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Name Mathiarasi Bernabas Class 4 Amanah

Title Manufactured Substances in Industry

Content (A) Sulphuric acid Manufacture of sulphuric acid Properties of sulphuric acid The uses of sulphuric acid Sulphur dioxide and environmental pollution (B) Ammonia and its salt Manufacture of ammonia Properties of ammonia The uses and preparation of ammonia (C) Alloys Arrangement of atoms in metals What are alloys? Composition,properties and uses of alloys (D) Synthetic polymers What are polymers? Properties of polymers Monomer in synthetic polymer Example and uses of synthetic polymers (E) Glass and ceramics Glass-Component and properties of glass Example and uses of glass

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Ceramics-Component and properties of ceramics Example and uses of ceramics (F) Composite materials What are composite materials Example and their uses Conclusion of topic Acknowledgement References

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(A) Sulphuric acid

Manufacture of sulphuric acid Contact process produces more than 90% of the world sulphuric acid. Raw materials used for the manufacture of sulphuric acid :(i) sulphur (ii) air (iii) water. Contact process consists of 3 stages: ~ Production of sulphur dioxide ~ Conversion of sulphur dioxide is sulphur trioxide. ~ Production of sulphuric acid Stage I: Production of sulphur dioxide (a)Sulphur is burnt in air to produce sulphur dioxide. S(s) + O2(g) SO2(g) (b)Burning of metal sulphides such as zinc sulphide and lead sulphide also produces sulphur dioxide. 2ZnS(s) + 3O2(g) 2SO2(g) + 2ZnO(s) 2PbS(s) + 3O2(g) 2SO2(g) + 2PbO(s) (c)The sulphur dioxide is then mixed with excess air.The mixture is dried and purified to remove impurities such as arsenic compounds. (d)Arsenic compounds found in sulphur will poison the catalyst in the converter, making the catalyst ineffective. Stage II: Conversion of sulphur dioxide to sulphur trioxide (a)The mixture of sulphur dioxide and excess oxygen is passed through a converter.The sulphur dioxide is oxidised to sulphur trioxide. 2SO2(g) + O2(g) 2SO3(g)

(b)Optimum conditions used are as follows. (i) Temperature : 450C (ii) Pressure : 1 atmosphere 4

(iii) Catalyst : Vanadium(V) oxide,V2O5 (c)About 97% conversion occurs under these optimum conditions.

Stage III : Production of sulphuric acid (a) The sulphur trioxide is first dissolved in concentrated sulphuric acid to form a product called oleum, H2S2O7 SO3(g) + H2SO4(aq) H2S2O7(l) (b) Sulphur trioxide is not dissolved in water to form sulphuric acid.This is because reaction between sulphur trioxide and water is very vigorous and produces a large amount of heat.The reaction causes the production of a large cloud of sulphuric acid mist.The mist is corrosive, pollutes the air and is difficult to condense. (c) The oleum is then diluted with water to produce concentrated sulphuric acid of about 98%. H2S2O7(l) + H2O(l) 2H2SO4(aq)

Flow chart of Contact process. Sulphur burns in air Sulphur dioxide, SO2 O2V2O5,450C, 1 atm Sulphur trioxide, SO3 concentrated H2SO4 Oleum,H 2S2O7 water water Sulphuric acid, H2SO4

Figure 1 : The manufacture of sulphuric acid through the Contact process

The manufacture of sulphuric acid, H2SO4 in the Contact Process

Chemical Formula: H2SO4 Oily liquid Molar mass mol-1 98 g

Highly corrosive

Melting point


Non-volatile acid

Properties of sulphuric acid

Boiling point


Viscous colourless liquid

Diprotic acid


Density 1.83g cm-3

Soluble in water

Uses of sulphuric acid

Sulphuric acid is used as:

to manufacture fertilisers

to manufacture paint pigment

to manufacture detergents

to manufacture synthetic fibre

to clean metals

to manufacture plastics

as an electrolyte in car batteries

to manufacture other chemicals

There are many fertilizers that can be made of sulphuric acid. Some of them are: a) Calcium hydrogen phosphate (superphosphate) 2 H2SO4(aq) + Ca3(PO4) 2(s) Ca(H2 PO4) 2 (aq)+ 2CaSO4 (s) sulphuric acid + tricalcium phosphate calcium hydrogen phosphate

b) Ammonium sulphate H2SO4(aq) +2NH3(aq) (NH4) 2SO4(aq) sulphuric acid + aqueous ammonia ammonium sulphate c) Potassium sulphate H2SO4(aq) +2KOH (aq) K2SO4(aq) + 2H2O(l) sulphuric acid + potassium hydroxide solution Potassium sulphate 10

