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Name the functions of the maxillary premolars.

1. Function with the molars in the mastication of food 2. Assist canines in shearing or cutting food 3. Maintain the vertical dimension of the face by supporting the corners of the mouth and cheeks to keep them from sagging Anterior Maxillary 1st premolar

Are the premolars anterior or posterior to the molars? On which maxillary premolar is the buccal ridge more pronounced? The lingual surface has ____ lobe(s). The lingual lobe of the maxillary premolar forms one _________ _______. From the facial, maxillary premolars are narrower in the __________ ________ than occlusally. On the lingual surface, the crest of curvature is located on the ______ _______. On the buccal surface, the crest of curvature is located on the _______ _______. Premolar crowns are ________ than anterior tooth crowns. When viewed from the proximal, curvature of the cervical line is slightly greater on the ____ than on the _____ surface. Facial and lingual root surfaces are _______ and taper apically. Apical third is usually bent ________.

One Lingual cusp

Cervical third

Middle third

Cervical third





The root is more narrow on the ___ side. When do maxillary 1st premolars begin to calcify? Maxillary 1st Premolars enamel completed? Maxillary 1st Premolars erupt? Maxillary 1st Premolars root completed? How many cusps do maxillary 1st premolars have? Maxillary premolars are the only premolars that have __ ______ and __ _______ ________. On the maxillary 1st premolar, the ______ cusp is longer than the ______ cusp. On maxillary 1st premolars the tip of the buccal cusp is located ________ to the midline. On maxillary 1st premolars, the M and D marginal ridges are _______ than on a canine. On maxillary 1st premolars, the buccal surface is convex with a well developed middle lobe or _____ _____. The maxillary 1st premolars have a ________ _________ developmental groove with ___ and ___ pits on the occlusal surface. The maxillary 1st premolars have a prominent concavity in the _______ _______ of the ___ surface. All maxillary premolars are shaped like a ________ from the proximal view

L 1.5 years 5-6 years 10-11 years 12-13 years 2; 1 buccal, 1 lingual 2 roots ; 2 pulp canals

buccal ; lingual



buccal ridge

Long central; M; D

cervical third; M


(maxillary 1st premolars)A mesial marginal groove crosses the _______ marginal ridge and extends from the occlusal to the ________ third of the crown. *Not always present

mesial; middle

The most consistent and obvious trait of the maxillary mesial developmental groove 1st premolar crown is the _______ _________ _________. (maxillary 1st premolarsThe mesial developmental groove is a prominent mesial concavity _______ to the contact area. Maxillary 1st premolar is the only premolar where the _______ longitudinal root depression is deeper than on the ________ side. (Maxillary 1st premolar) A bifurcation occurs in the ________ third. (Maxillary 1st premolar) Mesial curvature of CEJ slightly ________ than on the distal side. (Maxillary 1st premolar) Both the buccal and lingual cusp tips are centered over the ________. (Maxillary 1st premolar) Occlusally, the lingual cusp is more ________ than the buccal cusp, but the buccal cusp is ________ and ________. (Maxillary 1st premolar) Occlusally, the crown is ______ on the buccal than on the lingual surface. (Maxillary 1st premolar) Central developmental grooves run across the center with a ____ at both ends. (Maxillary 1st premolar) An important distinguishing characteristic is a mesial marginal groove almost always crosses the ______ marginal ridge and cervical

mesial; distal




pointed; larger; longer



mesial; central

connects with the ________ groove. (Maxillary 1st premolar) The _________ occlusal outline is another distinguishing feature. Any ridge that runs from the cusp tip to the central grove is a _________ ridge. Two triangular ridges cross the tooth BL and form a _______ ridge. __________ anatomical features are composed of the major structures, grooves and pits that are pertinent for the teeth. They occur regularly with uniformity in shape and size _______ grooves are sharp, deep and V-shaped; occur consistently. All __________ grooves are primary grooves. __________ grooves are more shallow and irregular in shape giving the tooth a wrinkled appearance. Not always present. Secondary grooves are __________ grooves Few ________ grooves are seen on a maxillary 1st premolar. How many roots are most common for maxillary 1st premolar? The _______ root is longer than the ________. Usually, there are __ root canals present even in the single root form. Bifurcation occurs in the ______ third. asymmetrical





developmental Secondary

supplemental secondary

2 (1 buccal, 1 lingual)

buccal; lingual 2


On the ________ root form, the M root surface will have a highly developed ______ _______. The pulp cavity has __ pulp horns, 1 for each cusp, and __ root canals, 1 for each root. (M1Pm) Universal Code (M1Pm) Number of roots (M1Pm) Number of pulp horns (M1Pm)Number of cusps (M1Pm)Number of developmental lobes (M1Pm) Height of contour (M1Pm) Facial cusp is ______ and ______ than the lingual cusp. (M1Pm) Mesial marginal groove crosses the __ marginal ridge and extends onto the __ surface. (M2Pm) Evidence of calcification (M2Pm) Enamel completed (M2Pm) Eruption (M2Pm) Root completed (M2Pm) Crown is less angular and more _______ appearance than the 1st; crown is noticeably ________. (M2Pm) Usually have only __ root

single; root groove

2; 2

5 and 12 2 2 2 4 cervical third to middle third wider; longer

M; M

2 years 6-7 years 10-12 years 12-14 years rounded; smaller

(M2Pm) Generally root is ______ than that of a 1st. (M2Pm) Two cusps of more ______ length. _______ cusp is less pointed than on a 1st. (M2Pm) Occlusal outline is more ________ than a 1st. (M2Pm) ________ central developmental groove. (M2Pm)______ supplemental grooves. Groove pattern is _____ distinct, giving the occlusal surface a more wrinkled appearance. True or False: The M2Pm has a mesial crown concavity. (M2Pm) How many roots does a maxillary 2nd premolar have? T/F: The M root concavity on the M2Pm is not as pronounced as on the M1Pm.

longer equal; Buccal


Short Many; less


One usually


(M2Pm) _________ grooves on the M and D surfaces Longitudinal gives the appearance of trying to divide the root into 2 (M2Pm) In a bifurcated root, if present, there will be how many canals and how many apical foramen? (M2Pm) How much longer is the root than the crown? (M2Pm) Universal code (M2Pm) How many roots? (M2Pm) How many pulp horns? 2; 2

1&3/4 the length of the crown

4 and 13 1 2

(M2Pm)How many cusps? (M2Pm) How many developmental lobes? (M2Pm) Height of contour What percent of M2Pm have 2 root canals? (M2Pm) T/F: B and L cusps are nearly equal in length (M2Pm) Occlusal is more rounded with more ___________ grooves. M1Pm or M2Pm: Crown symmetrical, more oval M1Pm or M2Pm: Divided or 2 roots M1Pm or M2Pm: Fewer supplemental grooves M1Pm or M2Pm: Less likely M marginal ridge groove M1Pm or M2Pm: Cusp tips close together M1Pm or M2Pm: B and L cusps same length M1Pm or M2Pm: M root depression but not crown M1Pm or M2Pm: Crown asymmetrical, more hexagonal M1Pm or M2Pm: Cusp tips farther apart M1Pm or M2Pm: M crown and root depression M1Pm or M2Pm: D root depression deeper than M

2 4 cervical to middle third 40% True


M2Pm M1Pm M1Pm M2Pm

M1Pm M2Pm M2Pm M1Pm

M2Pm M1Pm M2Pm

M1Pm or M2Pm: M marginal ridge groove M1Pm or M2Pm: B cusp longer than L

M1Pm M1Pm