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Federal University of Rio de Janeiro COPPE / Electrical Engineering Programm 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro, RJ - BRASIL Email: ulisses@coe.ufrj.br

L.G.B. Rolim

Federal University of Rio de Janeiro Polytechnic School / Department of Electrical Engineering 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro, RJ - BRASIL Email: rolim@dee.ufrj.br

Abstract This paper presents a current control using the DQ synchronous reference frame for single-phase converters. This control method consists in transforming an orthogonal pair composed by the actual single-phase input current and a ctitious current, from a stationary to a rotating frame. The steady state current components in DQ frame become DC instead of AC values so a zero error current control can be implemented. A single-phase PFC boost rectier is used as an example application of this control. To validate the control method simulation and experimental results are presented.

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I. I NTRODUCTION Single-phase converters with input current regulation are widely used in several applications such as Active Power Filters, Power Factor Control (PFC) Rectiers, Uninterrupted Power Supplies (UPS), Photo-Voltaic Generation, etc. [1]. The current regulation is based on current control loops, however for AC power converters it is not simple to design this controllers, due their time variant currents and voltages. For DC converters it is quite simple to design linear current controllers with no steady state error, but if the AC controllers are designed the same way as DC controllers, a signicant steady state error in both amplitude and phase may occur. In three-phase systems the steady-state AC quantities become DC by means of the transformation from ABC static frame to dq synchronous frame. To perform this transformation in a single-phase system it is necessary to create a second quantity in quadrature with the real one so as to apply the transformation from the static to the synchronous frame. In the technical literature this second quantity is obtained either using the capacitor current feedback [2] , delaying the real one by 1 4 of the line period or by means of notch lters tuned at twice the line frequency [3], [4]. Figure 1 shows some of this methods. The control presented in this paper is based on the detection of the frequency and phase of the input voltage by a PLL and then generates a ctitious input current. The proposed method neither requires tuned lters nor store samples to produces a quarter cycle delay. Using this method the current control can also be made unsusceptible to switching noise with a proper PLL design. A proper choice for the current peak value also make possible the reduction of the computational requirements in a digital implementation. II. T HE B OOST R ECTIFIER Figure 2 shows the rectier topology. This is a well known circuit and there are many papers describing it [5], [6], [7]. The circuit control must be able to regulate the voltage Vdc

0-7803-9033-4/05/$20.00 2005 IEEE.

(b) Notch lters tuned at twice the line frequency Fig. 1. Reference and real currents

across the capacitor at the reference value and also drain a sinusoidal current with unitary power factor.

Fig. 2.

Boost Rectier

The block diagram of the control is showed in Figure 3. The reference value Vdc is compared with the measured voltage Vdc . The error signal is applied to a PI controller and its output of the reference current i is the amplitude I s . The frequency and phase of the i s current are the same of the input voltage vs . They are determined applying vs in a PLL circuit. Once calculated the reference current i s it must be synthesized by a current controller. III. DQ S INGLE -P HASE C URRENT C ONTROLLER A. DQ Transformation The transformation to the synchronous frame DQ requires two orthogonal components. In three-phase systems the ABC

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C. Input currents DQ transformation The input current is is dened as i (7) and the ctitious input current i is dened as the reference current i (8). This choice for the ctitious input current will result in a simplication, as will be shown. cos(t) i = is = I i =

Fig. 3. Rectier Control Block Diagram

(7) (8)

= sin(t)

The values of Id and Iq are obtained using equation (1) where is the input current (7) and the ctitious current (8). D. Control circuit The purpose of this control is to regulate the inductor current is . Considering no losses in the circuit of Figure 2, its average equation through a switching period is given by (9). dIs = Vs Vpwm (9) dt This equation is converted to dq frame substituting the variables for its values in equations (10), (11) and (12). L Vs (t) cos t = V (10) (11) (12)

components are transformed to the orthogonal and stationary frame system and then to the synchronous frame DQ as shown in Figure 4 and equation (1). The inverse transformation is showed in (2).

