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1414

Biol. Pharm. Bull. 27(9) 1414—1421 (2004)

Vol. 27, No. 9

Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Activity of Vietnamese Medicinal Plants

Mai Thanh Thi NGUYEN, Suresh AWALE, Yasuhiro TEZUKA, Quan Le TRAN, Hiroshi WATANABE, and Shigetoshi KADOTA*

Institute of Natural Medicine, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University; 2630-Sugitani, Toyama 930–0194, Japan. Received March 26, 2004; accepted June 7, 2004

Among 288 extracts, prepared from 96 medicinal plants used in Vietnamese traditional medicine to treat gout and related symptoms, 188 demonstrated xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory activity at 100 mmg/ml, with 46 having greater than 50% inhibition. At 50 mmg/ml, 168 of the extracts were active, with 21 possessing more than 50% inhibition. At 25 mmg/ml, 146 extracts exhibited inhibitory activity, with 8 showing over 50% inhibition, while 126 extracts presented activity at 10 mmg/ml, with 2 having greater than 50% inhibition. The MeOH extracts of Artemisia vulgaris, Caesalpinia sappan (collected at the Seven-Mountain area), Blumea balsamifera (collected in Lam Dong province), Chrysanthemum sinense and MeOH–H 2 O extract of Tetracera scandens (Khanh Hoa province) exhibited strong XO inhibitory activity with IC 50 values less than 20 mmg/ml. The most active extract was the MeOH extract of the flower of C. sinense with an IC 50 value of 5.1 mmg/ml. Activity-guided fractionation of the MeOH extract led to the isolation of caffeic acid (1), luteolin (2), eriodictyol (3), and 1,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (4). All these compounds showed significant XO inhibitory activity in a concentration-dependent manner, and the activity of 2 was more potent (IC 50 1.3 mm M) than the clinically used drug, allopurinol (IC 50 2.5 mm M).

Key words

Vietnamese medicinal plant; xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity; gout; Chrysanthemum sinense

Natural products are excellent sources of lead compounds in the search for new medicaments for the treatment of dis- eases. The largest present underexplored source of such ma- terials lies in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. In these areas, a long tradition of ethnobotanical medicine often exists and offers a rich and relatively untapped source for the discovery of new drugs from natural products. Vietnam, a tropical Southeast Asian country, also has a long history of traditional medicine systems. 1) However, systematic exploita- tion of these natural resources for their human health benefits has not been carried out to a significant degree. Gout is a common disease with a worldwide distribution. Hyperuricemia, which is associated with gout, results from the overproduction or underexcretion of uric acid and is greatly influenced by a high dietary intake of foods rich in nucleic acids, such as meats (especially organ meats), legu- minous seeds, some types of seafood, and food yeasts. 2,3) During the last step of purine metabolism, xanthine oxidase (XO) catalyses the oxidation of xanthine and hypoxanthine into uric acid. 4) Uricosuric drugs which increase the urinary excretion of uric acid, or XO inhibitors which block the ter- minal step in uric acid biosynthesis, can lower the plasma uric acid concentration, and are generally employed for the treatment of gout. 5) Allopurinol is a clinically used XO in- hibitor in the treatment of gout, but this drug suffers from many side effects such as hepatitis, nephropathy, and allergic reactions. 6) Thus, new alternatives with increased therapeutic activity and less side effects are desired. Moreover, superox- ide anion radicals generated by XO are involved in various pathological states such as hepatitis, inflammation, ischemia- reperfusion, carcinogenesis, and aging. 2,7) Thus, the search for novel XO inhibitors would be beneficial not only to treat gout but also to combat various other diseases. To identify potential XO inhibitory agents from natural sources, we have tested 288 extracts prepared from 96 se- lected medicinal plants, which are used by the indigenous people in Vietnam for the treatment of gout or diseases asso-

