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1 Introduction - technique called GAMIFICATION: how some of the techniques designers use in games could be applied to problems in business, education, health and other fields -what gamification means and its application to real world problems: - learning from games (e.g. Angry Birds): not just learning about games themselves, but understanding what makes the game successful, engaging, what games can do, why they have power - taking these techniques and thoughtfully applying them to situations which are not themselves games (e.g. Samsung Nation game elements/mechanics used to engage users more) - elements taken from games: leader-boards, badges, point systems 1.2 Course Overview -learning goals: 1) understand what gamification is 2) understand how it might be valuable 3) learn how to do it effectively 4) understand some specific applications -course structure and assessment: -video lectures (6 weeks) + embedded questions -multiple choice homework: 35% -peer-graded written project: 35% (5+10+20) -final exam: 30% -what is different: new method, new concept, new course, practical knowledge 1.3 Definition of Gamification -Gamification is the use of game elements and game design techniques in non-game contexts. e.g. Nike+ a device built into the shoe to track running, connected to a phone with applications for it, telling e.g. what is the farthest or fastest run a person has ever had, and other tracking data, as well as doing comparisons, and establishing goals and challenges awarded with trophies and medals; friends can get involved in the form of competition or encouragement. e.g. Zombies Run adding another dimension to the experience of running, a more immersive one than Nike+, but both serving a purpose which is outside of the game. -Game elements: toolbox (e.g. Empires and Allies: points, resource collection, quests, avatars, progression, levels, social graph) applied to services that are not games (e.g. KIas: progression, points, levels, rewards, quests, avatars, social graph, badges; challenges) -> regular design patterns -Game design techniques: not only engineering, but also an artistic, experiential side, thinking about problems in a certain way, taking an approach that uses concepts common to all forms of design, as well as concepts that are novel and specific to games game design modality -> a way of thinking -Non-game context: some objective other than success in the game, other than a game for its own sake (business, learning, employment, etc.), might still be game-like, but the purpose, rationale for the experience is something outside of the game.

1.4 Why Study Gamification -an emerging business practice (Microsoft, Nike, SAP, American Express, Major League Basketball, CodeAcademy, Samsung, Foursquare, Stack Overflow, Dell, LiveOps, Foot Locker, eBay, Cisco, Siemens, Universal Music, etc.) -games are powerful things: addiction, time-consuming, having a real pull -lessons from psychology (link to some very basic aspects of how our mind works, motivation), design (how to do it), strategy (understanding how to do business, what it means to lead), technology (the ability to create rich immersive personalized experience and track interactions in real time, and analyze them) -harder than it appears: has to be good, ethical, effective, etc. 1.5 History of Gamification -1912 Cracker Jack with toy inside -1980 Richard Bartle, MUD 1 - first multi-user domain/dungeon (MMOG), first shared virtual world -> took the collaboration platform and gamified it taking something that wasnt a game and making it into one (while today it is the opposite of this: taking what is a game and turning it into something that is not) -1980 to present: research by education scholars video games and learning Thomas Malone, James Paul Gee -2002 to present: Serious Games Movement Ben Sawyer, David Rejecsk private sector, academia and the military using games for training and simulation, non-game purposes (e.g. battlefield, training mechanisms); Games For Change Movement using games for social impact -2003 Nick Pelling, Conundria promoting gamification of consumer products -2005: Bunch Ball -2007: first modern gamification platform incorporating mechanics like points and leader-boards and so forth to serve engagement purposes in companies -> Badgeville, Bigdoor, Gigya e.g. Kiosk specialized service providers offering gamification; and many companies building gamification services and systems on their own. -2010: gamification as a common term determined by the community that reached critical mass; presentations crystallized the idea of gamification for people Jesse Schell, Schell Games, 2010 DICE Conference (toothbrush, cornflakes, bus points and bonuses, REMTARTAINMENT system); Jane McGonigal: Reality is Broken, TED talk alternate reality games solving major human problems

1.6 Examples and Categories -3 main categories/areas where gamification adds value: - external (to the firm, organization): application to the customer, marketing, sales, customer engagement e.g. Club Psych gamified website (points, rewards, avatars, challenges, badges, leader-board) -> 30% increased visit, online merchandise sale 50%, page views 130%, 300000 shares, 40 mill. users seeing) - internal (application to people in the company): HR, productivity enhancement, crowdsourcing (process of reaching out to lots of people by splitting things into small parts or a challenge sent out to many people) internal in terms of within a community getting a lot of people to actively participate -> gamification as a motivation) e.g. Windows 7 Language Quality Game gamified localization testing (leaderboard) -> 4500 participants, 500000 dialog boxes reviewed, 6 700 bugs reported, hundreds of significant fixes - behavior change: health and wellness, sustainability, personal finance -> wanting helped by gamification e.g. speeding and police radar gun vs. devices showing you how fast you are going e.g. Volkswagen contest FUN theory: games and fun for solving real world problems Speed Camera Lottery: not fining people going too fast, but devices taking picture of people and their license plates and if they are following rules, entering them into a lottery financed by money coming in from fines -> Stockholm 20% slowing down 32 to 25 kmph average speed -lessons: gamification can motivate, applications in many domains, encompasses many techniques 2. GAMES 2.1 Gamification in Context -gamification is not: - making everything a game -> enhancing experience, make more rewarding, create greater motivation, but not pulling out of the real world - any game in the workspace (e.g. Windows Solitaire) -> using game elements not games - any use of games in business (e.g. Cracker Jack toy) -> have to change the experience, learn from games and put it to use - simulations reverse, not taking from games and putting it into the environment, but taking the environment and putting it into a game - just for marketing or customer engagement - just PBLs (points, badges, leader-boards) - game theory: set of algorithms, formulas and quantitative techniques for analyzing strategic decision-making (e.g. the prisoners dilemma: two prisoners would be better off if they cooperated, but the incentives are not to) -gamification is: -listening to what games can teach us recognition of the power of games -learning from game design (and psychology, management, marketing, economics) -appreciating fun games (rules, structure, winning and losing)
(serious) GAMES GAMIFICATION (gameful design)

-Sebastian Deterding, et al.: whole games/artifacts


partial games/artifacts

play (pure exuberant fun)

