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The effects that Erotica and Pornography has on a Sex-Centric Society

Tanushree Nadir Emma Prager Amer Kalsi Nada Bouchta Chenju Shen

PSYCHOLOGY Mr. Puhl HO3 M4

Statement of Authorship
I certify that this assignment is my own work and contains no material which has been submitted as part of an assignment in any institute, college or university. Moreover, to the best of my knowledge and belief, it contains no material previously published or written by another person, except where due reference is made in the text of the assignment.

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General Introduction
All art is erotic. The first ornament to have been invented, the cross, was of erotic origin. It was the first work of art. A horizontal stroke: the woman lying down. A vertical stroke: the male who penetrates her - Adolf Loos

From centuries of old, man has persevered in his pursuit of the mysteries of the body and the mind, unconsciously personifying his fantasies and ideals on Gods and Goddesses, myths, legends and of course the idolisation and suppression of his most terrifying fantasy the female body. Where paedophilia, among the old civilisations like the Greeks and the Romans, was the norm- it is now a severely punishable offense. Where child marriage and sexual slavery was the practise of the Indian and Tahitian cultures, it is now taboo. And where bisexuality and hedonism was the order of the day, we have yet to truly grasp and accept its true ramifications and potential. So where did we go wrong? Have we evolved from a highly sexualised culture to a regressive and terrified race or have we truly uncovered and embraced the lifestyles and teachings of our ancestors? Sex has been forced to lead a discursive existence through the multiplicity of discourses that define and regulate it since the seventeenth century. For Foucault the alternative procedure to produce truth about sex has been ars erotica, the experience of pleasures that deflects knowledge of such pleasures back into sexual practice.(Kent, 2005). For many years, we have all been living in the realm of Diderots Prince Mangogul: under the spell of an immense curiosity about sex, bent on questioning it, with an insatiable desire to hear it speak and be spoken about, quick to invent all sorts of magical rings that might force it to abandon its discretion. As if it were essential for us to be able to draw from that little piece of ourselves not only pleasure but knowledge, and a whole subtle interchange from one to the other: a knowledge of pleasure, a pleasure that comes of knowing pleasure, a knowledge-pleasure; and as if that fantastic animal we accommodate had itself such finely tuned ears, such searching eyes, so gifted a tongue and mind, as to know much and be quite willing to tell it, provided we employed a little skill in urging it to speak. But is sex hidden from us, concealed by a new sense of decency, and kept under a bushel by the grim necessities of bourgeois society?(Foucault, n.d.) Why can't we all just acknowledge that "nature" that is, "sex" or "erotic" images, which are really just "attracters" are everywhere. Of course a flower looks like what it looks like that's what it is to a bee. (Sara Genn)

People who are brought up with a negative attitude towards life and sex acquire a pleasure anxiety. This neurotic pleasure anxiety is the basis on which life-negating, dictator-producing views of life are reproduced by the people themselves. The character of Man, who represents a six-thousand-year-old patriarchal authoritarian culture, is recognised by his outward and inner defence against the social misery surrounding him. This is the basis of isolation, indigence, craving for authority, fear of responsibility, mystic longing, sexual misery and neurotically impotent rebelliousness as well as pathological tolerance. Man has become hostile towards life. Sexual suppression, biological rigidity, moralism and asceticism are ubiquitous-sometimes undermining the distinction between natural and unnatural sexuality and the Law of Nature versus the Law of Man and Church. (Reich, 1973).

Theoretical Introduction to the research


OUTLINE

This paper seeks to introduce the reader to the contemporary and underlining cultures and sub-cultures that have influenced modern-day societies and civilisations, concentrating on the widespread development and globalisation of erotica and pornography as high-value commodities in the sex-centric and affluent world. It seeks to compare and contrast erotica with pornography with regard to the sexual revolution of the 60s and the 70s and its role in establishing these commodities in world markets and virtually every household and sex economy. It also seeks to enlighten the reader of the virtues and dangers of living in a rapidly indifferent world where the accessibility and availability of sexual media and tourism have made men and women highly sexualised and demanded products rather than soulful intelligent beings striving towards a higher purpose and harmony the procreation and continuation of the human race in coexistence with Nature.
METHODOLOGY

Secondary sources = literature overview The report has been compiled from a varied and specialised pool of periodicals, articles and journals from online databases submitted and penned by professional psychologists, marketing analysts, health-care professionals and media and industry specialists. Primary sources > survey Secondly, the research team has also consulted various works of the psychoanalysts Sigmund Freud ,Wilhelm Reich and Theodore Reik ; Michel Foucault - philosopher, social theorist and historian.