ciated with symptoms such as rheumatism, arthritis and in- flammation. In addition, the active constituents of Chrysan- themum sinense, which showed the most potent XO in- hibitory activity, have been determined.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Plant Materials Vietnamese medicinal plants used in this study were collected at the Seven-Mountain area in An Giang province on March 1998, Lam Dong province in May 1998 and November 2001, Khanh Hoa province in November 2002, and Phu Yen province in November 2002 (Table 1). The plants collected at the Seven-Mountain area were identi- fied by Prof. Le Cong Kiet, Department of Botany, Univer- sity of Ho Chi Minh City, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, while other plants were identified by Mr. Nguyen Duy Chinh, De- partment of Resource and Environment, Dalat University, Dalat City, Lam Dong province, Vietnam. The voucher spec- imens are preserved at the Museum of Materia Medica, Re- search Center for Ethnomedicines, Institute of Natural Medi- cine, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University, Toyama, Japan. Chemicals Xanthine oxidase (EC 1.2.3.2) from bovine milk (10 units/ml) and xanthine were obtained from Sigma Chemical Co. (St. Louis, MO, U.S.A.). Allopurinol was pur- chased from Wako Pure Chemical Industries, Ltd. (Osaka, Japan). Other reagents were of the highest grade available. Preparation of Samples Each medicinal plant (10— 213 g) was cut into small pieces and extracted successively with MeOH (200—300 ml, reflux, 2 h, 3), MeOH–H 2 O (1 : 1, 200—300 ml, reflux, 2 h, 2), and water (200— 300 ml, reflux, 2 h). The MeOH solution was evaporated under reduced pressure to give a MeOH extract, while MeOH–H 2 O (1 : 1) and water solutions were concentrated under reduced pressure and lyophilized to give MeOH–H 2 O (1 : 1) and H 2 O extracts, respectively. Assay of XO Activity The XO inhibitory activity was

* To whom correspondence should be addressed.

e-mail: kadota@ms.toyama-mpu.ac.jp

© 2004 Pharmaceutical Society of Japan

September 2004

assayed spectrophotometrically under aerobic conditions,

based on the procedure reported by Noro et al., 8) with modi- fication by using 96-well plates. The assay mixture consisting of 50 ml of test solution, 35 ml of 70 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.5), and 30 ml of enzyme solution (0.01 units/ml in

70 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.5) was prepared immediately

before use. After preincubation at 25 °C for 15 min, the reac- tion was initiated by the addition of 60 m l of substrate solu- tion (150 m M xanthine in the same buffer). The assay mixture was incubated at 25 °C for 30 min. The reaction was stopped by adding 25 m l of 1 N HCl, and the absorbance at 290 nm was measured with a Perkin-Elmer HTS-7000 Bio Assay Reader (Norwalk, CT, U.S.A.). A blank was prepared in the same way, but the enzyme solution was added to the assay mixture after adding 1 N HCl. One unit of XO is defined as the amount of enzyme required to produce 1 mmol of uric acid/min at 25 °C. XO inhibitory activity was expressed as the percentage inhibition of XO in the above assay system, calculated as (1 B/A) 100, where A and B are the activities of the en- zyme without and with test material. IC 50 values were calcu- lated from the mean values of data from four determinations. The crude extracts were dissolved initially in DMSO fol- lowed by dilution with the buffer; the final concentration of DMSO was less than 0.25%. Allopurinol, a known inhibitor of XO, was used as a positive control. Extraction and Isolation of the Active Compounds from the Flower of Chrysanthemum sinense Dried flower (10.7 g) of C. sinense was extracted with MeOH (300 ml, 3) under reflux for 2 h, to yield a MeOH extract (1.4 g; IC 50 value, 5.06 mg/ml). The MeOH extract (650 mg) was chro- matographed on silica gel with a MeOH–CHCl 3 solvent sys- tem to give six fractions: fr. 1 (107 mg; IC 50 , 100 mg/ml), fr. 2 (152 mg; IC 50 , 100 mg/ml), fr. 3 (49.6 mg; IC 50 , 1.3 mg/ml), fr. 4 (49.6 mg; IC 50 , 6.3 mg/ml), fr. 5 (49.6 mg;

IC 50 , 11.9 mg/ml), fr. 6 (49.6 mg; IC 50 , 78.8 mg/ml). Fraction

3 was separated by reversed-phase preparative TLC with

CH 3 CN–MeOH–H 2 O (1 : 1 : 2) to give caffeic acid 2) (1, 3.6 mg) and luteolin 9) (2, 4.9 mg). Fraction 4 was separated by reversed-phase preparative TLC with CH 3 CN–MeOH– H 2 O (1 : 1 : 2) to give eriodictyol 10) (3, 1.7 mg), while fraction 5 was subjected to reversed-phase preparative TLC with ace- tone–CH 3 CN–H 2 O (2 : 2 : 7) to give 1,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid 11) (4, 6.4 mg). Their structures were identified by spec- tral analysis and comparison of their data with those in the literature.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Xanthine oxidase (XO) is an enzyme that has been investi- gated for decades. Natural XO inhibitors were reported from a variety of plants used in traditional herbal medicines for the treatment of gout and rheumatism in China, 12) Australia, 13) North America, 3) Chile, 14) Paraguay, 15) and Panama. 16) Viet- nam, a country possessing a long history of traditional medi- cine system, also has a number of medicinal plants used for gout and rheumatism, but no systematic investigations have been reported until now. In the present study, 96 plants from Vietnam were selected based on their ethnomedical use for the treatment of rheumatism, arthritis, and gout by the na- tives of this region (Table 1) and were successively extracted

