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Historical Background

Scientific Revolution?

Nov. 8, 1895 Dec. 28, 1895 Jan. 6, 1896

Discovery of X-rays Published 1st of 3 papers Berlin Med. Assoc. Mtg

17 yr hiatus w/ active debate about the particle vs wavelength puzzle Barkla, Walter, & Pohl vs. Einstein & W.H. Bragg Spring 1912, U. Munich Rntgen, Sommerfeld, von Laue, von Groth, Ewald, Friedrich, Debeye, Knipping von Laue & Ewald Siegfriedstrasse 10 Published, special copy to

June, 1912 W.H. Bragg Nov. 11, 1912

W.L. Bragg & Braggs Law (Japan, Russia, & Germany)

Consequences: von Laue, Friedrich, & Knipping established three modern concepts (1) Atomic particles within xls are arranged in orderly, 3-D, repeating patterns (2) These regular arrangements have spacings of about equal to X-ray wavelength Therefore, (3) Because diffraction does take place, X-rays must be wavelike in nature

W.H. & W.L. Bragg

1913 invented X-ray crystallography with their spectrometer 1913 -1st xl structures ever 1929 -1st structure of an organic compound 1930 -1st layered silicate

W.L. Bragg Kathleen Lonsdale Linus Pauling

Hendricks & Fry, &Kelley et al. 1930 -Confirmed that claysized minerals were crystalline John Gruner 1932 -1st structure of kaolinite

Hofmann et al. Grim et al. Hendricks & Teller Mineralogical Society Natl Res. Council (NRC) AIPEA Grims Clay Mineralogy CMS

1933 -model for smectite 1937 -illite as term for micalike clay minerals 1942 -concept of mixed-layering 1947 formed Clay Minerals Group 1952 sponsor annual mtgs on clays 1952 first meeting, in Algiers 1953 first book on clay mineralogy 1963 shift from NRC to the independent Clay Minerals Society 1985 NEWMOD introduced 1992XX WILDFIRE introduced

R.C. Reynolds R.C. Reynolds

What are clay minerals? Where and how do they touch our lives? How do they tell their stories? What stories can they tell?

The short chemical answer: LAYERED hydrated aluminosilicates

BUT! Size may be their most important property

-this could effect definition e.g., Au

Relation of Particle Size to Surface Area

The Importance of Size

-Limits of abrasion -Limits of crystallite size -Surface to volume ratio and consequential properties -permanent charge -reactivity -CEC -adsorption -origin of life -plasticity

Making a tetrahedron

Lower plane

Connecting the octahedra edge-to-edge

Octahedral Occupancy

Moore&Reynolds, 1997

Assembling a 2:1 clay mineral

Plane Sheet Layer

Vocabulary (picky, picky)

Rotating to fit

Disorder: Primary characteristic of clay minerals

Classification of Phyllosilicates, Emphasis on Clay Minerals

1. Layer type: 1:1 or 2:1 (or 2:1 inverted ribbons) 2. Layer charge: from 0 to 2 & variable 3. Dioctahedral or trioctahedral 4. Chemical variations

The 1:1s

The 2:1s

Still considered a 2:1

Paly & sepiolite

Transformation sequences

Common transformation sequences or mixed-layered clay minerals

Regularly stacked mixed layered

Stories They Can Tell Us & How They Can Be Useful

Clay Minerals Serving the Global Environment

Biogeochemical cycling Buffering capacity of the oceans Natural containment of toxic materials
Sposito et al., 1999, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.

Clay Minerals Serving the Human Environment

Design of environmentally sound, cost-effective chemical and biological remediation strategies Accurately assessing environmental and human health risks from contaminants Industrial and consumer products

Their environment is our environment

Each of us, every day, use clay minerals. How? Let me count the ways. Greatest industrial uses are for: -paper, both coating and filling -sanitary ware, ceramics, and other fired products -fiberglass -fillers, carriers, and clarifiers -barriers for landfills, physical and as adsorbers

Pillared clay minerals

Hopewell Artifacts

Clay mineral zoning, Cochiti mining district

Murray and Bundy, 1957

The sum of all chemical and physical changes in minerals during and after their initial accumulation, a process limited on the hi-T, hi-P side by low-grade metamorphism. Weaver & Brocksra (1984) proposed a boundary between diagenesis and metamorphism as that point at which all illite-1M has been converted to illite 2M1. Authigenesis is a subprocess of diagenesis. (AGI Glossary, 1997)

The oil window

From Hower et al.s classic 1976 paper

Sequence of morphologies

Size-age spectra




Extrapolation to detrital & diagenetic K/Ar ages

RO, R1, R2, R3

Electric double layer

NEWMOD & WILDFIRE by Robert Reynolds & Sybilla, Reichweite


Where clay minerals come from

-Weathering (f) climate (f) parent material (f) fauna and flora (f) reverse weathering -Hydrothermal alteration

2 methods for il. xl index

Eberl, D.D., and Velde, B. (1989) Beyond the Kbler index: Clay Minerals, 24, 571-577

L = low charge; H = high charge

References for Crystallization Index

Eberl, D.D., and Velde, B. (1989) Beyond the Kbler index: Clay Minerals, 24, 571-577. Eberl, D.D., and Blum, A. (1993) Illite crystallite thickness by X-ray diffraction: in Reynolds, R.C., Jr., and Walker, J.R., eds., Computer Applications to X-Ray Powder Diffraction Analysis of Clay Minerals: Workshop Lectures, vol. 5, The Clay Minerals Society, 123-153. Kbler, B. (1968) valuation quantitative du mtamorphisme par la cristallinit de l'illite; tat des progrs raliss ces dernires annees: Bulletin du Centre de Recherches de Pau, 2, 385-397. Warr, L.N., and Rice, H.N. (1994) Interlaboratory standardization and calibration of clay mineral crystallinity and crystallite size data: J. Metamorphic Geol., 12, 141-152. Warr, L.N. (1996) Standardized clay mineral crystallinity data from the very low-grade metamorphic facies rocks of southern New Zealand: Eur. J. Mineral., 8, 115-127.

Decrease in % 7 layers with depth, Lower Tuscaloosa, Gulf Coast

XRD tracing for 7/14 mixed layering

Porrengas model for exploration

Porrenga (1966) and Odin et al. (1988)

Other petroleum provinces

Other petroleum provinces w/ primary-porosity preserving 7/chlorite

Peak decomposition

Detrital & diagenetic ages

Extrapolation to detrital & diagenetic K/Ar ages

Oil window

Changes in illite-rich I/S with depth (cm)

Thermal history of basin

20 fundamental particle

Utah halloysite

Reverse weathering

Size age spectra

Size vs age, and the 1M polytype