2.2 What is a Game -Ludwig Wittgenstein (20th c. philosopher): games as one of his core examples about the difficulty of using language to define things -> it is impossible to define game: can point to it and say it is a game, but it is difficult to say what is the framework that defines games given all the different kinds, what is it that ties them together -> how the concept of the game is bounded? what still counts as a game and what no longer does? can you give the boundary? no. -Bernard Suits, The Grasshopper: we can define every possible game based on three concepts: prelusory goal (objective), constitutive rules (a set of rules or limitations that make the activity into a game), lusory attitude (the player follows the rules voluntarily, i.e. not cheating, because the games mean something to the players) -> a game is voluntarily overcoming unnecessary obstacles -Johan Huizinga, Homo Ludens: games and play are essential to what makes us human, even to the serious things in life like religion and government and the legal system The Magic Circle: in a game there is a physical or virtual boundary that divides the world of the game from, what we could call, the real world (e.g. lines around the soccer field, embedding yourself into the game), and in the game, game-rules matter, not the rules of the real world virtual environment where the games matter -> the challenge and the opportunity for gamification is to put the player as much as possible in the magic circle, to feel like the game matters, like it is important, there are real constraints, the players will be motivated to play and respond to the incentives that the gamified system provides 2.3 Games and Play -Roger Callois: paidia (play) vs. ludus (games) two different poles, opposites play aimless expenditure of exuberant energy, done spontaneously and for its own sake, zone of proximal development (level the child can get to, advancement, where the child behaves beyond his average age), free movement within a more rigid structure game closed, formal system that engages players in a structured conflict, and resolves in an unequal outcome; series of meaningful choices, domain of contrived contingency that generates interpretable outcomes, problem-solving activity approached with a playful attitude -takeaways for gamification: voluntariness (James P. Carse: Whoever must play cannot play.), learning or problem solving, balance of structure and exploration (freedom vs. objectives) 2.4 Video Games -c.1972 Pong revolution, because it allowed people to interact with what was on their screen -> 2011 CityVille 0-100 mill. users in 6 weeks big and evolving industry -> a true mass medium - 97% kids (12-17) play videogames - average game player is 30 years old, 37% are older than 35 - 47% of all game players are women -categories of videogames: - sandbox (e.g. Minecraft) - building (e.g. Civilization, SimCity) - social building (e.g. The Sims, Farmville) -MMOGs (e.g. World of Warcraft) -puzzle (Portal 2, Angry Birds)

2.5 Just a Game? -Real world building blocks: Digital building blocks: -e-business (/e-commerce) 2.0 - analytics, cloud, mobile -> core elements of games -social networks and media -> embedded in the videogames industry today Non-digital building blocks: - loyalty programs rewards, but no fun and progression, manipulative, not necessarily users interest - management and marketing research -video games and the real world are getting closer together, games are becoming increasingly real by moving the real world inside the game; games are coming to the real world (e.g. virtual goods, gold farming getting real money for virtual goods) Real World Activity monthly sales competition frequent flyer program tiers weight watchers group free coffee after ten purchases American express platinum card 3. GAME THINKING 3.1 Why Gamify -game thinking: thinking like a game designer -Dodge Ball: one of the first successful smart phone applications for people who like to hang around in bars check-ins, where you were, and where your friends were; but: chicken and egg situation only working if people of interest to you are actually using the app, otherwise there is just a blank map -> how to achieve critical mass? -Dennis Crowley, Foursquare: implemented gamification reasons: - engagement gap: need to get more people to engage - no choices: no direct result, just doing it or not doing it - no progression - very social: social interaction is very powerfully tied to games, because we love to compete, collaborate, share, and team up - need for habit formation: natural, automatic what Foursquare did: - concept of Mayorship: if you check in the most times, youre the Mayor - badges (e.g. Super Mayor Badge, for being the Mayor of 10 locations at the same time) - connected with Twitter and Facebook, creating friendly competition -> reward - points - leveling up within badges -> very rich and complex and nuanced Game Concept challenge levels team reward badge

3.2 Think Like a Game Designer -Jesse Schell, The Art of Game Design: A Book of Lenses 5 words I am a game designer. reminds us that game design is a state of mind, and it is something most of us have already done (e.g. kids on a playground), that comes naturally to us, but we dont necessarily think about it in a systematic way, we dont realize it is a skill we can cultivate not necessarily being a game designer, different than thinking like a gamer (have to consider the structure of the game which gamers playing dont do) - participants as players: they are the centre of the game, feel a sense of autonomy/control (choice -> result -> meaning), play - goal: get player playing, and keep them playing (not tricking them, but creating an experience that will genuinely engage them for an extended period of time) 3.3 Design Rules -The Player Journey the player is engaged in an experience, going through an experience while playing the game, the journey being a conceptual path that they follow through the game - elements: beginning, middle and end not just a random walk ideally in some sort of progression 1) Aspects of the Journey: onboarding getting the player into the game as quickly and easily as possible; scaffolding how does the game provide training wheels?, places where the game makes it easier and overcomes some of the complexity that otherwise would get a user stuck; pathways to mastery does the game enable the player to get to mastery?, the point where the player has conquered and achieved some real skill, real accomplishment within the framework of the game (e.g. Plants vs. Zombies: guides, highlighting, feedback, limited options, limited monsters, impossible to fail 2) Balance: not too hard not too easy, not too many choices not too few choices, not too easy for one player and not too easy for the other player, not to favor one group systematically over another; games need to be balanced throughout (e.g. Monopoly and the prices of properties, money injection of 200$ for passing the GO) 3) Create an Experience: taking something that is not game-like and making it feel game-like by creating an integrated experience (e.g. club interface, rating the music reinforcing the notion that you are in a particular kind of world that means something, the experience is richer and deeper) 3.4 Tapping the Emotions -What makes games engaging? -> the emotional component FUN - fun is not limited to recreation and entertainment, it is something we can enjoy in all sorts of contexts: work, social impact, behavior change - categories of emotions and experiences that are fun: winning, problem-solving (achievement), exploring (finding something), chilling out, teamwork (collaborating, cooperating to achieve a goal), recognition, triumphing (someone else loses, vanquishing opponent), collecting, surprise, imagination, sharing, role playing, customization (making something on our own), goofing off