1) To manufacture paint pigments The white pigment in paint is usually barium sulphate, BaSO4. The neutralization of sulphuric acid and barium hydroxide produces barium sulphate. H2SO4(aq) + Ba(OH)2 (aq) BaSO4(s) + 2H2O(l) sulphuric acid + barium hydroxide solution Barium sulphate + water 2) To manufacture detergents Sulphuric acid reacts with by-products of oil refining to form sulphonic acid. Neutralising the sulphonic acid with an alkali produces detergents. 3) To manufacture synthetic fibres Synthetic fibres are polymers ( long chain molecules). Rayon is an example of a synthetic fibre that is produced by the reaction of sulphuric acid eith cellulose threads soaked in alkaline solution. 4) Cleaning metals Before electroplating,sulphuric acid is used for cleaning metals to remove the surface oxides. 5) Other chemicals Sulphuric acid is used as other chemicals like pharmaceuticals,insectides, tartaric acid and explosive. 6) The uses of sulphuric acid in school laboratories are: a. b. c. d. e. As a strong acid As a drying or dehydrating agent As an oxidizing agent As a sulphonating agent As a catalyst


Manufacture of car batteries

Manufacture of detergents

Manufacture of fertilisers

Manufacture of paints

Manufacture of plastic items

Manufacture of pesticides

Metallurgy Fertilisers Paint pigment Detergents Synthetic Fibre Plastics Electrolytes


Figure 2 : Uses of sulphuric acid

Sulphur dioxide and environmental pollution 1) Sulphur dioxide is released through:(a) Burning of sulphur during Contact process (b) Extraction of some metals from their sulphides ores (c) Burning of coals or fuels with high sulphur content 2) Acid rain occurs when there is sulphurous acid,sulphuric acid and nitric acid in the rain. These strong acids will cause the pH of rain to fall between 2.4 and 5.0

3) Sulphur dioxide accounts for most of the acid rain problems. (a) When sulphur dioxide dissolves in rainwater,sulphurous acid is formed 13

SO2(g) + H2O (l) H2SO3(aq) (b) Sulphur dioxide can react with oxygen and water to form sulphuric acid 2SO2(g) + O2(g) + 2H2O(l) 2H2SO4(aq) Ways to control and reduce the effects of acid rain: Use low-sulphur fuels Add calcium oxide(lime), CaO; calcium hydroxide,Ca(OH)2 and powdered llimestone CaCO3 into the acidic lake or river to neutralize the acids present CaO(s) + 2H (aq) Ca (aq) +H2O(l) Ca(OH)2(s) + 2H (aq) Ca (aq) + 2H2O(l) CaCO3(s) + 2H (aq) Ca (aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)


Environmental problems cause by acid rain

corrodes buildings,monuments and statues calcium carbonate in the marble reacts with H2SO4 from the rain to form calcium sulphate. CaCO3(s) + H2SO4(aq) CaSO4(s) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)

corrodes metallic structure The iron from the steel bridges reacts with sulphuric acid to form iron(II) sulphate. Fe(s) + H2SO4(aq) FeSO4(aq) + H2(g)

increase the acidity of water Acid rain disturbs the ecosystem Fish and other aquatic organisms which cannot live in acidic water may die.

increase the acidity of the soil plants cannot grow well in acidic soil reaction of sulphuric acid with aluminium compounds in the soil forms aluminium sulphate which can damage the roots of trees.

leaches minerals and nutrients in the soil. acid react with minerals in the soil to form double salts. dissolved salts carried by the rainwater to river. plants lack of essential nutrients for growth.


(B) Ammonia and its salts

Manufacture of ammonia in industry Ammonia is manufactured in industries through Haber process. Raw materials for the Haber process are (i)hydrogen (ii)nitrogen Nitrogen gas is obtained from the fractional distillation of liquid air. Hydrogen gas is obtained by: (i)Reaction between methane from natural gas and steam CH4(g) + 2H2O(l) 4H2(g) + CO2(g) (ii)The reaction between heated coke and steam C(s) + H2O(l) H2(g) + CO(g)


The manufacture of ammonia,NH3 through the Haber Process.

