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Mr. Neil Nicholas Vaz PGPCM Module M13 211-12-11-10221-2132 NCP 30 Site Organization and management 09 28.05.13 16

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ASSIGNMENT BRIEF: Your Company has been awarded a prestigious contract of building 500m length pre- stressed concrete bridge on a national highway crossing a major river. Due to cultivation on both sides of highway, very restricted space of only 100m in width and 300m in length is available on both sides of highway. To mobilize the site, your management has asked you to house 350T of cement, 300T of steel, 2 size II crawlers Tractor Dozer, one mobile crane, one jcb, ten dumpers. Labour force of 100 men in addition to site office complete with communication set up. Discuss your plan to organize the site, draw layout sketch showing all details. Wind direction is from West to East and bridge direction is East- West.

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SOLUTION: Before starting up the above project there are procedures to be followed by site Engineers, Contractors, Client and finally not but least architect. LAY-OUT AND ORGANISATION: SITE MANAGER: The first step in opening a site is to post a person to be site incharge. New and small contractors, handling one or two jobs at a time are tempted to take on the responsibility for the site. Running a site is a full time job and must be given to a person who is qualified and has experience of working at sites. STUDY THE PLANS: The plans made by the head office are now with contractor, and he has to study them before moving to the site. But without relying too much on your memory, keep looking at them often- say daily. Even if the contractor remember them very well still its the duty of an architect to study the plan carefully before executing on the site. DIVIDE THE SITE INTO MANAGELABLE SECTIONS: If the site is unwieldy and if the work is separable, divide it logically into units or divisions or sections and put on engineer or foreman in charge of each. Allocate the resources according to the needs. Let the site planning engineer help in doing this. In allocation of resources, there should be inter sectional transferability and diversion made possible with a centralized control by you ensuring least wastage and idleness.

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Make micro plans with detailed activity elements for each section within the framework of the total plan. Their achievements should be primarily the responsibility of the relevant section in charge. let the achievements be measurable for special credit in performance, to motivate the leader and members of the team concerned. SITE BUDGET: The head office consolidated budgets of various items of inputs and outputs for the whole site. If you break them down section- wise and give them to them section heads they will feel more independent. This sense of independence will certainly work as a motivator. Also, they will learn how to work independently and produce results. Measure and compare their performance every week. MANAGE TIME: At the construction site, one will always face pressure of work and lack of time. This is one easily manageable problem. Time management is an art which you can easily learn and practice if you want to. Learn how to use the whole of time and in the best way. STORE AND STACKING YARDS: In the project site, sufficient covered stores or open storage is necessary for maintaining the material in good condition. Cement is usually supplied in bags, which is stored at the site in covered shed. The shed are constructed with brick wall, ips floor, tubular structure trusses, roofing with sheets. the soil are filled up by a pneumatic pump fixed on the cement bulk carrier. SOME CONSIDERATIONS: Size of site Well laid our site
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The site office for supervisor Training foreman Reducing Waiting time Reducing movement Access Roads Water and services Materials Stores and stockpiles Placing of Plant Equipment Choice of plant and equipment SITE ORGANIZATION: For effective achievement of intended result it is essential to set up a suitable organization at the site. The organization translates plans into activities which leads to completion of work. A good project organization in which all individuals concerned constantly interact for achieving project objectives is vital for the success of the project. There are principally three different types of project organizations namely: Functional Organization Divisional Organization Matrix Organization Functional Organization : The functional organization is the traditional centralized type of organization in which the respective heads of various departments report the management of the project. Divisional project organization envisages a site manager decentralized site management division, each headed by a site manager or equivalent, and divided into several sections.
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Divisional Organization: The divisional organization has the handicap of leading to wastage of resources because it tends to create water tight compartment. All specialized persons are not fully engaged and resources being locked up are not optimally used. Matrix Organization: The matrix organization is task oriented. In this form of organization there are two distinct categories. One at lower level are recruited for the particular projects, and the there one deputed by other functional departments. Matrix organization has the following advantages: Flexibility in the development of resources. Optimum and the effective use of equipment scarce specialist skills. Better opportunity afforded to people for career growth. Saving in project cost owing to avoidance of idling of resources. Execution and Monitoring: For actual execution of the project the following steps are required: Methodology of construction. Selection and fixing up construction agency. Mobilization of resources. Setting out work. Making daily work programme. Allocation of resources.