3.5 Anatomy of Fun -Nicole Lazzaros 4 Keys 4 different kinds of fun that are general categories that appear in any kind of game-like context: 1) easy fun blowing off steam, chilling out, goofing off, hanging out; casual, light, nice, easy 2) hard fun challenges, problem-solving, mastery, competition, overcoming obstacles -> fun represents accomplishment, overcoming something 3) people fun the fun of interacting with others, working together on a team, socializing, fun that requires other people -> fun that comes from a social interaction 4) serious fun serious, real objectives; meaningful, good for something, has an objective -Marc Leblancs 8 Kinds of Fun: 1) sensation 2) fantasy 3) narrative 4) challenge 5) fellowship 6) discovery 7) expression 8) submission (casual, pastime) -Raph Coster, A Theory of Fun for Game Design -Takeaways: fun can (and should) be designed, fun can be challenging, there are different kinds of fun 3.6 Finding the Fun -Volkswagen, The Fun Theory: Speed Camera Lottery, Piano Staircase (people going on stairs instead of the escalator, because it is more fun), Worlds Deepest Trashcan -LinkedIn: job profiles, the goal was to have as complete profiles as possible -> the profile completeness bar -> 20% increase feedback, progression, completion 4. GAME ELEMENTS 4.1 Breaking Games Down -designing using game elements (e.g. building a house components, not a gun shooting out done houses) e.g.Tic-Tac-Toe elements: the board, tokens (X and O), two players, competitive, turns, win and draw states, no progression or scoring -> contribute to the gameplay, to the way people feel, how much fun it is, etc. -experiences (the overall impact, what the player feels) what you are trying to produce games (set of rules, esthetics, all of the game elements) what you control elements (bits and pieces)

4.2 The Pyramid of Gamification Elements -recurring elements:

Dynamics Mechanics Components

experience of the game -esthetics (visual experience, sound)

-Marc LeBlanc, MDA Framework (Mechanics, Dynamics, Aesthetics): influential framework for understanding all games -Game Dynamics: the most high level conceptual elements, the grammar, the hidden structure that makes the experience somehow cohere and have regular patterns, not the same as the rules, they are more conceptual, rules can be viewed as their manifestation, conceptual kinds of elements that provide the framing for the game: 1) constraints games create meaningful choices and interesting problems by limiting peoples freedom 2) emotions variety of emotions (games have a bigger range than gamification, because gamification happens in a real world context, and situations like getting someone really upset or abject sadness are not thing that are going to be valued) -> richer experience, emotional reinforcement 3) narrative the structure that pulls together the pieces of the game or the gamified system into some coherent feeling whole: explicit the storyline in a game, implicit consistent graphical experiences, creating a sense of flow, alluding to certain kinds of particles or certain kinds of story ideas that may be in players heads if there is no sense of narrative, there is a risk that the gamified system will just be a bunch of abstract stuff which limits effectiveness 4) progression the notion of starting at one place, going up along the way until you get to some higher place, giving the sense that the player will have the opportunity to improve, or at least move from where they have started; doesnt require specific examples as levels and points, but those are typical 5) relationships people interacting with each other (friends, teammates, opponents), very important to the experience of the game -Game Mechanics: the verbs, the elements that move the action forward 1) challenges objectives to reach 2) chance luck, random result 3) competition 4) cooperation 5) feedback 6) resource acquisition getting things to help to move forward 7) rewards 8) transactions 9) turns 10) win states

-Components: lowest level, most service level kinds of game elements, specific examples, specific ways to do a higher level that mechanics and dynamics represents 1) achievements some reward attached to doing a specific set of things 2) avatars visual representation of character 3) badges specific visual representation of achievements, as well as of the higher level dynamics and mechanics 4) boss fights at the end of some part of the game, a really hard challenge 5) collections pulling a bunch of different things together 6) combat 7) content unlocking you need to do something in order to gain access to certain new content 8) gifting 9) leader-boards list in order of score 10) levels 11) points 12) quests things to be done, specifically defined within the structure of the game 13) social graph 14) teams 15) virtual goods -Lessons from the Pyramid: variety of options, lesser levels tend to implement one or more higherlevel concepts 4.3 The PBL Triad -Some game elements are more common than others, and more influential than others in shaping typical examples of gamification. One reason for this is because they serve a variety of functions. However, gamification should not rely only on these elements, because it could easily become boring and shallow. -Points: - a way of keeping score - they can determine the relative position of the players or they can actually define winning - they can connect to rewards - they provide feedback - way of displaying progress - provide data for the game designer - fungible one point is equal to the other, things are then comparable by points -Badges (e.g. Open Badge System from the Mozilla Foundation) - representations of achievements - flexible anything can be represented by a badge - convey style can represent the vibe or esthetic of the gamified system - signal importance designate what things are important in a game - function as credentials heres what Ive done - support collections - status symbols (social display) -Leader-boards: ranking, the risk being that a big difference in points, and focus on competition can lead to demotivation - feedback on competition: where you stand relative to other people - personalized leader-boards zooming in on your score, or a friend-relative variant

4.4 Limitations of Elements -Game elements are a starting-point for gamification, they are raw materials and tools that can be used and deployed, but they are not the entirety of what needs to be done. The elements are not the game. What makes the elements successful is the way they are all tied together. -Not all rewards are fun; not all fun is rewarding. the rewards themselves are not necessarily wrong, but if it is the only thing the designer focuses on as an objective, then there is a danger that the system wont actually generate the true results which come from real engagement. -Cookie clutter users dont differentiate and get burned out if the focus is only on PBLs. -PBLs need to motivate and engage users to do something other than they would otherwise do, or they dont make sense, they do not have a direct connection to driving real business value (e.g. Google News Badges). -If focusing only on elements, what about: Meaningful choices? Puzzles? Mastery? Community? Different kinds of users? 4.5 Bing Gordon Interview -It is normal for people born after 1971 to see life as games, to be used to the interface, to some of the rules. It is important to understand how they think and the lens through which they see the world. -> generational change (e.g. the use of numbers in everyday: from baseball statistics to Pokmon cards) -A bunch of principles of game design underscore and prove all kinds of communication and motivation theory. -Robert Trent Jones, golf-course designer: look hard and play easy -The things that work in the best games are the best principles. -2 typical mistakes: - primary motivation of games is winning competition - high-score ranking (typically demotivating) 5. MOTIVATION AND PSYCOLOGY (I) 5.1 Motivational Design -psychology is central to what makes gamification effective -motivation: what moves you to do something, what makes you do something vs. something else or what makes you do something vs. sitting around and doing nothing - not necessarily related to experience - might be counterintuitive - not necessarily related to a reward (might be related to other things, like love or fun) -2011 Major League Baseball, Badges: by watching their streaming, you could collect badges showing that you saw certain types of activities the players did virtual items, no observable purpose, and no ultimate reward or benefit, except for the experience of engaging - got people interested without any real value to it - questionable how many people really got engaged

