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# M&M Activity

Standards: Content Standards: Introduction: 1. Students extend their understanding of ratios and develop understanding of proportionality to solve single- and multi-step problems. Students use their understanding of ratios and proportionality to solve a wide variety of percent problems, including those involving discounts, interest, taxes, tips, and percent increase or decrease. Students solve problems about scale drawings by relating corresponding lengths between the objects or by using the fact that relationships of lengths within an object are preserved in similar objects. Students graph proportional relationships and understand the unit rate informally as a measure of the steepness of the related line, called the slope. They distinguish proportional relationships from other relationships. 4. Students build on their previous work with single data distributions to compare two data distributions and address questions about differences between populations. They begin informal work with random sampling to generate data sets and learn about the importance of representative samples for drawing inferences. Ratios and Proportional Relationships 7.RP

Analyze proportional relationships and use them to solve real-world and mathematical problems. 1. Compute unit rates associated with ratios of fractions, including ratios of lengths, areas

and other quantities measured in like or different units. 2. Recognize and represent proportional relationships between quantities. a. Decide whether two quantities are in a proportional relationship, e.g., by testing

for equivalent ratios in a table or graphing on a coordinate plane and observing whether the graph is a straight line through the origin. b. Identify the constant of proportionality (unit rate) in tables, graphs, equations,

diagrams, and verbal descriptions of proportional relationships. 3. Use proportional relationships to solve multistep ratio and percent problems. 7.NS

## The Number System

Apply and extend previous understandings of operations with fractions to add, subtract, multiply, and divide rational numbers. 2. Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication and division and of fractions

to multiply and divide rational numbers. 4. Use variables to represent quantities in a real-world or mathematical problem, and

construct simple equations and inequalities to solve problems by reasoning about the quantities. Statistics and Probability Use random sampling to draw inferences about a population. 1. Understand that statistics can be used to gain information about a population by 7.SP

examining a sample of the population; generalizations about a population from a sample are valid only if the sample is representative of that population. Understand that random sampling tends to produce representative samples and support valid inferences. 2. Use data from a random sample to draw inferences about a population with an unknown

characteristic of interest. Generate multiple samples (or simulated samples) of the same size to gauge the variation in estimates or predictions. Draw informal comparative inferences about two populations. 3. Informally assess the degree of visual overlap of two numerical data distributions with

similar variabilities, measuring the difference between the centers by expressing it as a multiple of a measure of variability. 4. Use measures of center and measures of variability for numerical data from random

samples to draw informal comparative inferences about two populations. 6. Approximate the probability of a chance event by collecting data on the chance process

that produces it and observing its long-run relative frequency, and predict the approximate relative frequency given the probability. 8. Find probabilities of compound events using organized lists, tables, tree diagrams, and

simulation. a. Understand that, just as with simple events, the probability of a compound event

is the fraction of outcomes in the sample space for which the compound event occurs. c. Design and use a simulation to generate frequencies for compound events.

ISTE NETS:

1. Creativity and Innovation Students demonstrate creative thinking, construct knowledge, and develop innovative products and processes using technology. a. Apply existing knowledge to generate new ideas, products, or processes b. Create original works as a means of personal or group expression c. Use models and simulations to explore complex systems and issues d. Identify trends and forecast possibilities 2. Communication and Collaboration Students use digital media and environments to communicate and work collaboratively, including at a distance, to support individual learning and contribute to the learning of others. d. Contribute to project teams to produce original works or solve problems 3. Research and Information Fluency Students apply digital tools to gather, evaluate, and use information. a. Plan strategies to guide inquiry b. Locate, organize, analyze, evaluate, synthesize, and ethically use information from a variety of sources and media d. Process data and report results 4. Critical Thinking, Problem Solving, and Decision Making Students use critical thinking skills to plan and conduct research, manage projects, solve problems, and make informed decisions using appropriate digital tools and resources. b. Plan and manage activities to develop a solution or complete a project c. Collect and analyze data to identify solutions and/or make informed decisions 5. Digital Citizenship Students understand human, cultural, and societal issues related to technology and practice legal and ethical behavior. b. Exhibit a positive attitude toward using technology that supports collaboration, learning, and productivity c. Demonstrate personal responsibility for lifelong learning d. Exhibit leadership for digital citizenship 6. Technology Operations and Concepts Students demonstrate a sound understanding of technology concepts, systems, and operations.

