm was created in 2008, average supply fre- quency (ASF) to the Jeddah population waste 22.9 days. Two years later and ASF is down to 9.2 days. In a recent statement, NWC says that water supply reached 942 million cubic metres in 2010, which compares to a figure of 753 mil-

put to the Supreme Judicial Council to consider raising the tariff, but

it

was rejected at the time. However, plans are in place to revise tariff

Supply and demand: the UK T&I delegation meets NWC’s Jeddah team

model works well and there has been no conflict to date between

WASTEWATER AND JEDDAH’S SEWAGE LAKE

While a “wastewater” revolution may be expected over the next 20

hesitancy, NWC highlights the King Abdulaziz International airport

to

contract may well be going ahead, but it is the speed of accelerating

increase capacity by 250,000 cubic metres a day. The “airport 1”

 

lion cubic metres in 2008. The company put this down to “efforts to increase the volume of water resources in cooperation with the Saline Water Conversion Corporation and intensifying programs that detect visible and invisible leaks”. And the issue of leaks is a major challenge the company had to deal with when first appointed. Discussing “insufficient and poorly-

NWC and private operators. Furthermore, Saur secured the SAR12 million 12-month contract back in 2009, to provide technical assis- tance to the Mecca Water Directorate between August 2009 and July 2010.

 

maintained infrastructure” Roberto Bianchi, general manager of the Jeddah City Business Unit at the National Water Company, says that

 

the network still experiences 40% water losses and previously, two thirds of the population were not connected to the sewer network.

years, there is certainly signs that progress is slow. Despite such

 

Facing such challenges, I wish to know more about the politically sensitive subject of tariffs, how much NWP is charging for water and whether an increase is on the cards to help fund new infrastructure?

contract, which includes a tender for wastewater treatment. Reports suggest the second phase of this sewage treatment plant will help

 

In answer, currently a low rate - the equivalent of two pence per

 

cubic metre - is being charged for water. NWP says a request was

delayed and struggling projects that the company says it is improv-

 

structure over the next two to three years. Also, as part of a water renewal and maintenance programme, the organisation plans to roll out between 10,000 and 12,000 meters a month.

ing. In an address to the Prince of Mecca’s region Khalid Al-Faisal, the CEO of NWC, Loay Al-Mussallam, recently said that the firm has

 

CURRENT CONTRACTS

   

implemented a plan to accelerate struggling projects. This, he said, resulted in a decrease in the number of delayed projects to five in

 

It

Acwa Power signed a seven-year, joint venture public-private part-

was in 2008 that France’s Suez and Middle Eastern company

Jeddah during 2010, which compares to 15 in 2008. On the subject of wastewater, it is difficult to be in Jeddah talk- ing about the topic without mentioning the infamous sewage lake.

quick internet search on the topic of Jeddah’s Musk Lake brings

up several alarming headlines from the past. Archived copies of the

A

headlines of “Jeddah sewage lake at dangerous level” and “Fears

 

nership (PPP) to upgrade and modernise Jeddah’s water and waste-

 

water services. Set to close in 2015, Bianchi says there has been a “significant improvement to customers, without the need for a tariff

Saudi Gazette and Arabian Business dated two years ago throw up

 

increase”. Discussing contract successes, Bianchi says that the PPP

 
     

For Info. http://wwi.hotims.com RS# 11

     
       

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Regional Spotlight: Middle East & Africa

   
           

Partnership profiles

           

Halfway through 2010 saw Aramco Overseas

sewage lake may flood Jeddah”, respectively. However, the period of

After the Saudi

WATER TRAINING ACADEMY

The Jeddah lake behind them, clearly change is afoot at the National

revolution could well take place. With such a momentous task ahead,

Saudi Aramco’s Environmental Protection Depart-

nology academy would be

in association with the King

Company, a subsidiary of Saudi Aramco, sign

a

of

licensing agreement for commercialisation

two years is a long when it comes to wastewater clean up projects.

government acquired

the EcoRight membrane bioreactor (MBR)

At the end of 2010 it was announced that, through a SAR1 million contract awarded to environmental consultants CH2M Hill, the lake

100% “participation interest” in Aramco in

with Siemens Water Technologies. Combin- ing three technologies into a single wastewa-

was emptied of its content in the space of only three months. The project saw the evacuation of the lake water, removal of the dam and removal of sludge deposited in the lake.