1415

with MeOH, MeOH–H 2 O (1 : 1) and H 2 O to give 288 crude extracts. All of these extracts were tested for their XO in- hibitory activity to identify potential anti-gout agents. The assay was carried out at four different concentrations of ex- tract ranging from 10—100 mg/ml (Table 2). Of the extracts assayed, 188 extracts (65.3%) demonstrated XO inhibitory activity at 100 mg/ml, among which 46 (24.5%) showed an inhibition rate greater than 50%. Alto- gether, 168 extracts (58.3%) were found to be active at a con- centration of 50 mg/ml, among which 21 (12.5%) showed in- hibition of more than 50%. At 25 mg/ml, 146 extracts (50.7%) were active, and eight (5.5%) showed an inhibition of over 50%. Of the extracts assayed, 126 (43.8%) displayed activity at 10 mg/ml, including two (1.6%) of over 50% inhi- bition. In total, 49 [31 MeOH, 15 MeOH–H 2 O (1 : 1), and three H 2 O] extracts showed IC 50 values below 100 mg/ml. In general, the MeOH extracts were found to be more active than the MeOH–H 2 O and H 2 O extracts. The crude extracts possessing XO inhibitory activity with IC 50 values less than 20 mg/ml were MeOH extracts of Artemisia vulgaris (IC 50 , 14.7 mg/ml) and Caesalpinia sap- pan (IC 50 , 14.2 mg/ml) from the Seven-Mountain area, Blumea balsamifera (IC 50 , 6.0 mg/ml) from Lam Dong province, and Chrysanthemum sinense (IC 50 , 5.1 mg/ml) from Khanh Hoa province and the MeOH–H 2 O extract of Tetrac- era scandens from Khanh Hoa province (IC 50 , 15.6 mg/ml). Although these plants are used in Vietnamese folk medicine to treat of rheumatism and inflammatory diseases, 17) this is the first report on their XO inhibitory activity. The aerial part of A. vulgaris is widely used for the treat- ment of rheumatism and fever in Vietnam. The phytochemical studies on this plant species reported that it contains a num- ber of flavonoids (e.g., apigenin, eriodictyol, kaempferol, luteolin) as the major constituents, together with monoter- penes, sesquiterpene lactones, and other compounds. 1820) Flavonoids are well known antioxidants and attract a tremen- dous amount of interest among researchers as possible thera- peutic agents for diseases mediated by free radicals. Flavon- oids are also effective inhibitors of several enzymes includ- ing XO, cyclooxygenase, and lipooxigenase. 2123) Thus, the putative therapeutic effects of A. vulgaris and its XO inhibitory activity are ascribed to its flavonoid constituents. Another Asteraceae plant, B. balsamifera, is also reported to contain a number of flavonoids inhibiting XO. 2125) It is interesting to note that the wood of C. sappan pos- sesses various biological activities such as antioxidative, anti- inflammatory, hepatoprotective, cytotoxic, and hypoglycemic

activity. Among the activities, the antioxidative activity is the most widely studied, and was attributed to the presence of phenolic compounds such as brazilin and flavanoids. 26,27) Two phenolic compounds isolated from C. sappan , 1 ,4 - dihydro-spiro[benzofuran-3(2H),3 -[3H-2]benzopyran]-

1 ,6 ,6 ,7 -tetrol and 3-[[4,5-dihydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)-

phenyl]methyl]-2,3-dihydro-3,6-benzofurandiol, were repor- ted to inhibit XO. 28) Thus, the phenolic constituents may play an essential role in the inhibition of XO by C. sappan. Al- though all three extracts of T. scandens showed XO inhibitory activity, there are no scientific reports on their chemical constituents and biological activity. However, the presence of flavonoids such as derivatives of quercetin, kaempferol, apigenin, luteolin, and myricetin, have been

TMPW No.

