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Differentiation 2.6

Related Rates Multi-Variable Calculus & Calculus Review

Mrs. Shak Objectives

Find a related rate equation

Finding rate of change of variables changing with respect to time

Use related rates to solve real-life problems.  2 2.6: Guidelines for Solving Related Rates dx
dt
s
6 mi

x

1. Identify all given quantities and quantities to be determined. (Make a sketch)

2. Write an equation for any given rates of change. State which rates of change we are to find.

3. Implicitly differentiate both sides of the equation with respect to time t.

4. Substitute into equation all known values and rates of change. Solve for the required rates of change.

3 Example 1 – Two Rates That Are Related

Suppose x and y are both differentiable functions of t and are related by the equation y = x 2 + 3. Find dy/dt when x = 1, given that dx/dt = 2 when x = 1.

Work it out (review implicit differentiation):

Using the Chain Rule, you can differentiate both sides of the equation with respect to t.   Dy/dt = 4

4 Example 2 – An Inflating Balloon

Air is being pumped into a spherical balloon at a rate of 4.5 cubic feet per min. Find the rate of change of the radius when the radius is 2 ft. 1. State given:

2. Primary Eqn

3. Implicitly Differentiate

4. Plug in values

Figure 2.35

5 Example 2 – Solution Worked Out

Let V be the volume of the balloon and let r be its radius.

Because the volume is increasing at a rate of 4.5 cubic feet per minute, you know that at time t the rate of change of the volume is So, the problem can be stated as shown.

 Given rate: (constant rate) Find: when r = 2

6 Example 2 – Solution Worked Out
cont’d

To find the rate of change of the radius, you must find an equation that relates the radius r to the volume V.

Equation:  Differentiating both sides of the equation with respect to t produces    Finally, when r = 2, the rate of change of the radius is 7 22
2
abc+ =
c
a
2
A =π r
4
3
V
= π r  3

h a

=

2 3

A a

=

8

2

3

SA = 4π r

2

b 1  V 2 =π rh A = bh 2 4 π 2 r h

2

V =

3

SA = 2π r + 2π rh y1 y2
x2
x1

EXAMPLE PROBLEMS:

(1) Moving shadow problems (triangles formed from light to object to shadow)

(2) Cylindrical cone problems (triangles formed in comparing the height to radius in a cone)

Similar Triangles : Triangles

are similar if matching angles are equal and ratio of corresponding sides are in proportion.

Divide corresponding side of one

triangle by its corresponding side in

other similar triangle -> similarity

ratio.

EX:

=

9

x 2

y

2

x 1

y

1 Related Rates : Homework

Skim Section 2.6 from Larson Single Variable Calculus Textbook Related Rates Worksheet :

– Work out 10 of the 21 problems (check with solutions on grovesite)  10