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Mr. Neil Nicholas Vaz PGPCM Module M13 211-12-11-10221-2132 NCP 32 CONSTRUCTION SAFETY MANAGEMENT 11 28.05.13 26

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ASSIGNMENT BRIEF: You have been appointed as a Project Manager of a 17- storied high rise building in Mumbai. The site is surrounded by many other sky-scrapers. Your company has prepared a safety manual for normal buildings since so far your company was engaged in the construction of townships and industrial buildings. Top management has asked you to revise the safety manual. Discuss the various aspects in this situation. Following data is provided. Foundation - Partly pile foundation Partly rock cutting and dewatering R.C.C. Frame structure Tower cranes for construction Dozer and JCB machines for earthwork. Steel scaffolding, bucket lifts for concrete and automatic batching plant.

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SOLUTION: SCOPE OF WORK The scope of work involves construction of a 17 storied high rise building in Mumbai, in which construction of the foundation work is partly pile foundation and partly rock cutting and dewatering. The construction of building is of RCC framed structure and the major machineries used will be tower crane, JCB and dozer. The material mainly used for scaffolding and shuttering work will be of steel and concrete works will be carried out with the help of buckets lifted through lift arrangement and tower cranes. The supply of concrete will be from an automatic batching plant located near by the site.

HAZARDS AND CAUSES OF ACCIDENTS The following are the common hazards and its causes for the said project. In piling works the legs of the tripod should be properly spiked in the ground. This will prevent accidents due to slipping up of the tripod legs when rested on a paved ground. The failure of a pulley due to shearing of bolt or pin is quite common; hence checking of pulley is essential.

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The accidents due to drowning and injuries while handling sheet piles are also very common and care should be taken during processing. Blow is the most hazardous hazard in well sinking. The presence of gas in deep foundation is also a danger. Piling work causes vibrations that my damage the near by structure and hence examination of structures near by piling work should be examined before executing the work. There are chances movement of subsoil mass into the borehole, which may cause subsidence to some existing foundations in close proximity. Vibration caused by the operation of machinery at sites adjacent to the excavated pit may cause collapse of walls unless they are properly braced in case of excavation work. Rock cutting involves blasting operations and are risky and special attention is required during the process, otherwise it may cause damage to lives and properties. Rock excavation involves drilling and blasting operations. This includes transportation of explosives, loading and unloading of explosives, handling of explosives, storage of explosives, using of explosives etc and hence it is risky and special care is required in
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handling the above works. The above work shall be done carefully with trained staff and supervised by qualified personnel. Most of the accidents during the use of explosives are caused due to faulty loading of blast holes, failure to withdraw fast enough from the blast area, returning to blasting points too soon from after firing, presence of strangers near the blasting points, misfire etc. The construction of a framed structure involves transportation of material, handling of material, scaffolding and formwork, mixing of material, placement of concrete, removal of formwork and scaffolding etc. Usage of machineries is more in the works except scaffolding and formwork and the condition of machineries should be in sound. Lack of maintenance in machineries may also cause accidents. Regularly scheduled inspections are important in maintaining Tower crane and other machineries using at site. The cranes with long boom are likely to touch live overhead power line. Accidents of such type are not uncommon. Never it should be overloaded. The scaffolding materials used should be of good quality and must be thoroughly checked after its erection and before doing concreting works to ensure safety.

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The shuttering materials used should also be of sound and quality materials. During its operation like lifting and placing there are chances of falling down of materials and may cause damage to human lives, working at bottom. Special care is required during its operation. The electrical installations at batching plant should be adequate. The location of batching plant should not be near by electric lines, there are chances that the boom of crane may touch the electric lines and may lead injuries or death to the personnel working around it during the movement of crane for lifting of materials from bin. The men and machineries moving near by the plant should be provided with safety precautions.

SAFETY LEGISLATION AND STANDARDS FOR CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY There is no safety legislation applicable to construction industry in India. The following are the standards of rules in construction industry. The repair workshops of contractors or those attached to construction sites are covered under the Factories act 1948. Quarries operated by a contractor are covered under the Mines Act 1952.
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Vehicles plying to and fro at construction sites are subjected to the Motor Vehicles Act 1951. A Contractors office is covered under the Shops and Commercial Establishments Acts. The Contract Labour (R&A) Act, 1971, regulates the employment and working conditions of contractors labour. The immigrant labour is regulated under the Inter state Migrant Workers Act, 1979. The workmens Compensation Act, 1923 is applicable to all construction sites throughout the country. Child labour and maternity are dealt with under separate statutes. There are four sources of legal requirements regarding safety as applicable to construction sites and the construction industry. (i) (ii) (iii) Standards lay down by the Bureau of Indian Standards. Statutory provisions framed under various labour laws. Contract conditions written into the Contract Document signed by the client and contractor when the work is awarded. (iv) Decisions, judgements and awards given by the judicial authorities from time to time.