20608Sophora

20623

20624

20454

20434

20440HWLasia

20610

20464

20424UN

20430

20614Luffa

20460

20420

20606

20436Elsholtzia

20456

20626

20416

20466

20452

20442

20612

20462

20609

20432

20459

20419

20467Polyscias

20448Orthosiphon

20438

20428

20418

20468

20618Eleutherine

20415

20455

20425

20625

20615

20465

20433

20613

20463

20453OBXLuvunga

20423

20443Sansevieria

20621Artemisia

20431

20421

Rheumatism, inflammation, leucorrhea Rheumatism, hypertension Fever, inflammation Tuberculosis, inflammation, rheumatism, hypertension

Menstrual disorder, inflammation, tonic for women

Fever, rheumatism, leucorrhea Antibacteria, fever, rheumatism, leucorrhea Tuberculosis, inflammation, diabetes, breast cancer Diuretic, anthelminthic, inflammation Diarrhoea, inflammation, rheumatism Diarrhoea, inflammation, malaria Rheumatism, tonic for stomach Anthelminthic, hepatitis, inflammation Menstrual disorders, uterus inflammation, diarrhea Fever, inflammation

Inflammation, antibacterial Tonic, inflammation, diarrhea, Addison’s disease

Tonic, leukemia, inflammation, hepatitis

Inflammation, hepatitis, hypertension

Vietnamese Medicinal Plants Used in This Study, Their Families, Part Used, Local Name, Therapeutic Applications, and Voucher Specimen Number (TMPW No.)

Therapeutic application

Inflammation, hepatitis, antitumor Hepatitis, rheumatism, diarrhea

Malaria, diarrhea, inflammation Asthma, inflammation

Malaria, fever, inflammation

Fever, rheumatism, diarrhea

Inflammation Inflammation, hypertension

Inflammation, antibacterial

Hypertension, rheumatism Cough, inflammation Inflammation Antibacteria, inflammation

Inflammation, rheumatism

Inflammation, rheumatism

Tuberculosis, antibacterial

Rheumatism, diarrhoea

Inflammation, diarrhea

Inflammation, hepatitis

Diuretic, inflammation

Malaria, inflammation

Cough, inflammation

Cough, inflammation

Tonic, inflammation

Tonic, inflammation

Rheumatism, fever

Inflammation

Inflammation

Inflammation

Inflammation

Mac co Cho de rang cua

Cay cut lon Xuyen tam lien

Than xa huong

Bach chi Ngai diep Thien mon Thot not bong To moc Gon Hau phac nam Tram bau Co gau Han the

Xuong kho Cam thao Luoi ran trang

Ngu gia bi Tho phuc linh

Sam dai hanh

Cu co ong Do trong day

Local name

Dang sam Hoang dang Ca doc duoc

Truong sinh

Than thong

Thach hao

Bi ky nam

Kim ngan

Dinh lang

Man ri tia Kien co

Huynh ba

Muop gai

Kinh gioi

Ngai nga

Kho sam

Do trong

Rau meo

Mop gai

Ich mau

Cut qua

Voi voi

Co sen

Ma de

La lot

Tram

Whole plant

Aerial part

Aerial part

Aerial part

Aerial part

Aerial part

Aerial part

Aerial part

Aerial part

Aerial part

Aerial part

Aerial part

Aerial part

Aerial part

Aerial part

Aerial part

Aerial part

Aerial part

Aerial part

Aerial part

Stem, fruit

Stem, leaf

Stem, leaf

Part used

Branchlet

Rhizome

Rhizome

Rhizome

Flowers

Flower

Flower

Stems

Wood

Wood

Root

Stem

Stem

Stem

Bark

Bark

Root

Root

Root

Fruit

Fruit

Fruit

Leaf

Leaf

Bulb

Bark

Collected at the Seven-Mountain Area, Tinh Bien District, An Giang Province (1998)

Menispermaceae

Menispermaceae

Caesalpiniaceae

Campanulaceae

Eucommiaceae

Plantaginaceae

Euphorbiaceae

Euphorbiaceae

Caprifoliaceae

Combretaceae

Cucurbitaceae

Cucurbitaceae

Bombacaceae

Boraginaceae

Apocynaceae

Umbelliferae

Crassulaceae

Acanthaceae

Acanthaceae

Capparaceae

Mimosaceae

Annonaceae

Compositae

Compositae

Family

Cyperaceae

Solanaceae

Asteraceae

Lamiaceae

Lamiaceae

Lamiaceae

Piperaceae

Agavaceae

Araliaceae

Myrtaceae

Araliaceae

Rubiaceae

Rubiaceae

Rubiaceae

Lauraceae

Smilaceae

Rutaceae

Iridaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Araceae

Araceae

Liliacea

Poaceae

Angelica dahurica (FISCH. ex HOFFM.) BENTH. et HOOK. F. Artemisia vulgaris L. Asparagus cochinchinensis (LOUR.) MERR. Borassus flabellifer L. Caesalpinia sappan L. Ceiba pentandra (L.) GAERTN. Cinnamomum iners REINW. ex BLUME Combretum quadrangulare KURZ. Cyperus rotundus L. Desmodium heterophyllum (WILLd.) DC.