Thirdly, the researchers have endeavoured to prepare a specific questionnaire distributed and filled by students and professors alike, in the institution, with a varying range of age (between early 20s and early 50s) and nationality in order to gather a fuller and more comprehensive information pool for the purpose of this report. Lastly, the writers have used their own personal experiences, opinions and observations to bring several viewpoints to this research representing a large fraction of the worlds youth population.

Findings
EROTICA VERSUS PORNOGRAPHY

The word, erotica comes from the Greek Eros or curiosa meaning desire or curiosity. Eros was the god of sexual love and beauty. Erotica is anything that is sexually provoking -it could be a device to enhance sexual pleasure or an image that arouses the mind and instincts. The word pornography is derived from the Greek pornographia, wh ich originates from the Greek words porn, "prostitute" and pornea, "prostitution" and graphein, "to write or to record," and the suffix ia, meaning "state of," "property of," or "place of", thus meaning "a written description or illustration of prostitutes or prostitution". "Sexually progressive cultures gave us literature, philosophy, civilization and the rest, while sexually restrictive cultures gave us the Dark Ages and the Holocaust." Alan Moore (25,000 Years of Erotic Freedom)

Erotica: Art or Pornography?


Erotica or eroticism deals with the feelings and behaviour of the individuals who explore and question not only their bodies but their minds, willing to test and push their own manmade barriers and boundaries. The purpose of erotica is to provide a mutually satisfying and consensual experience with ones partner /s using creative and imaginative objects or techniques Pornography, on the other hand seeks to focus only on the sexual act with a voyeuristic approach towards the actors and performers. It tends to objectify and degrade women, allowing them to be seen as mere sexual objects and slaves to the desire of men.

Pornography comprises routine and unrealistic acts and representations which are misleading, offensive and derogatory, especially to women, in that it is focused with a single-minded purpose to the act rather than the persons involved.

THE MEDIA

Now we must examine the effect that pornography and erotica has affected the media. To do this we must take the outlook for the eastern population of the world who still to some extent have not been exposed to the sexual subliminal messaging of the media that the western world inflicts on its viewers day in and day out. The idea that sex sells has not quite taken affect in this part of the world although we can see examples of this beginning to happen. In 2007 Sports Illustrated swimsuit issue was released in China for the first time and although it was quickly sold out, the people of China were shocked. The images portrayed in these magazines that seem normal to an American or a European were found very provocative by the Chinese people who still had their magazines censored only five years prior to this. To this professor Xie Xialing said there is a fine line between the open mind and sexual indulgence. This is clear sign how pornography and erotica are seeping in to the media. The sad truth about this occurrence is that we have become so used to seeing these images in our daily lives that we have no idea that it is happening. There is more evidence of how we are begging to push the boundaries between what is just a simple portrayal of the act of love and what is just soft porn. We came across an article about a recent HBO program known as Tell Me You Love Me. The director supports her portrayal of sex in her show as real and raw allowing the audience to really feel the passion between the actors. However critics have commented where do we draw the line is it really necessary for the act of love to be shown in such graphic detail. They argue if it really necessary to use such detail to depict sex? Surly the viewers do not need this raw element to understand the relations of the actors in the program. These are two examples of how Pornography and Erotica are having an effect on our media and it also shows how was have become so susceptible to it that we are begging to have difficulty drawing a line between what is acceptable and was is not.