Nitrogen and hydrogen are mixed according to the ratio 1 mole N2 : 3 moles H2. The mixture is compressed to 200 atm and heated to a temperature of about 450C The mixture is then passed through layers of heated iron catalyst in a reactor.Ammonia is produced. N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g) The reaction is reversible and the production of ammonia gives out heat.The high pressure and iron catalyst speed up the rate of reaction. The ammonia gas produced is liquefied ans separated to get a better yield. The unreacted nitrogen and hydrogen are recycled and passed back into the reactor together with the new source of nitrogen and hydrogen.About 98% of nitrogen and hydrogen are converted into ammonia. Ammonium fertilisers Plants need nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and calcium to grow. Nitrogen-make proteins in stalks and leaves Nitrogen is absorbed by plants in the form of soluble nitrate ions, NO3 Ammonium fertilisers contain ammonium ions.In the soil, the ammonium ions are converted to nitrate ions by bacteria Examples of ammonium fertilisers: (a) (b) (c) (d) Ammonium nitrate, NH4NO3 Ammonium sulphate, (NH4)2SO4 Ammonium phosphate, (NH4)2HPO4 Urea,CO(NH2)2

Fertilisers that contain a high percentage of nitrogen are more effective. 17

Ammonium fertilisers can be prepared by reactions between ammonia solution and acids.

Properties of ammonia


colourless gas

alkaline gas

Physical properties of ammonia

pungent smell

very soluble in water

less dense than air

Chemical reaction of ammonia: (a) Reacting as a base Ammonia ionises partially in water and therefore is a weak base. NH3(g) + H2O(l) NH4 (aq) + OH (aq)

Ammonia undergoes neutralisation with acids to form ammonium salts. Ammonia + acid ammonium salt (b) Reacting with aqueous metal ions Ammonia solution can precipitate some metal hydroxides from their aqueous salt solutions.The metal ions combine with the hydroxide ions from aqueous ammonia to produce insoluble metal hydroxides : Mn (aq) + nOH (aq) M(OH)n(s)


Uses of ammonia To make fertilisers - provide plants the nitrogen they need to grow - these fertilisers are ammonium salts obtained from the neutralization of ammonia with different acids. Examples: (a) Ammonium phosphate - reaction of ammonia with phosphoric acid produces ammonium phosphates NH3(aq) + H3PO(aq) NH4H2PO4(aq) 2 NH3(aq) + H3PO(aq) (NH4)2HPO4(aq) - good fertilisers because they provide two important nutrients,phosphorus and nitrogen. (b) Ammonium nitrate - ammonia is neutralised by nitric acid,ammonium nitrate is formed NH3(aq) + HNO3(aq) NH4NO3(aq) (c) Ammonium sulphate - ammonia is neutralised by sulphuric acid 2NH3(aq) + H2SO4(aq) (NH4)2SO4(aq) (d) Urea - At a temperature of 200C and a high pressure of 200 atm, ammonia reacts with carbon dioxide to produce urea. 2NH3(g) + CO2(g) CO(NH2)2(s) + H2O(l) used as a raw material for the manufacture of nitric acid in the Ostwad process. Liquid ammonia used as cooling agent used as an alkali to prevent the coagulation of latex Ammonia salts is used as smelling salts to revive people who have fainted

Preparation of ammonia The chief commercial method of producing ammonia is by the Haber-Bosch process, which involves the direct reaction of elemental hydrogen and elemental nitrogen.N2 + 3H2 2NH3 This reaction requires the use of a catalyst, high pressure (1001,000 atmospheres), and elevated temperature (400550 C [7501020 F]). Actually, the equilibrium between the elements and ammonia favours the formation of ammonia at low temperature, but high temperature is required to achieve a satisfactory rate of ammonia formation. Several different catalysts can be utilized. Normally the catalyst is iron containing iron oxide. However, both magnesium oxide on aluminum oxide that has been activated by alkali metal oxides and 20

ruthenium on carbon have been employed as catalysts. In the laboratory, ammonia is best synthesized by the hydrolysis of a metal nitride.Mg3N2 + 6H2O 2NH3 + 3Mg(OH)2

(C) Alloys
Arrangement of atoms in metals Pure metals


High density


Physical properties of pure metals

High melting & boiling points


Good conductors of heat and electricity

Pure metal is made up of one type of atoms,thus all atoms are of the same size. In solid state ,the atoms in a pure metal are orderly arranged and closely packed together.Thus,pure metals have high densities.