Tinospora cordifolia (WILLD.) MIERS. Collected at Da Lat City, Lam Dong Province (1998)

.) HOOK. F. et T HOMS .

Codonopsis javanica (BLUME.) HOOK. F. Coscinium frnestratum (GAERTN.) COLBER.

Ageratum conyzoides L. Andrographis paniculata (BURM. F.) NEES

.) BUCH.-HAm.

Eucommia ulmoides OLIV. Gymnopetalum cochinchinensis KURZ

Panicum repens L. Parameria laevigata (J USS.) M OLDENK

Mimosa pudica L. Phyllantus amarus SCHUM. et THONN.

Schefflera octophylla (Lour.) HARMS

ciliate (T HUNB.) HYLAND.

apiacea H ANCE ex WALP.

Polanisia chelidonii (L. F.) A. DC Rhinacanthus nasutus (L.) KURZ

bulbosa (M ILL.) URB.

Plant name

Euphorbia tirucalli L. Glycyrrhiza uralensis FISCH. Hedyotis diffusa WILLD. Hydnophytum formicarum JACK.

Heliotropium indicum L. Kalanchoe pinnata (LAM.) PERS. Lonicera japonica THUNB.

Nauclea officinalis (PIT.) MERR.

Leonurus heterophyllus SWEET.

stamineus B ENTH.

fruticosa (L.) H ARMS

Melaleuca leucadendra (L.) L.

cylindrical B OJER.

cylindrical (L.) R OEM.

.

flavescens A IT.

scandens (R

spinosa (L.) T

Smilax glabra ROXB.

Miliusa velutina (D

Piper lolot C. DC. Plantago major L.

Datura metal L.

Table 1.

1416

Vol. 27, No. 9

TMPW No.

22134

22144

22110

22150

22090

22100

22160

22120

22166

22106

22126

22096

22146

22092

22162

22152

22099

22159

22142

22169

22177

22117

22107

20607

22147

22167

22157

22118

22158

22138

22165

22085

22095

22105

22155

22145

22163Elephantopus

22153

22123Pueraria

22143

22121

22171

22081

22131

22174

22140Cuscuta

22133

Malaria, diarrhea, inflammation Hepatitis, inflammation, diuretic Fever, urinary tract infection, hypertension, inflammation

Fever, urinary tract infection, inflammation Rheumatism, cough Fever, urinary tract infection, inflammation Urinary tract infection, hypertension, inflammation Rheumatism, asthma Fever, cough, hypertension, inflammation Inflammation, hepatitis Inflammation Rheumatism, inflammation, hepatitis

Diuretic, rheumatism, fever, cold Fever, rheumatism, leucorrhea Rheumatism Fever, rheumatism, digestive disorder Tonic, diarrhea, diabetes, diuretic, inflammation Antibiotic, fever, inflammation Rheumatism, inflammation Rheumatism, inflammation, menstrual pain Fever, rheumatism, cough Fever, inflammation, leucorrhea Rheumatism Rheumatism, digestive diseases Menstrual disorders, inflammation, rheumatism Fever, hypertension, inflammation Congestion, rheumatism Hepatitis, inflammation

Antibacteria, fever, rheumatism, leucorrhea Inflammtion, fever

Inflammation, menstrual disorders Menstrual disorders, rheumatism Hepatitis, inflammation, nephropathy

Therapeutic application

Hepatitis, inflammation, diarrhea

Rheumatism Inflammation, fever, rheumatism Fever, rheumatism Rheumatism Inflammation, rheumatism Fever, inflammation Inflammation, hepatitis

Cough, fever, rheumatism

Rheumatism, impotence

Malaria, inflammation

Inflammation, malaria

Fever, inflammation

Fever, rheumatism

Ngai diep Trinh nu h. cung

Hoang dang Danh danh Co tranh Bac den Dia lien Dam truc diep Than canh thao Dau Dau Cho de rang cua

Nguu tat Cuc hoa Thach hoc Thien nien kien Kim ngan Huyen sam Day chieu

Thuy xuong bo Bach chi Doc hoat Nguu bang Bach truat La tre Hong thien qui Dai bi Dau sang Rau ma Cau tich Que Nghe Quan chung Huyet giac Co muc