-buying computers: make really good computers, price them affordably -> retail experience: make the process efficient, quick, easy -> Apple Store: people should come in, hang around and browse, get familiar with a product lounge experience 5.2 Behaviorism -two major traditions in psychology: behaviorism (looking externally, at what people do) and cognitivism (mental states, whats internally going on in peoples heads) -The behaviorism program: internal states are not scientifically testable the black box: whats inside a persons head is off limits what can be tested scientifically is what goes in and comes out (scientific method: hypothesis, test, falsification, advancement) - stimulus: something that gets done from the outside, something that happens that is externally creating some challenge, opportunity, or reaction which is the: response -Pavlov, classical conditioning: ringing a bell to get dogs to salivate the stimulus is instinctively related to the response - B.F. Skinner, operant conditioning: not just an instinctive association of two things, but a feedback loop there is a stimulus and a response, and based on that pattern there is learning -> the response is ultimately conditioned upon the stimulus; consequences of actions, not just a sequence of things happening; there is a sense, a knowledge, or awareness that the stimulus produces a response, and when the response is made in a certain way, more of the stimulus is administered (e.g. Skinner box experiment: an animal pushes lever and food pops out, if it does something wrong, there is an electrical grid as punishment) - in certain cases people will respond to stimuli and they will learn to draw associations between stimuli and response -Behavioral Economics: new, novel, influential branch of economics thinking about what people actually do, instead of why - people make mistakes consistently, they do not always conform to abstract economic theory: loss aversion (being more afraid of losing then being taken by the possibility of gaining), power of defaults (e.g. opting in and out people tend to go with defaults), confirmation bias (people tend to find what they are looking for, the brain wants to see patterns whether or not they are really there) -Takeaways on behaviorism: observation (we should look at what people actually do), feedback loops (observable feedback tends to lead to a response; action-feedback-response motivates behavior), reinforcement (learning occurs by reinforcement of stimuli). 5.3 Behaviorism in Gamification - Watch what people do (e.g. Speed Camera Lottery): people dont always behave in the way one might think correcting the biases we have about how people act -Importance of feedback: reaction to activity revealing how you are doing (e.g. LinkedIn progress bar) -Conditioning through consequences: people learn to associate certain results (e.g. Farmville: crops have to be watered and harvested periodically or they whither appointment mechanic: people know that they have to come back at a certain time interval -> draw)

-Reinforcement through rewards (e.g. MLB. com Badges) -> behavioral loops - The Dopamine System: the power of rewards, obsession, addiction lies in brain chemistry comes from the structure in the brain that is associated with pleasure and learning; the brain releases and reabsorbs the neuro-transmitted dopamine in response to certain activities (e.g. rewards tend to cause dopamine-release) and it causes people to make the association of the activity and the pleasure (e.g. Samsung Nation Cruise Badge getting a badge just for being there) -Behavioral gamification tends to focus on creating rewards that maximize the engagement based on dopamine-release. 5.4 Reward Structures -Gamification, at least in its more behavioral manifestations, tends to be very heavily about rewards. -ways to do rewards: - what kinds of behavior does the designer want to incentivize (e.g. Foursquare badges: 1st, 2nd, 3rd time check-in, regular check-in, showing up at a certain type of place, etc.) giving meaningful choices and options - different categories/kinds of rewards Richard Ryan & Ed Deci, Cognitive Evaluation Theory: 1) tangible (physical, e.g. money)/intangible (not real, e.g. badge) 2) expected/unexpected (effect of surprise, dopamine) 3) contingency (what has to be done in order to get the reward): task noncontingent (getting the reward no matter what), engagement-contingent (getting the reward when starting the task), completion-contingent (getting the reward when the task is finished), performance-contingent (getting the reward based on how well the task is done) e.g. Samsung Nation Cruise Badge: intangible, unexpected, engagement-contingent; Samsung Nation Quest Badge: intangible, expected, completion-contingent, WoW Title Reward: hybrid 5.5 Reward Schedules -Reward schedules refers to when the reward is offered as opposed to what it is, or what it is based on. It actually has significant implications for the psychological reaction that the rewards produce. -Types of reward schedules: 1) continuous automatic, for every incidence of the action (tends not to feel like a reward) 2) fixed ratio if the activity happens a certain number of times, every n number of times is rewarded (some psychological value, but the brain picks up on the pattern) 3) fixed interval based on time, but still fixed, has a regular pattern (some psychological value, but the brain picks up on the pattern) 4) variable no fixed schedule (surprise, different, unexpected provoke a powerful response) - competitive (based on activity)/non competitive - certain/uncertain (randomness, chance involved) e.g. Variable Schedule Reward Machine (Slot Machine) you never know when the reward is going to come up, but it comes just frequent enough so that you dont give up

6. MOTIVATION AND PSYCHOLOGY (II) 6.1 Limits of Behaviorism -There is a lot to learn from behaviorism. The notion that we should be scientific and systematic, and not just rely on peoples reporting of their feeling is a worthwhile endeavor. And some of the concepts behaviorism focuses on, e.g. the importance of feedback, the idea that feedback loops systematically modify peoples behavior, is an important finding and one thats quite relevant to gamification. And the different kinds of rewards can help us see how to construct different kinds of systems to motivate behavior. But there are serious limitations and blind spots to the behaviorist approach (e.g. Speed Camera Lottery reasons for slowing down, cause and effect, not learning). -Modifying peoples behavior through constructed systems of reward and punishment based on learning from feedback scared people. B. F. Skinners work on operant conditioning fell out of favor in psychology. -If you focus entirely on the behaviorist approach, you tend to focus on the people involved as a black box. And that tends to move away from the notion that this is a human being, a player. 6.2 Dangers of Behaviorism -potential for abuse/manipulation the way the brain responds to rewards and feedback leveraging to achieve someone elses desired results has the potential to be problematic -> addiction: ethical danger, the response from the customers, government agencies, and danger of the company not focusing on what they should be -Hedonic Treadmill: once you start focusing on giving people rewards in order to give them pleasure, you better keep doing it; if people learn to respond to a reward (feedback loop), then theyre only going to respond when the reward is there; BUT: not only is the focus on giving the reward, but keeping people anticipating the reward (e.g. monkeys and grape juice not reacting to the grape juice, but the tone before it) -overemphasis on status: too much focus on rewards, especially non-tangible ones based around status does motivate people, but it does not motivate everyone and at the same time 6.3 Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation - Cognitivism focuses on opening up the black box, figuring out what is actually going on that motivates people to behave in certain ways. -Different kinds of motivation: - intrinsic doing the thing for its own sake (e.g. loving, wanting) - extrinsic doing something for some reason other than the thing itself (e.g. money, respect, favor) Gabe Zicherman, SAPS four different categories of rewards status cheaper most powerful (?) access rank-order of preference power for companies (efficiency and cost) stuff cost