Although the forces of attraction between the metal atoms are strong,they are not rigid.Therefore when a force is applied,the layers of atoms can slide over one another.Thus metals are ductile or can be stretched. 22


Layers of atoms slide over one another Figure 3 : Metals are ductile The arrangement of atoms in pure metals are not perfect.There are some empty spaces in between the atoms.When a metal is knocked or pressed,groups of atoms may slide and then settle into new position.So,metals are malleable.


Figure 4 : Metals are malleable Pure metals are weak and soft due to their ductility and malleability

What are alloys? An alloy is a mixture of two or more elements with a certain fixed composition in which the major component is a metal. Pure metals are normally soft and easily oxidised.This is the reason why monuments or statues are made of bronze(an alloy) and not copper(a pure metal). Alloy are stronger,harder,resistant to corrosion,have a better finish and lustrous.


Why make alloys? The aim of making alloy is: (a) to increase the strength and hardness of a pure metal (b) to increase the resistance to corrosion of a pure metal (c) to improve the appearance of a pure metal

Figure 5 : Making alloy Composition, properties and uses of alloys Alloy Bronze Brass Composition 90% copper, 10% tin 70% copper 30% zinc 75% copper 25% nickel 99% iron 1% carbon 74% iron, 8% carbon 18%chronium 93%aluminium 3% copper 3%magnesium 1%manganese 96% tin 3% copper Properties Hard,strong,does not corrode easily,shiny surface Harder than copper Uses Medals,statues,monuments,art objects Musical instruments, kitchenware, door knobs,bullet cases,electric parts,ornaments Coins Buildings,bridges,body of cars, railway tracks Cutlery,surgical instruments,sinks, pipes Body of aircraft and bullet trains

Cupro-nickel Steel Stainless steel

Beautifulsurface,shiny, hard,does not corrode easily Hard,strong Shiny,strong,does not rust




Shiny, strong,does not corrode

Art objects,souvenirs 24

1% antimony 9-carat gold 37.5% gold 11% silver 51.5 % copper Shiny, strong,does not corrode Jewellery

(D) Synthetic Polymer

What are polymers? Polymers are large long-chain molecules formed by joining together many identical repeating sub-units called monomers. Polymerisation is a process by which the monomers are joined together into chain-like molecule called polymer.

Formation of polymer Polymers can be divided into 2 types.


Natural Polymers Exist in living things in nature Ex:Protein,cellulose,wool,silk, starch,natural rubber & DNA

Synthetic Polymers They are man-made in laboratory through chemical processes. Ex: Plastics, nylon

Natural Polymers 25

NATURAL POLYMER MONOMER Rubber Isoprene Cellulose Glucose Starch Glucose Protein Amino acid Fat Fatty acid and glycerol Nucleic acid Nucleotides Examples of natural polymers and their monomers


Natural polymers and their uses NATURAL POLYMER USE Rubber Tyres, eraser, condom, electric insulation, elastic bands and belts. Cellulose Paper, textiles, pharmaceuticals, and explosives Starch To stiffen cloth (as in laundering), used in cooking to thicken foods, manufactured of adhesives, paper, textiles and as a mold in the manufacture of sweets. Protein Essential in the diet of animals for the growth and repair of tissue, Fat Maintaining healthy skin and hair, insulating body organs against shock, promoting healthy cell function and serve as energy stores for the body

Synthetic Polymer Synthetic polymers are prepared through 2 types of polymerisation processes: (a)Addition polymerisation (b)Condensation polymerisation Addition polymerisation - involves monomers with double bonds between the carbon atoms. - During addition polymerisation, the double bonds between pairs of carbon atoms break and the carbon atoms pf adjacent ethene molecules join together to form a molecule of poly or polythene. Condensation polymerisation - involves the joining up of monomers with the formation of other smaller and simple 26


Plastics Plastics are the largest group of synthethic polymers with the following properties: (a)Can be easily moulded (b)Low density (c)Strong (d)Inert to chemicals (e)Insulator of heat and electricity (f)Can be coloured