Ma de Tam that can

Local name

Dia hoang Huyet dang Bo cong anh

Ke dau ngua

Ke dau ngua

Day to hong

Tia to Nam sai ho

Dia dom

San day

Whole plant

Whole plant

Whole plant

Whole plant

Whole plant

Whole plant

Whole plant

Whole plant

Root, stem

Aerial part

Aerial part

Aerial part

Aerial part

Aerial part

Part used

Rhizome

Rhizome

Rhizome

Rhizome

Rhizome

Rhizome

Rhizome

Flower

Flower

Stem

Stem

Stem

Stem

Seed

Root

Leaf

Bark

Bark

Seed

Seed

Root

Root

Root

Root

Root

Root

Root

Root

Root

Fruit

Fruit

Leaf

Leaf

Scrophulariaceae

Scrophulariaceae

Menispermaceae

Sargentodoxceae

Amaryllidaceae

Amaranthaceae

Plantaginaceae

Lycopodiaceae

Euphorbiaceae

Dicksoniaceae

Caprifoliaceae

Polypodiaceae

Zingiberaceae

Zingiberaceae

Dracaenaceae

Polygonaceae

Umbelliferae

Umbelliferae

Begoniaceae

Dilleniaceae

Umbeliferae

Orchidaceae

Cuscutaceae

Gramianeae

Graminecae

Compositae

Family

Asteraceae

Asteraceae

Asteraceae

Asteraceae

Asteraceae

Asteraceae

Asteraceae

Asteraceae

Asteraceae

Lamiaceae

Rubiaceae

Lauraceae

Juncaceae

Moraceae

Moraceae

Fabaceae

Fabaceae

Apiaceae

Araceae

Araceae

Poaceae

Rehmania glutinosa Sargentodoxa cuneata Taraxacum officinale Xanthium strumarium L. Collected at Nha Trang City, Khanh Hoa Province (2002) Achyranthes bidentata BLUME. Chrysanthemum sinense SABINE. Dendrobium sp. Homalomena aromatica Lonicera japonica Scrophularia buergeriana MIQ. Tetracera scandens L. Collected at Tuy Hoa Township, Phu Yen Province (2002)

Xanthium strumarium L. Collected at Da Lat City, Lam Dong Province (2001) Acorus calamus L. Angelica dahurica Angelica tuhuo Aretium lappa L. Atractylodes macrocephala Bambusa sp. Begonia jimbrisitipalata HANCE. Blumea balsamifera L. Cajanus cajan L. Centella asiatica Cibotium barometz Cinnamomum cassia Curcuma longa L. Cyrtomium fortunei Dracaena cambodiana Eclipta alba Hassk.

Plant name

Fibraurea tinctoria L. Gadennia jasminoides Imperata cylindrica Juncus effusus L. Kaempfera galanga L. Lophatherum gracile Lycopodium japonicum Morus alba L. Morus alba L. Phyllanthus urinaria L. Plantago asiatica Polygonum cuspidatum S IEB.

scaber LINN .

thomsoni B ENTH.

chinensis L AMM.

Perilla ocymoides L. Polycarpaea arenaria

Artemisia vulgaris L. Crinum asiaticum L.

(continued)

Table 1.

September 2004

1417

28.6 *

96.9 *

* *

* *

* *

* *

* * *

* *

* * * *

* *

* *

* *

* *

* *

* *

* *

* *

* *

* *

* *

*

W

* *

* *

* *

IC 50 (mg/ml)