OUR RESEARCH

As a part of the study researched we constructed a questionnaire biased on our topic to hand out to the student population here at Les Roches. Of the forty questionnaires handed out we received only twenty three back. We believe this is due to the quite personal nature of the topic. From the questionnaires we received we were able see that the difference between the male views verses the female views on the subject. It was also very interesting to see the relationship between Nationality and the acceptance of erotica and pornography. From the findings of our questionnaire we were able to see straight away the different views men and women have about erotica. We found that women tend to see erotica more of an artistic expression of the act of love making where as men simply see it as a form of soft pornography. The nationality of the subjects played an interesting roe in the findings. The answers in the question airs showed that the majority of the people that hale from the western world had a more open view towards all forms of sex and sexual activity. Whereas the subjects from the east mention how their culture is only starting to accept any form of sexuality openly. We can also see that parents of the western subjects were more informative about sex and tend to speak to their children more openly and at a younger age than the eastern subjects. This one of the factors we feel that contributes more to the more open culture. An interesting outcome of conducting this questionnaire is that we found that with the Les Roches demographic is that according to the subjects the media has had little effect on their perception of sex. At this may seem normal we feel that this could also be a sign to show how much the world has come to accept the sexual nature of the media. In view of these findings, we present a new theory of erotic capital as a fourth personal asset- an addition to economic, cultural, and social capital. Erotic capital has six, or possibly seven, distinct elements, one of which has been characterized as emotional labour. It is a major asset not only in mating and marriage markets, speed dating and the Internet but in labour, media, politics, advertising, sports, the arts and in daily social interactions. We believe that erotic capital is as important in the comprehension and analysis of other social and economic processes, interaction and mobility. Women, of course, have been markedly more aggressive in developing and promoting it and studies have been done to prove than women definitely hold more appeal than men. Studies show that conventionality, symmetry and an even skin tone contributes to attractiveness, and that it is an achieved characteristic, in part (Webster and Driskell, 1983), as illustrated by the belle laide. Great beauty is always in short supply, and is therefore, universally prized. A second element is sexual attractiveness, which is distinguishable from classic beauty. Beauty is the central element of erotic capital and is subjective. It focuses on facial

attractiveness, while sexual attractiveness, the second element, is about a desirable body. However, sex appeal can also be about personality and style, femininity or masculinity, a way of being in the world, a characteristic of social interaction. Beauty tends to be static, hence is easily captured in a photo. Sexual attractiveness is about the way someone moves, talks, and behaves, so it can only be captured on film. Personal tastes also vary. In the Western world, men reputedly divide into those who prioritize breasts, buttocks or legs, but in most cultures it is the overall appearance that matters. Despite this variation in tastes, sex appeal is in short supply, and is therefore, such a sought after commodity. A third element of erotic capital is definitely social- grace, charm, social skills in interaction, the ability to make people like you, feel at ease and happy, want to know you, and, where relevant, desire you. Flirtation can be learnt, but again is not universal. Some people in positions of power have lots of charm and charisma; others have none at all. A fourth element is liveliness, a mixture of physical fitness, social energy, and good humour. These people are major attracters. In most cultures liveliness is displayed in dancing skills or sporting activities. The fifth element concerns grooming and presentation: style of dress, make-up, perfume, jewellery or other adornments, hairstyles, and the various accessories that people carry or wear to announce their social status and style to the world. Monarchs and presidents dress for public functions to emphasize their power and authority. The sixth element is sexuality itself: sexual competence, energy, erotic imagination, playfulness, and everything else that makes for a sexually satisfying partner. Whether or not someone is a good lover is known only to their partners. Of course, this competence may vary not only with age but also with the partners competence and enthusiasm, given the interactive element. National sex surveys provide no information on levels of sexual competence, but they reveal dramatic variations in sex drive in all populations. A small minority of men and women are extremely sexually active; the majority are moderately active; a minority are celibate. It seems reasonable to conclude that sexual skill is not a universal attribute, even among adults, and extreme competence is a minority asset. 25 relationships with For men and women, all six elements contribute towards defining someones erotic capital. The relative importance of the six elements usually differs for men and women, and varies between cultures. In Papua New Guinea, it is men who decorate their hair and paint their faces with colours and creative designs. In Western Europe, women paint their faces with make-up, but men rarely do. In contrast, Japanese geishas and courtesans deploy erotic capital as a vital and necessary part of their work. The social and economic value of erotic capital is highlighted in what can