1980, purchasing all of the company’s assets, an Environmental Pro-

ter treatment step, the system will treat efflu- ent to meet strict wastewater discharge limits,

to

be reused, or fed directly to reverse osmo-

Such an operation followed a warning from the Ministry of Water & Electricity over the lake, which at one stage contained around eight

tection Department was created in 1998. It was

sis equipment for reuse, boiler feed or cool- ing water.

million cubic metres. An on-site treatment plant, with a capacity of 60,000m 3 /day, now processes wastewater in a three-stage process.

ten years ago, in 2001, when an environmen- tal “Master Plan” was launched by the firm,

Currently under technical evaluation, it is hoped the system will be made commercially avail- able during the middle of this year, according to

Water Company. What will surely be music to the international wa- ter industry’s ears, NWC says it will be investing around SR5 billion over the next ten years through the expansion of the sale of treated water. This will be done via agreement signings and MOUs to supply 390,000 cubic metres per day. Tenders are being pushed through and the expected wastewater

backed to the tune of several million dollars. The aim, according to the engineering con- sultant, was to bring all “Aramco facilities into compliance with cur-

Tom Schultz, oil and gas marketing manager for Siemens Water Technologies. He later tells Wa- ter & Wastewater International:“Despite having some issues with installing the demonstration unit, which have resulted in minor delays, ev- erything is operating correctly and going as an-

it does raise the question of whether the country will have the neces- sary skilled and qualified work-

rent regulations”. Total investment will reach $7 billion, with the plan set

ticipated. We are in the process of testing and so far have obtained the anticipated results.”

On the issue of membrane biofouling, a raised concern with such technologies, Schultz says:

force to operate and maintain facilities? In light of this, NWP says it will be helping to build a water training academy in Jeddah, worth an estimated SR150

for completion by 2015. Desalination, as with the majority of Middle Eastern countries, may well supply the lion’s share of water in Saudi

“We haven’t had any fouling issues or antici- pate any fouling issues. The key to preventing fouling in the membrane is to make sure you’ve got the pre-treatment correct. Using Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) we’re able to remove components which might contribute to fouling ahead of the membrane.”

million. Suez, Veolia and Agbar Water have reportedly shown an interest and the water tech-

Arabia, but over 600 wells still remain across the Kingdom. The oil gi-

On the subject of discharge requirements, he adds: “Saudi Arabia’s regulatory requirements

ment was created in 1998

ant says that under its

are right in line with other countries. The issue

protection programme,

in

the country is the sustainability of water re-

Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST). It will be

water samples are

sources. You have a lot of facilities generating

interesting to see if such a development will help the country achieve

regularly collected from

a

low TDS (Total Dissolved Solids) wastewater

the goal of becoming to the Middle East what Singapore is to Asia - a

more than 400 ground-

which, if you can remove the other pollutants,

global water hub.

is

very suitable for reuse. Many facilities run

DAMMAN AND CLEANING UP BLACK GOLD

water monitoring wells to detect the impact on

on desalinated water, so once you’ve got all of

The arrival to Damman and journey to Al Khobar from the airport couldn’t be more of a contrast to Jeddah. Instead of King Fahd’s Fountain shooting water over 300 metres above the Red Sea, the view changes to a vast, endless desert with oil tankers and lorries crossing the dwarfed roads. Damman is home of global oil giant, Saudi Aramco. As the firm has signed international partnerships with Siemens Water Company and the Dow Chemical Company, not to mention the opportunities that exist for the vast quantities of water wasted in the extraction of oil, the group is keen to hear more.

groundwater. “We’re interested in outsourcing groundwa- ter monitoring and need support for occupation- al monitoring, as well as water monitoring. This is a message we want conveyed to the rest of the global industry,” says Hejazi.

GROWING THE

SAUDI ECONOMY

the salt out of the water, it would be better to reuse it.”

Meanwhile, a long-standing petrochemical joint venture between Saudi Aramco and the Dow Chemical Company has seen the Jubail Indus- trial City chosen as the planned site location for the project. Initially announced five years ago, the venture hopes to produce 1.8 million tons a year of ethylene from naptha and ethane feed- stock. Chlorine, polyvinyle chloride and other products are also expected to be produced.

As the largest oil producer worldwide, the firm currently produces eight million barrels per day but has the capacity to produce 12.5

     
     

million barrels a day. Ramzi Hejazi, engineering consultant in the Environmental Pro- tection Department says it was in 1938 when the Kingdom’s first commercial oil field was discovered, at Dharan, before crude oil was exported by barge to Bahrain. Following this, it was in 1963 when Aramco issued its first policy statement on environmental protection. This was revolutionary at the time, Hejazi says, as the concept of environmental protection was unheard of.

“We have had numerous companies approaching Aramco from the Gulf but we would prefer companies to open offices in Saudi Arabia,” the consultant adds. “We also want to help younger population be- come more educated, so companies should hire local staff.” The environmental consultant cites past examples where com- panies have “set up shop” in the country, carried out business, and left. “We are not interested in this approach,” he warns. Quoting the

 

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Regional Spotlight: Middle East & Africa