Name of polymer Polyethylene (polythene)

Polypropylene (polypropene)


Equation for polymerisation H H H H n C=C CC H H H H n Ethene Polythene H CH3 H CH3 n C=C CC H H H H n Propene Polypropene F F F F n C=C CC F F F F n TetrafluoTeflon roethene

Properties Durable,light,impermeable, Inert to chemicals,easily melted,insulator

Uses Shopping bags, Plastic cups and plates,toys

Durable,light,impermeable, Inert to chemicals,easily melted,insulator,can be moulded and coloured Durable,non-stick, Chemically inert,strong, impermeable

Bottles,furniture, battery casing, pipes,toys

Coating for nonstick pans, electrical insulators

Synthetic fibre 27

Synthetic fibre are long-chain polymers which are not easily stretched and have high strength. Polynamides and polyester are two groups of synthetic polymers used as fibres for making tekstil. Example of polynamide polymers is nylon. Example of polyester polymers is terylene. Nylon and terylene are produced through condensation polymerisation.


USE a) b) c) d) e) a) b) c) d) e) a) b) c) d) e) a) b) c) Make buckets Make plastic bags Make raincoats Make films Make rubbish bins Make water pipes Make electric cables Make mats Make vinyl records Make clothes hangers Make ropes Make bottles Make chairs Make drink cans Make carpets Make car windows Make plane windows Make spectacle lenses (optical instruments) 28

Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)






a) b) c) d) a) b) c) a)

Make ropes Make curtains Make stockings Make clothes Make packing boxes Make buttons Make noticeboards Make textile items such as clothes and cloths

Disposal of synthetic polymers has caused environmental pollution problems: (a) Synthetic polymers are not easily biodegradable,thus their waste will block or clog up the drainage system,thereby causing flash flood. (b) Waste plastics pollute the lake and river,making the water not suitable for aquatic organisms to live in Ways to solve the problems caused by the use of synthetic polymers: (a) Reuse (b) Recycle (c) Use biodegradable synthetic polymer (d) Dispose of unwanted synthetic polymers in a proper manner.

(E) Glass and ceramics

Glass The major component of glass is silica or silicon dioxide,SiO2 which can be found in sand.


Glass can made by heating a mixture of silicon dioxide and metal carbonates to a temperature above 1500C.

Figure 6 : Structure of silicon dioxide


Chemically inert

Hard but brittle

Physical properties of glass

Electrical insulator Impermeable to liquid

Heat insulator


Type of glass Fused glass

Composition Silicon dioxide

Soda-lime glass

silicon dioxide Sodium oxide Calcium oxide

Borosilicate glass

Silicon dioxide Boron oxide Sodium oxide Calcium oxide

Lead crystal glass

Silicon dioxide Lead(II) oxide Sodium oxide

Properties High melting point High temperature and chemical durability Resistant to thermal shock transparent to ultraviolet and infrared light Low melting point High thermal expansion coefficient Does not withstand heat Cracks easily with sudden change in temperature Good chemical durability Easy to mould and shape Transparent to visible light Transparent to visible light resistant to chemicals Lower thermal expansion coefficient Resistant to thermal shock Can withstand wide range of temperature changes Soft,easy to melt Transparent to visible light High density High reactive

Uses Laboratory glassware Arc tubes in lamps Lenses Telescope mirrors Optical fibres

Containers such as bottles,jars. Flat glass Windowpanes Mirrors Light bulbs Industrial and art objects.

Cookware Laboratory glassware Automobile headlights glass pipelines Electrical tubes

Tableware Art objects Crystals Prisms Lenses 31


Ceramics Ceramics are made from clay such as kaolin.Kaolin is rich in kaolinite(hydrated aluminosilicate,Al2O3.2SiO2.2H2O) Examples of ceramics are bricks,tile,mugs and clay pots.

Very hard and strong

Resist compression


Properties of ceramics
Very high melting point Good insulator of electricity and heat Chemically inert and does not corrode


Property Hard and strong Attractive,easily moulded and glazed Chemically inert and noncorrosive Very high melting point and good insulator of heat Electrical insulators Inert and non-compressible

Uses Building materials Decorative pieces and household items Kitchenware Insulation Insulating parts in electrical appliances Medical and dental apparatus

Examples Tiles,bricks,roofs,cement, abrasive for grinding Vases,porcelain ware,sinks, bathtubs Cooking pots,plates,bowls Lining of furnace, engine parts Spark plugs,insulators in ovens and electrical cables Artificial teeth and bones


Hard and do not bend Do not corrode strong under compression

Inert to chemicals

Common properties of glass and ceramics


Good heat insulators

Good electrical insulators

3 main differences between glass and ceramic: Glass can be heated until molten repeatedly but not ceramics Glass is usually transparent whereas ceramics are not Glass has a lower melting point than ceramics.