broadly be described as entertainer occupations but can also be very real in private contexts (Blanchflower and Oswald, 2004). In some cultures, womens erotic capital is closely tied to their fertility. Among many West Indian groups, fertility is so crucial to a womans sex appeal that girls demonstrate their fertility before a marriage is finalized. Thus, it is commonplace for women to get pregnant and deliver a healthy child before a wedding is arranged. In India, children are considered so essential to marriage, and so central to life itself, that childless couples are regarded as the unfortunate victims of infertility rather than voluntarily childfree. One reason for stigmatizing homosexuality in some cultures is that it cannot produce offspring (Eder et al., 1999). In many cultures, a fertile woman is regarded as having additional attractions, especially if her children are healthy and beautiful. From a theoretical perspective, we can treat fertility as an additional seventh element of erotic capital, an element that is unique to women since men are unable to bear children. Alternatively, reproductive capital is a separate, seventh asset, which appears to be of lower value in the 21st century in modern societies than it was in agricultural societies characterized by high fertility. Erotic capital is thus a combination of aesthetic, visual, physical, social, and sexual attractiveness to other members of your society, and especially to members of the opposite sex, in all social contexts. We use the terms erotic power and erotic capital interchangeably, for stylistic variation. Erotic capital includes skills that can be learnt and developed, as well as advantages fixed at birth. Attentional Adhesion to Mates and Rivals You're just too good to be true. Can't take my eyes off of you. Frankie Valli As the words of poets and songwriters often suggest, nearly everyone at times has found their attention glued to the image of another person. Indeed, finding it difficult to pull ones attention away from some individual an occurrence we refer to as attentional adhesion is a well-documented psychological phenomenon (Derryberry & Reed, 1994; Fox, Russo, Bowles, & Dutton, 2001). In the current research, we examine the possibility that biases in attentional adhesion are guided by psychological states associated with mating.

Integrating Evolutionary and Social Cognitive Approaches

The current studies integrate evolutionary and social cognitive approaches in two main ways. The first point of integration involves the importance of basic, lower-order social cognition. Although evolutionary theories often imply that social cognition is adaptively tuned. (Buss & Schmitt, 1993, Cosmides & Tooby, 1992; Daly & Wilson, 1987; Haselton & Buss, 2000 Kenrick, Maner, Butner, Li, Becker, & Schaller, 2002; Barrett & Kurzban, 2006) , research inspired by these theories has at times fallen short of directly examining basic or early-in-the-stream social perception. Instead, studies have tended to focus primarily on downstream processes such as explicit judgments, preferences, logical reasoning, and decision-making (e.g., Kenrick & Keefe, 1992). Social cognitive approaches, in contrast, provide a strong empirical foundation for directly examining early-stage social cognition (e.g., Ferguson & Bargh, 2004; Moskowitz, 2002). The current studies were designed to build upon an emerging literature aimed at integrating social cognitive and evolutionary approaches by identifying adaptive psychological mechanisms that operate at early stages of social perception (e.g., Kurzban, Tooby, & Cosmides, 2001; Maner et al., 2003, 2005; hman & Mineka, 2001). The second point of integration involves the role of proximate factors in the expression of adaptive psychological mechanisms. Although evolutionary theories have tended to focus primarily on background factors associated with human evolutionary biology and ethology, evolutionary theories also imply that proximate factors within the person or immediate situation can guide the expression of evolved psychological mechanisms (e.g., Kenrick, Li, & Butner, 2003). At the level of the situation, evolutionary theories imply that situationalactivated motivational states can shape adaptive social cognitive processes (Kirkpatrick, Waugh, Valencia, & Webster, 2002; Leary, Tambor, Terdal, & Downs, 1995; Pyszczynski, Greenberg, & Solomon, 1997). Evolutionary studies of mating, however, have tended to rely on motives presumed to be chronically active and have left relatively unexplored effects of situationally-activated motivational states (Gangestad, & Lerma, 1990 & Simpson, Rholes, & Nelligan, 1992). The current research bridges proximate and evolutionary approaches by examining effects of proximate, situational-activated motives on adaptive social cognition. Ecological theories of social cognition suggest that attention is adaptively tuned selectively processing key features of the environment that are relevant to the satisfaction of important motives (McArthur & Baron, 1983). Attentional processes consist of several distinct components (Posner & DiGirolamo, 2000). Of particular relevance to the current

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research is the posterior attentional system (Posner & Peterson, 1990). This system is responsible for automatically orienting the spotlight of attention from one stimulus in the environment to another and includes three subsystems responsible for disengaging attention from a particular stimulus, orienting attention to a second stimulus, and engaging that second stimulus. Evidence suggests that motivational states guide the posterior attentional system and lead motivationally relevant stimuli to capture attention (Fox, Russo, & Dutton, 2002). In particular, motivational states can promote automatic attentional biases such that perceivers are relatively inefficient at disengaging their attention from goal-relevant stimuli.