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SAFETY IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION As the work in this 17 storied building project includes foundation partly of pile foundation and partly rock cutting and dewatering, RCC framed structure, usage of machineries includes Tower crane, Dozer, JCB and steel scaffolding work, lifting of concrete through buckets and the production of concrete will be from an automatic batching plant. Following are the safety precautions to be taken for the above building project. o All workers must wear tight fitting clothes or uniforms, helmets, hand gloves, protective footwear and eye goggles. o Electrical connections must be handled with great care and all cables should be properly insulated and earthing done. o Excavation work involves drilling and blasting operations where miss handling of explosives, usages, carelessness in transportation, misfire, wrong blasting operations etc will lead serious injuries and can cause loss of life to individual. o Piling work causes vibrations that may damage the near by structure, particularly the old ones. It is thus essential to keep watch on the old structure while piling work is being done. o Machineries operating near excavated trenches should be carefully operated other wise there may be sliding of earth due to vibration

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during operation and can also cause falling down of machinery and loss of life of workers working around it. o In framed structures scaffolding is required to make platforms for working on heights. The material used for scaffolding should be of quality and periodic checking on scaffolding should be ensured for a safe working. o The bracing of scaffolding should be checked during erection. o The workers working at various heights for storied building for fixing shutter, welding work etc should wear helmets and also the platform over which the workers standing for doing work should be strong and it should be ensured before doing any work. o The materials like nut, bolts, shuttering and scaffolding materials using at various levels for high-rise buildings should not be thrown carelessly to bottom, which may cause injury or loss of life of workers working at ground level or below levels. o Proper maintenance of machineries using at site should also be ensured for a safe working at site. o Care should be taken during the operation of batching plant where there will be movement of crane for lifting material from the bin and also the movement of machineries like tipper, transit mixer etc for
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dumping of aggregates and loading concrete from plant to site will be adequate and proper safety arrangement should be made available in this location. o Good maintenance of plant and machineries will reduce the chances of accidents. o Safety training should be provided to workers for ensure a safe working environment.

MANAGEMENT OF ACCIDENTS, EMPLOYMENT INJURIES AND OCCUPATIONAL HAZARDS Accidents at site can be managed and controlled to the maximum extent possible by implementing a safety department at site headed by a safety officer for overall control of activities and for providing sufficient training to staff and workers working at site. Arranging a safety talk every day before start of work will also help in controlling the accidents at site. All the workers should be provided periodic and sufficient information regarding safety and remedial measures. All the day-to-day activities should be monitored and any remedial action required should be implemented immediately for ensuring an accident free at site. Train all staff and workers to perform and act themselves as a safety officer can reduce accidents. By

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putting safety boards wherever required mainly at hazardous locations and by displaying at notice board, the causes of accidents and remedial measures, where all people can come and read it, the accidents can be minimised. The contractor should make arrangements to provide first aid boxes at site that are readily accessible during all working hours and are under the charge of a person who is trained in rendering first aid. In large sites, ambulance rooms should be maintained to treat workers in case of sickness or injury during working hours.

SAFETY ORGANISATION AND SITE MANAGEMENT A client or a contractor who is serious about establishing high standards of safety at work sites as well as throughout the organization should have a safety policy, which forms an integral part of the overall policy of the organization. The safety policy comprises a statement of the organizations objectives regarding safety of men, in operations and at work sites. It also contains guidelines for actions that will be taken at appropriate levels to achieve the objectives. Safety policy has to be made in a printed brochure and circulate it widely amongst employees. The safety policy should deal with the subject more positively and state that the top management wants

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risk free and zero accident work environment. The safety policy will enjoy higher credibility and get better implemented if the safety reports reach the top management or Board of Directors regularly and constitute a permanent agenda item of their regular meetings. A safety manual should be prepared and circulate it among all employees and monitor the site works for ensuring whether the safety requirements, safety policies are implemented at site and all the employees are following the safety requirements for making an accident free site. Individual organisations should be associated with all activities relating to safety, health and welfare problems. For maintaining an effective safety and health policy and system within the industry and for a better and efficient site management for safety, outside co-operation like the following points should be adhered. Good relationships should be established with local inspectors of the concerned government departments. Laison with educational establishments can help to further a greater participation by them in the training of young people in aspects of safety etc. There should be full co-operation with trade union officials.