6.4 How Rewards Can Demotivate -Rewards, acting as extrinsic motivators can crowd out the intrinsic motivation that was already there. -> The Over-Justification Effect (e.g. drawing: kids who were intrinsically motivated and then motivated extrinsically with a reward, after being taken away the extrinsic motivation, were no longer intrinsically driven; day care pickup: motivating parents to come on time by punishment in money failed to achieve its effect, the intrinsic motivators such as social factors and care being replaced by an external motivator, money; blood donation: civic duty and helping other people replaced by paying them resulted in a negative effect on donations; teacher salaries: teacher meritpay, paying teachers based on the results of their students, did not work because teaching turned into a calculus about how to get the desired results for the reward) - but the analysis focused on interesting tasks, not all tasks are intrinsically motivated - reward types matter: tangible are most demotivating, unexpected dont affect the outcome, performance-contingent can go both ways 6.5 Self Determination Theory -1970s Ed Deci & Richard Ryan -Self Determination Theory is a comprehensive theory of human motivation, which through many studies has been able to show that people are not necessarily always motivated by rewards; and that, in fact, intrinsic motivation is a more powerful and more effective way to encourage people to act in certain ways. -The motivational spectrum: amotivation (no motivation, indifference)

extrinsic motivation

intrinsic motivation

external regulation (unwillingness, external cause) introjections (making external motivators our own, e.g. status) identification (external motivators aligning with personal goals) integration (complete alignment of goals, but unwillingness) -3 characteristics of internal motivation (e.g. Fitocracy): - competence the persons sense of ability, that they are accomplishing something (e.g. Youve earned it!) - autonomy the persons feeling of being in control (e.g. choosing interests and challenges) - relatedness the connectedness of activity to something beyond yourself, a sense of meaning and purpose (e.g. sharing with friends) -Daniel Pink, Drive -Scott Rigby & Richard Ryan, Glued to Games 6.6 Part 1 Wrap-Up 7. GAMIFICATION DESIGN FRAMEWORK 7.1 The Design Process -Design is not just art, or illustration, or creative expression. It is a process of attacking problems. We tend to think about it as something designers do, something that is used in creative pursuits, whether its advertising, or graphic design, or user experience design online. But design is a general approach to addressing challenges.

-Roger Martin & David Kelly, Design Thinking: Design thinking should be a process that all business engages in, for any purpose. - purposive, i.e. it has a goal not just trying to make something beautiful, not just creating a process that does certain things, but trying to achieve some objective, with everything in the process having to tie into that purpose - human centered designed around people, not just a set of objectives, or a set of metrics, but the EXPERIENCE (which is greater than the game, and greater than the game elements), having in mind that the experience of the player is not the experience of the designer! - balance of analytical and creative: if you just have analytics, numbers, quantitative formulas, your processes will be too dry and formal; you wont really address peoples experiential needs, and youll miss lots of opportunities for creativity and innovation there is some data, but insufficient to give us a clear, clean, structured algorithm, and that often involves abductive reasoning (Charles Sanders Peirce, pragmatism) inference from insufficient information -> jumping the intuitive leap, but based on a foundation, an initial best available explanation - iterative it inherently expects that we are not going to get it right the first time (trying-> failing->learning->trying again), iterative: doing the same thing multiple times, but improving over time through the process -> prototyping and playtesting (roughest prototype tested by people to produce better versions) -Dan Hunter & Kevin Werbach, Gamification Design Framework a 6-step process for implementing gamified systems: 1) define business objectives What is the system designed to accomplish? What are the goals? 2) delineate target behaviors What are the target behaviors? What do you want people to do? 3) describe your players Who are going to be the users? What are they like? How will the gamified system respond to them? 4) devise activity loops: engagement loops and progression loops, structuring the core macro- and micro-level gameplay aspects 5) dont forget the fun 6) deploy the appropriate tools 7.2 Objectives and Behaviors (Steps 1&2) -Business objectives can be just about anything. Its the goals you want your gamified system to accomplish. This cant be something like get people to accumulate points and badges. That is how the system works, the immediate step the system puts in front of the user; but ultimately the badges are only valuable to the company if they are part of some process that gets people involved. The steps in the gamified system are stepping stones to something else. What is this for? What are the ultimate goals? What will define whether the gamified system is a success or a failure? e.g. Foursquare: social sharing -> habit formation, influencer marketing (one persons buying decisions affecting choices of other people) - Steps to effectively catalogue business objectives: 1) list and rank possible objectives 2) eliminate means to ends (e.g. game elements) 3) justify objectives -Target behaviors are thing you want users to do. - be as specific as possible (e.g. I want customers to redeem more coupons for half off on bounty paper towels., I want to encourage people to try out my services, which otherwise they are not familiar with., I want to find the best people to hire for this job by distinguishing peoples skills and ability at a certain kind of task.)