Mating Motives and Basic Social Cognition


From an evolutionary perspective, the motives having the most immediate impact on the perception of other people are likely to be those that, over the course of human evolutionary history, have been closely linked to differential reproductive success. Successful reproduction requires a diverse array of social motives seeking a mate, guarding ones mate from competitors, caring for offspring, forming alliances, striving for high social status, and so on (Kenrick et al., 2002). The current research focuses on two mating-related motives: finding a mate and guarding a mate from potential competitors. Both of these motives have had important implications for human reproductive success (Buss & Shackelford, 1997; Miller, 2000). Evolutionary theories of short-term mating (Li & Kenrick, 2006) imply that attention might be directed especially toward members of the opposite sex who are physically attractive. Theories of good genes sexual selection suggest that women prefer physically attractive sexual partners in part because physical attractiveness serves as a potential sign of high genetic fitness. Mating with a genetically fit man increases the likelihood that a woman will, in turn, have genetically fit offspring (Gangestad & Simpson, 2000; Scheib, Gangestad, & Thornhill, 1999). Physical features on which judgments of female attractiveness are based can signal a womans level of health and fertility (Singh, 1993). From an evolutionary perspective, men prefer healthy, fertile mates because such a preference would increase the likelihood of successfully fathering healthy offspring (Buss & Schmitt, 1993; Kenrick & Keefe, 1992). Thus, there are reasons to expect that activation of a mate search motive will increase attentional adhesion to physically attractive members of the opposite sex. Mate Guarding, Intrasexual Vigilance, and Attentional Adhesion to Potential Rivals

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Turning to psychological processes associated with mate guarding, there are reasons to expect that a mate guarding motive will increase attentional adhesion to attractive members of ones own sex. Highly attractive members of ones own sex, therefore, can serve as potent intrasexual rivals and can threaten ones own reproductive success (e.g., Scheib, 2001). Thus, just as self-protective motives can lead attention to stick to possible predators (snakes or angry faces, Fox et al., 2001), a mate guarding motive may increase attentional adhesion to attractive same sex targets, who can also be viewed as predatorial, in the sense that they could snatch away ones mate. For what type of observer might such an attentional bias be expected? Individuals differ in the extent to which they view attractive same sex others as potential competitors and worry about and guard against the possible threats they pose (Pfeiffer & Wong, 1989). These individual differences are consistent with evidence that individuals differ in the extent to which they are susceptible to intrasexual threats: whereas some people (e.g., those low in sexual attractiveness) are relatively likely to have their mates poached by attractive rivals, others are less vulnerable to such threats (Pillsworth & Haselton, 2006). Individuals who are relatively susceptible to suffering an infidelity are, perhaps not surprisingly, also the most likely to guard against possible rivals when mate guarding concerns are salient (Haselton & Gangestad, 2006). A functional perspective implies that a mate guarding motive should increase attentional adhesion to attractive same sex targets primarily among individuals exhibiting high levels of vigilance to intrasexual rivals those who tend to view members of their own sex as potential competitors and worry about the possible threats they pose. By way of analogy, other evolutionarily-inspired studies have observed that activating a selfprotective goal enhances the processing of perceived threats, but only among individuals for whom threat-avoidance is generally a salient concern (Schaller, Park, & Mueller, 2003). Fox et al. (2001) showed that when self-protective concerns are active, highly anxious people, who are especially vigilant to signs of threat in the environment, attend carefully to cues connoting possible threat. In contrast, non-anxious individuals, who are less vigilant to possible threats in the environment, show no such bias.
VIRTUAL REALITY VERSUS REALISM

As a discipline of research and study, psychology typically has been reactive; that is, a phenomenon occurs and then psychologists study this phenomenon. However, we live in a time of multiple powerful demographic, technological, and cultural changes a psychosocial perfect storm. Under these conditions, it behoves all disciplines, psychology included, to be more proactive in considering the potential effects created by various present and foreseeable trends (Koltko-Rivera, 2005a; see L. F. Thompson, quoted in Michaels, 2003). So it is that we come to consider the potential societal impact of virtual reality. The term virtual reality (VR) refers to an immersive simulation that involves rela tively high verisimilitude. In general, the term virtual reality refers to an immersive, interactive

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experience based on real-time 3-D graphic images generated by a computer (Pimental & Teixeira, 1995, p. 15, italics in original). Our preferred definition is an immersive experience in which participants view stereoscopic or biocular images, listen to 3-D sounds, and are free to explore and interact within a 3-D world (Pimental & Teixeira, 1995, p. 91).
PERSONAL IMPACT