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ROLE OF SAFETY DEPARTMENT A large organization may set up a safety department to implement the safety policy. This department should be integrated in the general organization in the same way as the technical engineering and finance departments are integrated. The direct control of the safety department may be vested in a senior safety officer or a personal manager, but is essential that the overall direction of the programme be vested in a nominated member of the top management. Following are the functions of the safety department. To establish the norms and guidelines for the provision of safety of sites, men, materials, equipment and structures for the line management in charge of these functions. To prepare check lists, manuals, and other documents for use by the line management in carrying out the function no.1. To supervise safety at site and within the organisation. To give advise on all safety matters in accordance with the safety policy. To maintain all safety records, prepare reports and monitor the same to all concerned. To conduct the safety training in the organisation. To carry out safety audit periodically.
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To discharge all statutory obligations of the organisation regarding safety, and maintain liaison with the government safety machinery and other industry associations. To organise competitions, posters, melas and such other activities that promote safety consciousness amongst employees. In small organisations, even though they cannot create separate safety departments, they will nominate a suitable officer to supervise safety precautions.

ROLE OF SAFETY OFFICER The safety department should be headed by safety officers, who are duly qualified for the purpose. The following are the duties of a Safety officer. To advise and assist the factory management in the fulfilment of its obligations, statutory or otherwise, concerning prevention of personal injuries and maintaining a safe working environment. To advise the concerned departments in planning and organising measures necessary for the effective control of personal injuries. To advise on safety aspects in all job studies and to carry out detailed job safety studies of selected jobs.

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To check and evaluate the effectiveness of the action taken or proposed to be taken to prevent personal injuries. To advise the purchasing and stores departments in ensuring high quality and availability of personal protective equipments. To advise on matters related to carrying out plant safety inspections. To carry out plant safety inspections in order to observe the physical conditions of work and the work practices and procedures followed by workers and to render advise on measures to be adopted for removing the unsafe physical conditions and preventing unsafe actions by workers. To render advice on matters related to reporting and investigation of industrial accidents and diseases. To investigate selected accidents. To investigate the dangerous occurrences reportable under factory rules and the cases of industrial diseases contracted by any of the workers employed in the factory under the rule. To advise on the maintenance of such records as are necessary relating to accidents, dangerous occurrences and industrial diseases. To promote setting up of safety committees and act as adviser to such committees.
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To organise in association with the concerned departments, campaigns, competitions, contests and other activities which will develop and maintain the interest of the workers in establishing and maintaining safe conditions of work and procedures. To design and conduct either independently or in collaboration with the training department, suitable training and educational programmes for the prevention of personal injuries. No safety officer shall be permitted to do any work, which is inconsistent with or detrimental to the performance of the duties.

ROLE OF SAFETY COMMITTEE A safety committee is a most useful instrument for facilitating the necessary co-operative effort, which is essential to success in accident prevention. It should have representative from top management, supervisory grades and from the workers, with additional representation from the safety department and maintenance staff. It should act as an advisory body and meet regularly. Such safety committee can perhaps function more effectively in factories where conditions are relatively static but there are obvious difficulties on construction sites where conditions are constantly changing. The cooperative effort, which is very necessary, will develop through the line of

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communication, which should exist between the site in charge and the workers through supervisory grades, and helped by safety officers.

SAFETY TRAINING, INCENTIVES AND MONITORING Following are the features of safety training. The new workers should as soon as possible, be made aware of the needs of safety and the organisation which exists to safeguard them from accidents and from injury to health. While recruiting workers it should be ascertained what experience they have had and with what kind of work they are familiar and based on that only they should be placed on work for which they are suited and where they should get receive instructions from the immediate superior on the precautions which should be observed as part of their general instructions. Some of the workers may indeed never have seen some of the more simple forms of tools used on a construction site and may need instructions in their use from somebody who has knowledge into that. Where workers are unfamiliar with the language in general use on the site, selected trained people who speak their language should be available to help them.
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Safety officers can advise the individual workers on safety and health precautions during their visit to site. Special talks can be arranged on various aspects of safety by means of films to illustrate important aspects. Special one day safety exhibitions with talks from safety experts can also be beneficial and for a correct working. Workers should be given instruction for working in high-rise buildings where, they are required to work on platforms on high elevation and through some other means in connection with various activities. Members of senior management should meet regularly to discuss all aspects of health, safety and welfare.

A better safety can be ensured at site by motivating the employees through some incentive systems. Incentive system includes provision of a fixed amount for the site personnel, which will be reimbursed every month along with their salary for keeping an accident free site. If there is more than one site, there will be a competition among the site groups for getting the safety awards to their group for maintaining safety provisions at site as well as for making the site free from accident. By arranging safety Melas and
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competitions like exhibitions, film shows, lectures, discussions to sustain interest in the observance of safety precautions can also motivate the workers and employees for a safe working at site. All the activities at site should be monitored in a daily basis and any remedial measures required or action o be taken should be implemented immediately for maintaining the site totally accident free. All the activities at site should be monitored in a day-to-day basis and the safety reports should be made. Any remedial measures required should be implemented immediately. The safety officer should watch the activities carrying out at site and should ensure whether all the safety measures are following at site. If anybody is seeing to be not adhering to safety requirements, should be warned and action should be taken.