- figure out what are the success metrics (win states) what things will tell you that the gamification process was a success -> should be related to what the behaviors are - what are the analytics, the ways of measuring the path towards the win states by virtue of the activity on those target behaviors (e.g. DAU/MAU daily average users over monthly average users, the ratio showing how engaging a site is; virality people referring friends, showing levels of growth; volume of activity how many points/badges/levels per a period of time, showing what people are doing and how much, giving patterns of activities and how the system is operating 7.3 Players (Step 3) -Who are your players? What do you know about them? demographics, age groups, where they live, income level, and other metrics; and psychographics: their behavior, what kinds of things they like to buy, what kinds of things they like to do -> What motivates your players? overlapping value structures -How do you define different kinds of players in a gamified system? The Bartle MMOG Model of Player Types: acting killers (affecting people, vanquishing, healing) players socializers (interacting with others) achievers (reach some achievement, overcome obstacles, get recognition) world explorers (see whats possible, scope out, push limits)

interacting 7.4 Activity Loops (Step 4) -Core elements in a gamified system can be thought about in terms of loops similar to those which computer software programs often operate. A game will also have those loops, structures that are repetitive, recursive, but also branching off in different directions. And, particularly, we will be looking at two kinds of activity loops in a game, especially in a gamified system, called engagement loops and progression loops. -Engagement loops operate at the micro level, they are individual user actions. They are the constant process of first motivators appearing, the game giving users something to do, a reason to be motivated, to take action, to overcome a challenge. If its strong enough, the motivation will lead to action, and if its not the loop will die; but then another motivator will come along. And when the user eventually engages in the action, then comes the feedback, which in and of itself becomes a motivator. motivation action

feedback -Designing a gamified site involves structuring in the way that that loop happens. It will be more evident in some kinds of gamification than others. The more experiential game-like qualities are, the loops are less clear-cut; but in e.g. PBL types of sites, the loops are more evident.

-Progression loops operate at the macro level, they are broader structures of activity throughout the course of the game, defining how the gamified system moves forward. - smaller challenges as parts of a larger challenge -> start to finish through a series of intermediate steps, balanced in an effective way - representation of the player journey: the player evolves in the game from a newbie/novice to a master, typically through a rising and falling action rest rest boss fight rest climbing rest climbing climbing climbing onboarding -A well-designed gamification system will typically have well-structured engagement loops that ensure that feedback pushes towards motivation which pushes towards action; and also wellstructured progression loops, which get users from the early stage, easy-to-learn, up to the tough level of mastery, hard-to-master, through a natural set of processes through the game. 7.5 Fun and Tools (Steps 5&6) -What is fun? (e.g. Samsung Nation vs. Fitocracy) PBLs vs. engaging and interesting -> it is important to suppose that an activity is fun in and of itself (e.g. Fold It protein folding researched through a game-like activity) 8. DESIGN CHOICES 8.1 Taking Stock -There are two different kinds of gamification. Two different things people mean when they use the term. Both are true examples of gamification, and there are plenty of places where they overlap, but there are very different answers about gamification depending on which of these two models you adhere to, and people use the same word for both of them, and dont necessarily think about which one they are following. -Is a slot machine a game? - no sense of a game-like or play-like attitude, no sense of meaningful choices, just a big, random number generator; not based on skill or play, just random determination of the slot machine itself -> engagement loop, reward, surprise, patterns

DOING marketing and economics incentives satisfying needs game element (inductive) status PBLs rewards making users to things

FEELING game design and cognitive psychology experiences fun game thinking (deductive) meaning puzzles progression making players awesome

8.2 Is Gamification Right for Me -4 questions: 1) motivation Where would you derive value from encouraging behavior? - emotional connections, unique skills, creativity, or teamwork - to make boring tasks interesting (e.g. Neal Stephenson, Reamde: airport security as chasing goblins in a castle) 2) meaningful choices Are your target activities sufficiently interesting? (e.g. Google News Badges not meaningful) 3) structure Can the desired behaviors be modeled through algorithms? - must be able to encode in rules/algorithms (e.g. Samsung Nation: Twitter sharing points, points for product registration) 4) potential conflicts Can the game avoid tension with other motivational structures? (e.g. salary vs. fun, grading up not down)

8.3 Design for Collective Good -Using gamification in a thoughtful, deep, substantive, meaningful way. e.g. Stack Overflow a question and ask site for programmers -> get people to volunteer in helping with problems and providing answers 1) What is programming? constant learning and fun a change in the attitude and approach 2) a system that is reflective of the community (e.g. lots of information vs. lots of visual clutter) 3) personal Counter Strike helping each other to win -> gamified system is structured to incentivize pro-social behavior (e.g. reputation points, bounties) 4) service of a higher purpose (e.g. more knowledgeable, better communicator, improve the fabric of the web) 8.4 Designing for Happiness -Martin Seligman & Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, Positive Psychology: Psychology is generally about pathology, about what happens when something goes wrong. -> looking at the opposite, What makes people happy and fulfilled? What takes to make people feel better? - Five core aspects of being a fulfilled, flourishing individual: Positive emotions Engagement Relationships Meaning Achievement - Flow: There is a state we sometimes get into where we are so engaged in what we are doing that time seems to lose its meaning, we lose ourselves in the activity, we are fully and completely engaged to the fullest of our abilities. It is a state that occurs at least as often in work activities as it does in entertainment or play activities. the flow channel anxiety difficulty boredom time - Conditions of flow: - clear goals -balance between perceived challenges and perceived skills - clear and immediate feedback

8.5 Amy Jo Kim Interview - Kims Social Engagement Verbs acting express content explore compete players collaborate interacting - game types: competitive (zero sum: win-lose) vs. collaborative (non-zero sum: win-win, lose-lose) -evolving games, The Player Journey: newbie regular expert 9. ENTERPRISE GAMIFICATION 9.1 Enterprise Applications -Constellation Research: 55 early adopters of enterprise gamification 1) Intranet/Extranet Engagement online collaboration systems that companies operate for their employees or their extended network (e.g. Stack Overflow) 2) Productivity Enhancement helping or encouraging employees to do their core job better (e.g. Arcarus Call Center: do the job quickly and well) -> danger of being a tool of oppression and monitoring 3) Efficiency Enhancement - making people work better by doing everything they do at work efficiently (e.g. The E-Mail Game: timer, progress bar, point system; The Tent: virtual currency around sending and receiving e-mails) 4) Knowledge Management (e.g. Deloitte WhoWhatWhere: encouraging employees to find out more about each other) 5) Human Resources: hiring (revealing character and other information), onboarding, acculturation (getting into the culture of the organization), corporate training, performance review, employee recognition, T&E (travel and entertainment, liquid credit) 6) Innovation encouraging employees to come up with new ideas (e.g. Department of Work and Pensions in the UK, Idea Street: idea stock market) 7) Serious Games (e.g. Siemens Plantville: game around operating a manufacturing plants training)