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Quality control. Deployment of plant and machinery. Taking measurement and preparation or running account bill. Obtaining client approval: preparing labor report, material consumption inventory equipment utilization, POL organissaton. Liaison with outside agencies. Correspondence with outside agencies. Maintenance of daily site and hindrance register. Preparation of MIS. SITE INPUTS PLANNING: MAKING SCHEDULES on three things namely labour, plant, vehicles, and materials. LABOUR SCHEDULES: A labour schedule shows what workforce is needed and when it should be on site. It is mainly based on the bar charts and on the experience of a builder. The main factor to consider when deciding on the number of workers on site is that it should be kept as even as possible throughout. This is achieved by a continuing exchange between labour schedules and bar charts where you have to adjust both of them in order to meet this goal. PLANT AND VEHICLE SCHEDULES: A plant and transport schedule shows you what equipment items are needed and when they should be on site. It can also help you to decide whether to buy or hire plant or transport. In this way plant and transport utilization can become more efficient. Plant and transport schedules are generally planned to fit in with

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the bar chart that you have already prepared. However, if very costly again so that this costly plant is on site for as short a time as possible.

MATERIAL SCHEDULE A material schedule shows the contractor what materials are needed and when they should be on site. In addition to acting as a guide for ordering materials, the schedule also serves as a checklist of materials needed for the project . it is usually minor items that get forgotten and cause temporary delays and disorganization. As a checklist, the materials schedule helps you to avoid such problems. HOW TO MAKE MATERIALS SCHEDULES: What is to be ordered How much to order When it will be required Which part of the building or which item on the list of quantities the materials are of: It may be convenient to include information such as: The name of the supplier. The date on which to order the materials. MONITORING PROGRESS: By recording how the construction of an item progresses, you will be able to see whether it will be completed on time. If it looks as though the project will be delayed it is better to discover this at the earliest possible moment so that action

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can be taken to get the project back on schedule. It is always easier to correct a problem or a mistake at an early stage.

SITE WORK PLANNING: The site work planning is done using variety of techniques: bar chart, PERT, CPM, Networks etc. BAR CHARTS: Bar charts are pictures which tell us when and how the work is going to be done. The bar chart for a job is the immediate result of your planning and tells you when the different operations are going to start, when they will be finished and how they fit in with each other. It is also used to estimate when to order construction material and equipment, where there is need for extra manpower, etc. Preparing bar chart is simple, but preparing a realistic and cost saving bar chart can be a bit more difficult. There are six major steps that go into making a bar chart: Plan List jobs Calculate quantities Calculate time Draw the bar chart

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PLAN: Start by going through the project, step by step, from the very beginning to the last activity, in your mind. Make sure that you really think about all the different stages. Sometimes you have to split complex activities down into smaller units.

LIST JOBS: Write down all the operations to be carried out on the project. This will help to work out how much labour, equipment, material, etc. is going to be needed. CALCULATE QUANTITIES: The number of workers and type of equipment determine how long the operations will take. The duration of each operation has to be known in order to programme the project. SITE ACCOUNTS: Implementation of the Plans And Controls: Giving the plans and directives to the site: The plan is given to the site manager and his team for implementation and to achieve the estimated turnover and profit. The rules and regulations are guidelines or procedures dealing with the following or more matters as per requirements Billing and collection of revenues: The site accountant shall closely follow up billing and collection. Progress billing should be on a form which would give the cumulative positions of quantity executed and billable revenue earned. Regardless of whether the owners form is used or the organization form. Billing of extra work and change order is done separately in the same manner as for the work done under the

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main contract, based on the respective order. For recoveries from the bills on various accounts, the owner has to give debit notes and details for verification and acceptance of the debits. Arbitrary and unjustified recoveries should not be agreed to. Accepted recoveries may be debited to the cost of work.