SAFETY CHECKLISTS AND INSPECTION REPORTS For all the activities to be executed at site, checklists should be made and should report to the concerned if any occurrence or fatal accident happened at site.

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The following are the safety checklists for Pile foundations The workers or personnel employed for piling work must know the elements of machinery and equipment, how they can cause accident and what steps should be taken to avoid such accidents. Near by structures should be examined during piling for avoiding any accident which may come due to vibration during piling. All the workers should wear helmets, protective footwear and eye goggles and electrical connections must be handled carefully. Engines must be stopped before fitting V-belts or flat belts on them. The following are the safety checklists for rock cutting and dewatering. During drilling and blasting operation, movement and handling of equipments, transportation, stock and usage of explosives should be carefully handled. Competent person should handle blasting operation for avoiding misfire etc. The machinery should be properly located during cutting operation for avoiding any sliding of soil or falling of machinery during its operation. The dewatering pump should be of adequate capacity and in good working condition.
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During the construction of framed structure, the following checklists for safety should be maintained. Scaffolding arrangements should be thoroughly checked before concreting. Ensure the formwork and scaffolding materials of good quality. Ensure the workers are using helmets during working hours. All arrangements for concreting like electric connection, platform for concreting, loading and unloading of concrete from transit mixers etc should be watched and ensure it is as per standards. Lifting of materials to various elevations should be done by considering the safety provisions. Following checklists should be maintained and followed in connection with usage of handling of machineries like tower crane, Dozer, JCB etc o Proper and adequate maintenance should be ensured before operation of machineries. o The workers should not be stand near by machine during its rotating or operating position. o Ensure firm or solid platform for the operation of machineries, otherwise due to vibration during operation can cause sliding of soil or falling of machines, which may lead severe injury or loss of life.
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o There should not be presence of fire near the diesel tank of machineries. o Operation should be controlled by a skilled person for avoiding and accidents due to electric lines etc near by working site, which may damage during operation. Following checklists should be maintained for usage of steel scaffolding, lifting of concrete through buckets The material used for scaffolding should be of good quality. Scaffolds must always be erected and maintained by skilled and trained personnel. Ensure that sufficient guard railing should be fitted and maintained in platforms. Platforms over which workers are standing should not be overloaded. Ensure that loose packaging such as bricks should never be used below standards. Scaffolds must be properly braced and platforms must be properly supported. Check on straightness of ledgers, adequacy of bracing, alignment of supports etc.

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The machinery and bucket should be properly maintained or checked before doing work. Periodical maintenance should be ensured. A trained person should be engaged to control the men working around it during lifting of concrete through bucket and its lifting arrangement should also be standard. Unloading of concrete from bucket should be done with trained or competent person. Check lists for safety at batching plant are the following. One trained person should control the traffic and movement of men and machineries around batching plant. Proper arrangements should be provided for keeping the near by working places or living places free from dust. Ensure that all the electrical fittings and arrangements should be properly done. Men and machineries should be away from the crane while moving it during lifting of materials from the bin for loading and producing concrete. The batching plant area should be free from electric lines near by it which may cause electric shock or other major damage while moving the crane or lifting the body of tipper during unloading of aggregate.
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The statutory safety records required to be maintained at sites are the following. Accident register Dangerous Hazards Register First aid Register Register for the inspection notes by government officers Copies of all accident reports and hazard reports filed to the prescribed authority. Inspection notes should cover (1) Name and address of the site (2) Name and address of the contractor (3) Name and address of the site engineer (4) Nature of the work done (5) Exact place where the dangerous occurrence took place (6) Date and hour of occurrence (7) Nature of dangerous occurrence.

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CONCLUSION/ RECOMMENDATIONS The risk of accidents is present in all everyday activities and it is not fair to pretend that a work site can be entirely free from accidents. However, a more practical way is to consider a construction site safe when persons can go about their normal daily work without undue risk. It is the responsibility of the contractor that every work site under his control is provided with first aid boxes that are readily accessible during all working hours, and are under the charge of persons who are trained in rendering first aid. There should be at least one such first aid box at every site. At large sites, the scale is one box plus additional boxes at the rate of one box for every 150 workers normally employed. It is appropriate for large construction sites to maintain an ambulance room or dispensary with all facilities and adequate supply of drinking water should also be made available.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY/REFERENCES o Course material for construction safety management

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