9.2 Workplace Motivation -What actually motivates people in the workplace? 1) rewards: pay, bonuses, stock options, praise, promotions, responsibility -> extrinsic 2) learning/skill development helpful for employees, beneficial for employers (e.g. LiveOps: people working from home getting the opportunity to flexibly learn more and advance) 3) information: sense about the quality of work (e.g. Objective Logistics: restaurants can track their performance and give feedback to employees) 4) corporate citizenship (e.g. Microsoft Language Quality Game: sense of doing something that is good for the company) 5) fun (e.g. Zappos Face Game: after login a coworkers picture appears and you have to identify it, after which it leads to their profile, which eventually leads to getting to know your coworkers better) 9.3 The Game vs. The Job -If you are designing a gamified system in the enterprise, what you care about is, ultimately, the job. The goal is to motivate employees to do something thats a business benefit. The game is a means to that end. -But for the players, for the employees, the focus may well be on the game. The game is the thing that engages them. -If the job is pushing one way, and the game is pushing in another way, that leads to real problems, because the players have a strong tendency to go in the direction that the game pushes them, as opposed to what their job really should be about (e.g. call center giving points for the number of completed calls could lead to not doing the job properly in order to optimize against the game). -The structures of the gamified system have to be designed to motivate towards the business goals. -Sometimes people are motivated at work for things outside the job in a good way. That refers to corporate citizenship behaviors. Situations where people will do things at work just to be nice to colleagues, or to be good for the company. - altruism - conscientiousness - civic virtue - courtesy - sportsmanship -Ross Smith, framework of applications which lend themselves well to the productivity games approach: core skills unique skills future skills in-role behavior [not a leveled x (e.g. training) citizenship behavior x (e.g. Language Quality Game) playing-field] 9.4 Playbor -Whether the game is truly voluntary is an important question that arises in enterprise gamification. (e.g. checkout cashiers at Target: red yellow green system of how fast the check-out is; laundry workers in Disneyland: leaderboard system of how quickly rooms are cleaned, the electronic whip) - not fun and voluntariness, but monitoring and control -> autonomy is necessary, and transparency

9.5 Daniel Debow Interview -Rypple, Canadian startup -> - amplifying behavior, goal-setting and coaching, easy way to get feedback -> social performance management - designing a great experience -> gamification -focus on the MEANING -existing game-like behavior moderated and modified -empirical (trials, and practical application) 10. SOCIAL IMPACT & BEHAVIOR CHANGE 10.1 Gamification for Good -Gamification is a tool for motivation, and that can certainly be used for social good. But it is worthwhile to look specifically at gamification in this area for a couple of reasons. First of all, there are some different issues. There are some unique challenges for gamification in the domains of social good or social impact, and some interesting opportunities, or techniques that seem to work more effectively for these kinds of applications. Secondly, it is valuable to see the range of applications that are out there in the world today. Things that organizations are already doing in a wide variety of areas, using gamification as the motivational tool to encourage people to take actions that are either good for them, or good for the world. -Social benefits encompass things that have some societal benefit, above and beyond the benefit of the organization that is putting together the program, or similar; as well as things that involve helping a person to become better, happier, more fulfilled, healthier. Fundamentally, these applications are about making people better. -One preliminary issue is that independent of applications that are specifically about social good, there is a lot of positive energy and emotion and engagement that comes out of games, and that comes out of being involved in truly game-like activities. (Jane McGonigal, Reality is Broken) -But specifically whats different about gamification in a context where the application is deliberately focused on some kind of social impact, or personal impact is: - inherent relatedness being part of something bigger than yourself -> existing motivator which needs to be activated through gamification - rewards for doing good -> danger of gamification putting a premium on doing things for the short-term reward instead of intrinsic motivation (crowding out) - behavior change 10.2 Social Good Applications -4 categories: 1) health and wellness (e.g. Zamzee from Hope Labs games and game-like systems for better health outcomes: accelerometer that keeps track of how active you are targeted at low-income teenagers -> 30% increase in activity; Superbetter improving peoples life, overcome illnesses, providing health motivation) 2) energy and environment (e.g. Opower reports how much energy you use in your house with comparative data, thus creating friendly competition -> 2-4% improvement in energy utilization; Recycle Bank encouraging people to recycle by giving points exchangeable for rewards)

3) education: changing the curriculum, incorporating game structures, credentialing function (e.g. Quest to Learn school built around games and game structures; Lee Sheldon, The Multiplayer Classroom, Open Badge Frameworks) 4) government: acting as an enterprise, providing customer service through interacting with citizens, promoting policies and benefits (Constance Steinkuehler Squire) 10.3 Social Impact Techniques -Balaji Prabhakar, CAPRI (Congestion and Parking Relief Incentives) at Stanford University a system to incentivize people to spread out their arrival and departure and parking patterns: feedback and rewards, monitoring automatic tracking of arrival time (solving one of the biggest challenges, which is getting people to report), communal pressure using peoples conformity and tendency to follow social norms in order to influence their behavior. -Kukui Cup at the University of Hawaii a system to create competition amongst the students in the residence halls to see who uses the least power: competition built around trying to be better than peers -> added motivator in case of social impact. -Practically Green motivating sustainability types of actions through showing the consequences of your activities: impact. -chance 10.4 Behavior Change -conscious, structured part of brain -> automatic, unconscious part of brain -B. J. Fogg, Fogg Behavior Model: - motivation and ability trade off - tigger timing - trigger types: - sparks increase motivation <- engagement loops - facilitators increase perceived ability <- progression loops - signals - reminders high motivation motivation B (behavior) = mat (motivation, ability, trigger)

triggers succeed here triggers fail here hard to do ability easy to do

low motivation

10.5 Susan Hunt Stevens Interview -Practically Green helping motivate and inspire people to embrace healthier and more sustainable choices at work, at home, and in the community - creating a scale, a leveling system to show current position - helping improvement through a point system - recognition, celebration, accomplishment - being part of a community for a long-term engagement (participant -> contributor -> loyalist) - importance of transparency