Freud postulated the existence of two primary instincts, Eros and Thanatos, or, crudely put, sex and death (Freud, 1923/1961b). Recast these as primal impulses for sexuality and aggression (These hypothetical impulses are, at the least, compatible with contemporary conceptions of evolutionary psychology; (Buss, 1995, 1996.) On the one hand, Freud considered these urges to be primary, primal, and powerful. On the other hand, for Freud, the very pillars of society involve the suppression, repression, and sublimation of these primal urges. As Freud put it, a progressive renunciation of constitutional instincts, whose activation might afford the ego primary pleasure, appears to be one of the foundations of the development of human civilization (Freud, 1907/1995a, p. 435). For Freud, the whole process of socialization involves redirecting the childs energy away from immediate gratification, and towards delayed gratification. This is necessary in order to move the child away from operating on the basis of the pleasure principle (basically, a combination of if it feels good, do it, and I want it all, and I want it now) and towards operating on the basis of the reality principle (the idea that behaviour should address external or real world constraints, demands, and opportunities). Without delay of gratification to strengthen the adherence to the reality principle, in Freuds scheme, th ere would be little work, certainly no art, no science, no social organization above that of the family (if that), actually no civilization at all (Freud, 1911/1995b, 1930/1961a.). VR will place many impulses within reach of instant virtual gratification, with no immediate social or legal consequences. By doing this, VR will radically change some of the fundamental rules on which the game of life has been played throughout the entire length of human history.

Sexual Impulses
It appears to be the case that many people use the Internet to fulfil sexual needs, sometimes in ways that strongly suggest the need for professional therapeutic intervention (Cooper, 2002). How much more likely will it be the case that people will use VR to fulfil sexual needs, especially when haptic sensing and haptic feedback mechanisms become more highly developed? Calvert (2002) has pointed out several issues involving the acting out of sexual impulses via VR. On the positive front, this author suggested the possibility that people will be able to learn social skills through virtual environments (VE) that are transferable to real world

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contexts. Sexuality in the VR realm is likely to include interactions with A.I. (artificial intelligence) characters, not human ones. The AI characters involved will be programmed specifically to satisfy the human users expressed desire, acting ess entially as a VR sex slave. The availability of a compliant sexual slave seems to be a popular fantasy. However popular this fantasy is, its attainment is not the way in which one should expect to gain the skills at interpersonal communication that are a foundational element of mature adult sexual relationships (Hyde & DeLamater, 2003). How will the widespread availability of seamless (some would say zipless) VR sexuality affect the development of interpersonal skills and interactions between humans in the real world? Calvert also noted areas in which VR sexual experiences might have negative social effects. The anonymity afforded by cyberspace currently allows sexual deviants to act out with impunity. Issues of imitation, lowered inhibition and desensitization may become serious issues as sexual activity becomes an immersive, online option. Ethical issues, such as marital fidelity, will also be experienced in virtual spaces. How will a person feel if their partner has virtual sex with an imaginary character, or with a character who is a real person in another location? Will betrayal and infidelity be experienced? (Calvert, 2002, pp. 674-675)

Conclusion

When looking into depth on this highly controversial subject we have found that there is no real right or wrong. Todays society is considerably more opened minded and aware of Erotica and Pornography. However, this has had a truly remarkable effect on todays modern youth. The evidence is clear whilst stated within the body of this text that Erotica is beneficial for the mental and sexual well being. On the other hand Pornography is having an adverse effect and almost brainwashing through the rigorous propaganda within advertising campaigns. Pornography has also fuelled the media to push the boundaries of what can be seen on television and adverts. Pornography has a made the belief that sex sells a reality and therefore creating a society based on objectification, stereotyping and degradation.

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References

Foucault, M. (1978). History of Sexuality: Volume 1: An Introduction. New York: Pantheon Books. Reich, W. (1973). The Function of The Orgasm : Volume 1 of The Discovery of the Orgone.New York: Noonday Press, Farrar, Straus and Giroux. PRINT JOURNALS Hakim, C. (2010). Erotic Capital. European Sociological Review. Vol. 0., 1-5. Koltko-Rivera, Mark E. (2005). The Potential Societal Impact of Virtual Reality. Professional Service Group Inc, p. 1, 3) Maner, Jon, K., Gailliot, D. , Rouby, A., Miller, Saul L. (2007). Attentional Adhesion to Mates and Rivals. Florida State University, p. 1-5. Navarro, M. (2007). Sex Now. Pornography, n.d.

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