a. Understand and use technology systems b. Select and use applications effectively and productively d. Transfer current knowledge to learning of new technologies Lesson Objective(s): A) Students will be able to sort M&Ms by color and record their observations, on the sheet that I will provide them with. Students will be able to interpret what their personal bar graph is representing. Students will be able to compare their data with a fellow classmate, and then be able to combine their data to make a new bar graph. Students will see if there are changes in percentages, of the different M&M colors, when compiling with a fellow classmate and when data is complied as a class. Students will be able to answer questions about their bar graphs appropriately on the sheet that I will be handing out to them. B) Students will be able to follow directions to input data of their M&M colors into a table on excel and an online bar graphing site. Students will be able to follow directions to create a bar graph on excel and using an online bar graphing site, using the data they collected about the colors of their M&Ms. Students will display their data that they collected, using the bar graphs on excel and on the online website. Students will be able to have correct labels and titles on their bar graphs on excel and on the online website. Introduce the Learning Activity: A) I will ask students a series of questions to get them wondering and engaged in the conversation. Some of the questions that I might ask will be such as, what is your favorite color M&M? Are there even numbers of M&M colors in a package? And what do you think is the most common color in a package? We then can have a little mini-discussion of what the students think. After the discussion I will go into what we are doing for todays lesson. B) After telling the students what the lesson is going to be today, I will then ask the students the following question; what kinds of tools we can be use to make bar graphs? I will then briefly go into the different techniques and different tools that we can use. Some of the methods I will

suggest are, making them by hand, making them in excel, making them on your calculator or making them on a website. Provide Information: After talking to the students about the lesson, I will hand out a sheet to the students to record their answers to each question that will be asked of them to do today. I will also tell the students to save all of their graphs because they will need to use them again at the end of class. I will first hand out the M&M packets, and tell the students they cannot eat them until after the lesson is completed. Then I will have the students count how many of each color there are in their packet. I will then have them record that on their handout. After this, I will show them how to enter the data into excel and then I will show them how to make a bar graph. After I have completed this I will let them try it out on their own. Next I will have the students go to a website, which I will provide for them, to make another bar graph. Again I will show them what to do, and then I will let them try it out on their own. In this website, the students will have to label their own graphs and enter all their data again. The website I will provide for them will be http://www.nces.ed.gov/nceskids/. I will explain to the students, that they can use this website if they do not have excel on their computers at home. After they have completed the online graph, I will ask the students to pair up with a partner, and if there is not an even number, I will have one group of 3. In the groups I will have the students first compare their original data to their partners. Then I will have the students compile their data all together. After they do this, each group will have to make a new excel sheet, a new bar graphs, and they will have to make a new bar graph online. After this is completed, I will then have one member from each group come up to the teachers station to enter their data. After this is completed, I will have the students enter this data into their own excel sheet. Then I will show them how to add numbers in the excel sheet to find out the class data of M&M colors. Then I will again have the students make a bar graph in excel and on the website. After making the tables and bar graph, individually, with their partner/partners, and with the class data, I will hand out the question sheet. The first thing I will have the students complete are the calculations. The students will calculate the percentages of each color in their packets, their groups packets and the classs packets. I will have the students us an online calculator to complete this step. I have put the following link on their work sheet, to go to, for a free

calculator, http://www.meta-calculator.com/online/.Lastly I will have the students complete the rest of the worksheet, which will be collected. The questions will be about comparing the three graphs, asking about similarities and differences. There will also be questions comparing the color percentages. Provide Practice: A) I will give the students a worksheet to help keep their data organized before entering into the computer. Students will sort out their own M&Ms after watching my demonstration. Students will compare percentages, about their personal packets, to their groups and to the classs. Students will write down what each bar graph is representing. I will hand out a worksheet where the student will write answers to questions about their tables, graphs and percentages, to help see their comprehension of the material. B) Students will enter their own data into excel and into the website, after watching my demonstration of how to do so. Students will have to make their own tables and graphs using excel and the website, after watching my demonstration. Students will have to do their own calculations, using the online calculator, to fins the percentages of the M&M colors. Students will enter their own titles and labels onto their tables and graphs. Provide Knowledge of Results: A) As students work on answering the questions and making the tables and graphs I will walk around for questions. I will also ask students, at random, what their percentages are and how they are responding to the questions. I will also help to probe more, by asking why they are thinking the way they are. This will help to make students think more critically about the topic. B) I will answer students questions, when they are working on making their tables and graphs. If there are many different students asking the same question, then I will stop the class, and go over the instructions again, and have the students follow me this time step by step. Review the Activity: At the end of the class I will ask the students to share some of their answers on their sheet. I will then go back to the original questions that were asking at the beginning of class. I

will ask if the students changed their mind about the questions and why, if they did change their mind. I will also tell students to make sure they do not throw any of this information away, because we will be using it again to help look at mean, median and mode, along with averages and that we will be using this activity to help start our probability and statistic unit.

Method of Assessment: A) Students will be given a hand out sheet with questions about comparing the data that they collected today, which will be collected at the end of the class period. To show full comprehension of the material, students should be able to give supported evidence for their answers. Students will be given a +, , , depending on their responses. Students may

work together on answering the questions, but the answers have to be in their own words. Failure to do so, will result in a zero on the assignment. The students will receive their work back during the next class period. B) Students will have to hand in their tables and their graphs that they make on excel only, and they will only have to hand in their personal data table and graphs. This will help to show me that the students understood how to make a table and a graph using excel. The students will receive their table and graphs during the next class period.