`(F) Composite materials

A composite material is a structural material that is formed by combining two or more different materials such as metals,alloys,glass,ceramics and polymers. Some common composite materials are: a. Reinforced concrete b. Superconductor c. Fibre optic d. Fibre glass 34


Photochromic glass

Reinforced concrete Reinforced concrete is formed when concrete is reinforced with steel wire netting or steel rods. Essential for the construction of large structures like high-rise buildings,bridges and oil platforms. Has a greater strength than ordinary concrete and has higher resistance to impact. Superconductors capable of conducting electricity without any electrical resistance when they are cooled to an extremely low temperature. most of them are alloys of metal compounds or ceramics of metal oxides Superconductors also used in : (a) magnetic energy-storage system (b) magnetically levitated train (c) generators (d) transformers (e) computer parts (f) very sensitive devices for measuring magnetic fields, voltage or current. Fibre Optic consists of a bundle of glass or plastic threads that are surrounded by a glass cladding. used to replace copper wire in long distance telephones lines,in mobile phones,video cameras and to link computers within local area networks. used in instruments for examining internal parts of the body or inspecting the interior of manufactured structural products.

Fibre glass produced when glass fibres are embedded in plastic resins to produce glass fibre reinforced plastics. 35

has high tensile strength,can be easily coloured,moulded and shaped,inert to chemicals and is low in density. Photochromic glass changes from transparent to coloured when it is exposed to ultraviolet light, and reverts to transparency when the light is dimmed or blocked. can be produced by embedding photochromic substances like fine silver chloride. photochromic glass helps to: (a) protect our eyes from harmful ultraviolet rays and glare from the sun (b) control the amount of light that passes through it automatically (c) reduce refraction of light



Sulphuric Acid Manufactured by Contact process Temperature:450C Pressure: 1 atm Catalyst : V2O5 Uses:To make fertilizers,detergents, electrolyte, and synthetic fibre Glass Made from sand,SiO2 Types & uses: Fused glass:Lenses Soda-lime glass:mirror Borosilicate glass:Beaker Lead crystal glass: Glass crystals

Synthetic Polymer Manufactured by polymerization. Examples and uses: Polyethylene:Shopping bags Polyvinyl chloride:Pipes polystyrene:Packaging materials Perspex:Lenses Nylon:Ropes,textile

Ammonia Manufactured by Haber process Temperature:450C Pressure: 200 atm Catalyst : Fe Uses:To make fertilizers, nitric acid,cooling agent, explosives

Manufactured Substances in Industry

Composite materials Made by combining two or more materials.Examples: Reinforce concrete Superconductors Fibre optic Fibreglass Photochromic glass

Alloys Made from metal and other elements.Examples and composition: Bronze:Copper & tin Brass:Copper & zinc Steel:Iron & carbon Pewter:Tin,Copper & Antimony Stainless Steel: Iron,carbon & chronium

Ceramic Made from clay, kaolinite,Al2O3.2SiO2. 2H2O Properties and uses: Hard & strong:Tiles, bricks Attractive:vases, sinks Non-corrosive: Kitchenware High melting point: Furnace Inert: Medical & dental apparatus


First of all,I would like to thank the God for giving me blessings to complete this folio just in time.Even I faced a lot of difficulties when doing this project,I managed to overcome it by the Gods blessing .

Then, thanks to my chemistry teacher Mrs.Ng Phek Lan for being such a good guider while doing this project.She had given us appropriate information about this project in order to make us understand more about this project.

Also a great thanks to my friends and family members who tried their best to give their support for me, either by giving me a lot of encouragement while doing this project or helping me to gather the data required for the project.



Eng Nguan Hong,Lim Eng Wah,Lim Yean Ching., 2009. Focus Ace SPM Chemistry., Penerbitan Pelnagi Sdn. Bhd., (page 261 287)