M–W

72.4

75.0 *

36.0

49.2 *

78.9 *

91.8

69.5 *

* *

* * *

* *

* *

* *

* *

* *

* *

* *

* *

* *

45.1 * * *

* *

* *

*

29.3

* *

* *

* *

49.0 * 62.2 * *

92.6

14.2

96.2 *

79.9 *

78.9 *

52.9 *

54.9 *

97.9 *

52.7 *

14.7 *

76.7 *

40.8 *

33.5 *

* *

* *

* *

* *

*

* *

* * * *

76.2 *

* *

* *

M

11.4

10.4

20.4

14.4

9.6

2.2

3.2

13.2

36.2

1.9

12.8

10.8

18.8

15.8

2.1

9.1

6.1

12.1

3.6

W

10 mg/ml

M–W

0.4

3.9

23.4

10.4

8.0

12.0

14.6

0.2

13.2

6.9

4.9

18.9

2.7

2.7

20.7

0.8

9.8

25.8

4.8

27.5

8.5

7.3

7.3

4.3

0.3

45.3

2.1

10.4

0.4

0.4

7.4

6.6

13.6

3.6

0.2

9.2

28.2

6.2

10.9

4.7

1.7

18.7

8.7

11.8

8.8

0.2

2.5

11.5

1.5

0.5

0.5

12.5

9.7

22.3

45.3

12.3

6.3

12.5

3.3

3.1

46.1

8.1

M

4.4

4.4

15.4

14.6

11.6

15.6

5.6

19.2

5.7

8.7

8.7

47.7

21.8

0.8

11.5

6.5

0.3

16.3

11.3

25.3

15.1

14.1

W

7.3

1.3

25 mg/ml

M–W

18.4

13.4

30.4

16.0

15.0

6.0

5.0

1.2

6.2

31.2

25.2

29.2

37.2

10.2

47.2

13.9

20.9

17.7

4.7

3.8

46.8

9.8

0.5

5.5

38.5

0.3

7.4

1.2

1.1

15.1

5.5

9.3

8.3

XO Inhibition (%)

0.4

33.4

23.0

58.0

3.0

18.0

0.6

25.6

11.2

37.2

24.2

48.2

4.2

15.2

4.2

11.2

14.9

0.9

10.9

1.9

31.9

1.7

11.0

11.6

26.8

24.8

9.8

53.5

6.5

7.5

5.5

20.3

38.3

20.3

13.3

5.3

10.3

33.3

1.3

31.3

14.1

17.1

M

15.4

13.4

12.4

18.4

9.4

10.0

0.6

9.6

9.2

6.9

10.9

18.9

35.9

23.7

20.7

20.8

29.5

0.5

1.5

34.5

10.3

29.3

25.3

3.7

1.8

7.1

53.1

9.1

W

50 mg/ml

M–W

6.6

12.9

10.8

1.8

15.5

27.3

8.4

26.4

12.4

8.4

4.4

7.4

8.0

51.6

40.6

31.6

26.2

17.2

1.9

1.9

4.9

26.9

16.9

15.9

0.7

6.7

60.7

35.7

0.7

32.8

42.8

43.8

32.5

26.5

30.5

48.5

30.5

53.3

50.3

12.1

(1998)

1.9

44.9

7.7

12.7

36.4

12.4

43.0

32.0

38.6

4.6

19.8

1.2

7.2

29.2

26.2

5.2

27.9

0.7

2.7

51.7

7.7

79.7

18.7

57.8

44.8

63.8

47.5

50.5

34.5

12.5

29.5

1.3

44.3

47.3

8.3

8.3

18.3

10.3

21.1

14.1

Province 5.1

16.1

M

Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Activity of Vietnamese Medicinal Plants