SITE COST CONTROL TECHNIQUES: Costs: In the construction industry almost all budgeting techniques are based upon cost. However, in any sale three basic concepts are present: COST, PRICE and VALUE. The cost to the purchaser is the sellers price, with value acting as arbiter between the parties. Cost is what must be given to obtained something. Value is a measure of the utility of the items. Thus the price the seller asks for the commodity is the cost of that commodity is subjective but will be related to the exchange price. Several classifications of costs are in common usage. Fixed, variable, and semivariable is a basic economic classification but in the context of the construction industry the classification of costs as direct and indirect costs is more widely and understood. SYSTEMS OF COSTINGS: The system of costing depends upon the nature of the production system, but the aim of any costing system is cost control which is achieved by recording the costs actually incurred. OVERALL HISTORIC COSTING: This is the simplest costing system where by the over all cost of a completed project is compared with the revenue generated to determine whether the project achieved the required level of profit.
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PERIODIC HISTORIC COSTING: This is similar process to the over all historic costing described above, but is carried out for each project at predetermined intervals. take action. JOB AND UNIT COSTING: This system is most suited to production in which a unit of out put may be readily identified throughout the production process so that all costs attributable to the production of that unit may be allocated to it. STANDARD COSTING: This is the costing system most extensively used in the construction industry. It is a system where by costs are predetermined and subsequently compared with actual costs achieved to facilitate control. The predetermined costs are standard costs and are obtained through the application of work study and extensive cost recording. In the construction industry the labour constants used in estimating are of the nature of standard costs. Comparison of the cost of actual production with standard cost gives the variance. Finally its : SITE QUALITY CONTROL OPERATIONS: QUALITY CONTROL CONCEPTS: Quality control refers to the technical processes that gather, examine, analyse and report the projects and conformance with the performance requirements. Quality control mainly relates to four basic functions: Setting up of standards and specification Evaluating materials, process and outputs through appropriate tests, inspection etc
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This enables the

contractor to determine if the project is operating within its budgeted cost and to

Appraising failures to these standards and acting when standards are not being adhered to. Planning improvements in the standards and specifications. Various stages of QC are listed below: Incoming material control Pre-construction and planning control Construction process control Acceptance of end product, facility control. The quality control functions include the following: Development of specification Interaction with project designers Reliability and development testing Process capability studies QC of incoming materials Vendor QC and vendor development Quality planning for control of construction process Inspection and testing during construction Interaction with service engineering Records and procedures QC record accumulation procedure Document control procedure In built drawing control procedure Non conformance control procedure

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QUALITY CONTROL NORMS, TECHNIQUES, AND PROCEDURES: INSPECTON: Once quality standards and other things are laid out inspection becomes a routine matter. Various stages of inspection should be determined. Some of such stages could be the following: Material inspection at supplier end Material inspection at the stage of receipt Material inspection at the stage of issue Inspection of the process at the time of initial setting of machine, equipment Inspection of trial run batch Inspection of the finished process Inspection while the execution is in progress Inspection before erection and commissioning Inspection of commissioning Inspection of machines and equipment commissioned QUALITY AND COST: The initial building costs contain all those elements which arises from time building is conceived to the day it is handed over as a functioning entity. These include: Management time in developing the brief Appointment and briefing of construction Preparation of initial design proposals Costing studies Obtaining various approvals Detail design documentation
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Appointing the builder Constructing the building Commissioning and handing it over QUALITY AND TIME: The second major parameter affecting quality on site through is influence upon purpose, technical performance, appearance and experience is that of TIME. As was noted earlier the clients decision about time available to design and build will effect not only the size and complexity of the project but also choice of the builder, the methods of contracting and the way in which the builder is constructed. On the other hand the client may be prepared to run the risk of high life cycle costs in return for rapidly completed building using advanced technology whose durability cannot be guaranteed accepting that maintenance costs may be high. At the feasibility stage when the client is developing the brief, certain important decision about time must be taken. For example how is the building required, how much time is available for researching and developing new building techniques and components, what resources are available for managing designing and building the project, how durable need the building be, decisions must be supported by calculations covering estimates of costs versus returns on the project suggesting for example fast or slow track programme or delays between phases, perhaps in order to match rate of build to. All the above factors play an important role to carry out project in a smooth manner and finish it on time without causing much problems.

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Course material of Site Organization and Management.

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