11. CRITICISMS AND RISKS 11.1 Pointsification -Margaret Robertson, Hide & Seek: pointsification taking the thing that is least essential to games and representing it as the core of the experience -> Gamification relies just on the surface aspects of games game mechanics, game elements. -Focuses in on a limited, but very real set of gamification examples and practices. -Is gamification really effective? - limited research on effectiveness - potential for engagement decay - crowding out/overjustification -Kathy Sierra: Gamification is the high fructose corn syrup of engagement. -Foursquare: focus on game elements reduced after reaching critical mass (?) -Implications: - names are powerful - bad gamification is bad behaviorist gamification is subject to the limits/dangers of rewards - there is more to games than gamification, and vice versa - caveat ludor 11.2 Exploitationware -Ian Bogost: exploitationware - A second criticism of gamification, saying that gamification is potentially too effective; it can be used to get people to do things that arent necessarily in their interest. - intentional con' a way to try to make people their job doesnt suck, even if it does; a way to confuse and mislead people - fundamentally undermines the nature of economic and social exchange between workers and employers: gamification proposes to replace real incentives with fictional ones -Cow Clicker: clicking on cows, showing the fundamental emptiness of systems relying purely on engagement loops -> people got involved and drawn in 11.3 Gaming the Game -One of the most common and most dangerous mistakes when designing a gamified system is to forget about who the object of the system is, namely, the players. To forget that players are people, human beings, and that they are thinking, feeling, and interacting agents. While you can anticipate in many ways how they are going to behave, and the different kinds of motivational structures that might push them in one direction or another, you can never be sure what they are going to do. -In designing gamified systems, it is crucial to recognize that one thing players might to is game the system. They may turn the tables and do something you never expected and never intended. Sometimes this can be dangerous not just for you, but for them (e.g. Nicole Lazzaro, Gamification Can Kill: San Francisco Bay bridge and congestion-based pricing, a minute apart making a difference in price -> incentivizing people to swerve dangerously off road). -cheating: achieving players own aims in the system, that are not the aims of the game-designer

-James Gardner, Lloyds Bank Innovation Market: a marketplace with innovative ideas helpful for the bank which people could buy and sell -> insider trading: using information you have, and other people dont -> bringing teams closer together beneficial cheating 11.4 Legal Issues -5 issues: 1) privacy getting lots of information about players, personally identifiable 2) employment/labor law manipulation, exploitation, playbor, the electronic whip 3) deceptive marketing gaming and game elements embedded in marketing; stealth marketing: a gamified system not clearly designed to market, people thinking they are just playing a game 4) intellectual property intellectual property law regulates access to information or digital assets -> all of the virtual goods in a gamified system are potentially protected by intellectual property law 5) virtual property rights time, real money invested in games: license vs. ownership (e.g. CARD Act in the U. S. What happens if a gift card expires? Can the company claim its value?) 11.5 Regulatory Issues -Areas where some practice may be allowed, but its subject to various restrictions by administrative and other agencies. 1) paid endorsements a situation where someone is surreptitiously becoming a marketer or endorser for a product (e.g. bloggers) -> requirement for disclosure 2) banking regulation (if there is currency involved): record-keeping, reserve requirements, currency manipulation, anti-fraud, money laundering, consumer protection, taxation and accounting 3) sweepstakes and gambling (if there is currency involved): state regulation of sweepstakes (U.S.), national regulation of gambling 12. BEYOND THE BASICS 12.1 Beyond the Basics -Inducement prizes the use of rewards where the goal is to encourage people to do something and the mechanism is, instead of picking someone, and saying alright well pay you to do it, or some other mechanism having a prize, saying the winner is the one who does the best and they get some sum of money -> competitive -Collective action a set of activities encouraging large numbers of people to participate in a collaborative way -> crowdsourcing -Virtual economies gamifying things can potentially create a kind of functioning economy which needs to be managed in the same way the real world economies need to be managed -The future: different visions about where gamification should go (good vs. dangerous)

12.2 Inducement Prizes -alternative to direct funding -1919 Charles Lindbergh & Raymond Orteig: Orteigs 25 000 dollar prize for flying over the Atlantic non stop -> increased efficiency: 400 000 invested in reaching the accomplishment -> creativity and flexibility (e.g. Exxon Valdez oil tanker: pumping out oil from the cold waters of Alaska, a chemist found a solution he learned while helping a friend lay concrete) -Relatedness to gamification: - a contest to motivate a result - extrinsic reward, fun (SDT factors: competence, autonomy, relatedness) -Inducement prize initiatives: - private: X Prize Foundation, Innocentive, Kaggle, TopCoder - governmental (U.S.): DARPA Grand Challenges, America Competes Act, OSTP Initiative -Attributes: - multiple individuals/teams capable of competing - costs sufficiently small - balance scale vs. incentives Karam Lakhani: the goal ideally is to get as many participants as possible, but the problem is the more competitors there are, the less chance is, and it can be a demotivator - opportunities to leverage results 12.3 Virtual Economies -persistent virtual reward -> virtual good -tradable/redeemable points -> virtual currency -in-game transactions/markets -> virtual economy e.g. MMORPGs, NesCafe: loyalty program as virtual currency -design: - balance: economic dynamics are driven by scarcity, not money faucets/sources (putting money into the economy) and drains/sinks (taking money out of the economy) -dangers: - real money costs real money - hedonic treadmill and crowding out -> intrinsic value from rarity and surprise (e.g. WoW: dragons and elite items) 12.4 Collective Action competitive top-down bottom-up grants inducement prizes collaborative employees crowdsourcing/ microwork

-people coming together to either collaborate or to each take a small part towards a task, but the people are not workers, they are motivated voluntarily to take on a task

-motivators: - money (e.g. Amazon Mechanical Turk) - love - gamification (e.g. Fold It, Digital Coot word-reviewing in digitalization process through a game, Mikrotask, ESP Game people typing in what they see in pictures and if their responses are the same, there is a great likelihood that that is what a picture represents, the fun for the gamers being the ability to compare their entries, and the use for the system being the improvement of image search) -> fun -nature of the task: - split up easily - better done by humans than a computer 12.5 The Future of Gamification (Part 1) -What if gamification really becomes pervasive? - Eran May-raz & Daniel Lazo, Sight (Graduation project from Bezaleal Academy of Arts): gamified exercise, giving feedback; modernized fridge, cucumber cutting game -> restarting (without actual need, except the game), badges displayed, reminders, outfit chooser, interactive wingman, profiling, leveling skills; empty room, virtual decorations, manipulating sight closing credits like gamified profiles 12.6 The Future of Gamification (Part 2) -choices: - empowering or manipulative - shallow or thoughtful - doing/behavioral or feeling/cognitive