An Giang

18.4

18.0

8.0

21.0

51.0

12.6

11.6

26.2

72.2

21.9

15.9

41.7

2.7

12.2

6.9

2.9

12.9

0.8

46.8

17.8

36.8

15.5

28.5

42.3

9.3

26.3

15.3

20.1

26.1

2.1

W

100 mg/ml

13.9 Bien District,

M–W

2.4

55.4

7.4

57.4

31.4

32.4

70.0

22.6

8.6

34.6

44.2

17.2

64.2

57.9

15.9

38.9

9.7

60.7

37.7

33.7

54.7

7.8

9.8

11.8

52.8

1.8

9.5

(1998) 1.3

34.3

2.3

43.3

17.4

2.6

25.1

33.1

62.1

7.5

11.5

17.1

31.1

City, Lam Dong Province

the Seven-Mountain Area, Tinh

57.4

2.4

37.4

79.4

19.4

52.4

64.4

41.0

59.0

12.6

64.6

37.6

1.2

63.2

45.2

13.2

3.9

16.9

10.9

50.9

55.9

35.9

20.9

14.7

13.7

14.8

63.5

78.5

65.5

8.5

89.3

11.3

22.3

8.4

51.1

28.1

7.1

3.1

68.1

2.1

52.7

13.8

5.5

2.5

24.1

M

cochinchinensis

quadrangulare

cochinchinensis

heterophyllum

formicarum

paniculata

leucadendra

heterophyllus

stamineus

Rhinacanthus cylindrical

frnestratum

nasutus

Gymnopetalum indicum

strumarium

uralensis

conyzoides

javanica

octophylla

cordifolia

laevigata

Eleutherine ulmoides

chelidonii

sappan

iners

Euphorbia tirucalli

Borassus abellifer

pinnata

Sophora avescens

lolot amarus

officinalis

fruticosa

Luvunga scandens

Artemisia vulgaris

Angelica at dahurica

Kalanchoe japonica

Artemisia apiacea

Plant name

rotundus

Lat

Desmodium ciliate

Ceiba pentandra

Luffa cylindrical

Miliusa velutina

Hedyotis diffusa

Polanisia repens

Plantago major

pudica

Cinnamomum

Hydnophytum

Lasia spinosa

glabra

Andrographis

metal

Heliotropium

at Da

Orthosiphon

Caesalpinia

Glycyrrhiza

Codonopsis

Combretum

Sansevieria

Eucommia

Coscinium

Phyllantus

Melaleuca

Asparagus

Parameria

Tinospora

Elsholtzia

Ageratum

Schefera

Leonurus

Xanthium

Polyscias

Lonicera

Panicum

Cyperus

Nauclea

Mimosa

Collected

Collected

Datura

Smilax

Piper

Table 2.

1418

Vol. 27, No. 9

* * 25.5 * *

* *

* *

* *

* *

* *

* *

* *

* *

* *

* *

* *

* *

* *

*

* *

* *

* *

* *

*

* *

* * *

W

IC 50 (mg/ml)

M–W

45.0 *

* * 15.6 * *

57.9 *

47.7 *

0.28 *

83.5 *

* *

* *

* *

* *

* *

* *

* *

* *

* *

* *

82.3 *

*

* *

* * *

* *

* *

82.4 *

53.4 *

6.0 *

88.0

76.6

89.2

69.2 *

34.9 *

69.7 *

29.7 *

25.8 *

29.8 *

* *

* *

* *

* *

* *

* *

* *

* *

* *

49.3 *

5.1 * *

*

33.3

M

12.4

7.4

16.0

4.0

11.6

3.6

0.6

5.9

2.9

8.7

7.7

7.8

12.8

10.5

7.5

1.5

1.5

1.1

W

10 mg/ml

M–W

9.4

2.4

14.4

0.4

6.4

0.6

0.2

5.9

10.7

0.7

22.8

4.8

13.8

4.8

1.8

10.8

0.8

22.5

4.3

0.3

0.3

32.3

6.3

16.1

4.1

3.4

10.4

8.4

12.0

14.0

9.0

22.0

25.6

19.6

20.2

14.2

0.2

0.9

10.9

0.9

0.7

0.7

5.7

0.8

0.8

58.5

3.5

13.5

29.3

0.3

4.3

16.3

1.3

62.3

5.1

M

13.4

13.4

1.4

9.0

16.0

10.0

5.0

15.6

3.6

49.6

9.2

11.9

6.2

4.9

1.9

0.7

12.7

2.7

5.7

W

5.5

8.5

10.3

25 mg/ml

M–W

14.4

9.0

4.0

11.6

11.6

0.6

9.2

26.2

7.2

42.2

26.9

18.9

3.9

14.9

7.9

0.9

1.9

72.9

6.7

0.7

6.7

1.7

1.7

0.8

12.8

0.8

5.5

10.5

3.5

4.5

23.3

1.3

6.3

XO Inhibition (%)

31.4

2.4

5.0

17.4

19.4

16.4

1.4

79.4

24.4

2.4

48.0

10.0

2.6

18.6

33.6

25.2

44.2

0.9

41.9

13.9

49.7

9.7

3.8

25.8

70.8

2.8

16.8

20.5

2.5

7.5

1.5

3.3

1.1

1.1

48.1

M

M: MeOH extract; M–W: MeOH–H 2 O (1 : 1) extract; W: H 2 O extract. —: 0.1% XO inhibition; *: IC 50 value 100 mg/ml.

65.0

10.6

1.6

15.6

8.6

23.2

19.2

26.2

15.2

18.9

11.9

12.7

2.7

18.8

8.8

22.5

2.5

13.3

5.3

18.3

12.3

7.1

W

50 mg/ml

M–W

50.4

18.0

7.0

2.0

6.0

6.0

19.0

9.0

1.6

12.2

27.2

3.2

41.2

4.9

19.9

51.7

1.7

2.7

33.7

26.7

8.7

44.8

10.8

21.8

82.8

1.5

48.5

2.5

2.5

1.5

15.3

41.3

2.3

4.3

11.3

22.3

8.1

17.1

17.1

3.1

5.4

28.4

2.4

45.4

27.4

5.4

58.0

5.0

5.0

32.0

42.0

6.6

22.6

76.6

21.6

4.6

10.6

79.6

62.6

66.2

19.2

24.2

1.9

12.7

41.7

2.8

2.8

5.8

41.5

50.5

3.5

19.3

70.3

64.3

35.1

4.1

14.1

14.1

13.1

M