Is = Id cos(t) Iq sin(t)

Fig. 4. Frames

d q

cos() sin()

sin() cos()

Splitting the resulting equation in the cosine and sine terms, leads to the circuit equations for the d (13) and q (14) axis. dId Vpwmd V = Iq + dt L L (13)

(2)

However this transformation cannot be applied directly in the single-phase systems, because there is only one variable. This drawback can be solved creating a ctitious input current. B. Reference Values As showed in the previous section, the desired current has phase and frequency obteined from the t signal of the PLL circuit. It is also possible to create a second reference current in quadrature and delayed in relation with i s , using the same t signal. These reference currents are equivalents to the currents in the frame, as show in equations (3) and (4).

i = is = I cos(t)

Vpwmq dIq = Id (14) dt L The equilibrium point (15),(16) is reached when the derivatives terms are equal to zero. Vpwmd = LIq + V Vpwmq = LId (15) (16)

i s

(3) (4)

i = I sin(t)

Performing the DQ transformation taking to the input voltage vs as reference, it is equivalent to make = t in equation (1), leads to equations (5) and (6).

Id =I Iq =0

(5) (6)

Now the references and the control variables are DC quantities and the controller can be implemented the same way as in the DC converters. Note that were added coupling terms between the d and q axis but these terms can be decoupled with a proper controller design. The block diagram of the control is showed in Figure 5. Id and Iq currents are compared with their references values and the PI controllers guarantee no steady state current error. The gain L provide the decoupling terms and the addition of the peak voltage V is intend to compensate the countereffect of the supply voltage, with respect to the converter output voltage vpwm , which has the same behavior as a disturbance signal. When transformed to the stationary reference frame (2) the term is discarded and the term is the signal vpwm that is applied to the single-phase unipolar SPWM.

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Fig. 5.

E. Simplied Control Circuit As the main concern is the real implementation of this control, it is useful to reduce the number of mathematical operations. A simplication in the current control loop is possible due the value attributed to the ctitious input current i (8), as follow. The steady state current error in dq frame in Figure 5 is given by equations (17) and (18). errord errord errord

= Id Id = [i cos(t) + i sin(t)] [i cos(t) + i sin(t)] = (i i ) cos(t) + (i i ) sin(t) (17)

Fig. 6.

IV. R ESULTS A. Simulation Results Simulations of the simplied dq current control have been made by using EMTDC/PSCAD software. The simulated circuit is shown in Figure 2 and its parameters in Table I.

Switching frequency Input Voltage Boost inductor Rated Direct Voltage Load fs vs L Vdc RL 5kHz 220V 5mH 425V 50

Using equation (8) in equations (17) and (18) results in the simplied equations (19), (20) for the steady-state errors. errord = (i i ) cos(t) errorq = (i i ) sin(t) (19) (20)

At the simulation instant of 0.5s the rectier is turned on and the load at 1.5s. The reference and the real currents in the synchronous dq and in the static reference frames at this instants are shown in Figures 7 to 10 . Figure 11 shows the input voltage and current. B. Experimental Results The experimental implementation of the simplied dq current control was done using the Texas Instruments DSP TMS320F2812. Figure 12 shows the turn on transition moment. Once the capacitor voltage was regulated, as Figure 13 shows, the load was applied, this instant is showed in Figure 14. The steady state input voltage ande current are showed in Figure 15.

The decoupling terms have the objective to improve the controller dynamic and can be neglect without committing its operation. The input voltage feed-forward is added directly to the vpwm signal. It has exactly the same effect of adding the peak value in the vpwmd component and has the advantage that is no more necessary the voltage peak detector. As result, Figure 6 shows the simplied current control block diagram.

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Fig. 7.

Id and Iq : Rectier on

Fig. 11.

Fig. 8.

Id and Iq : Load on

Fig. 9.

is : Rectier on

Fig. 12. Input voltage and current at the beginning of the rectier switching

Fig. 10.

is : Load on

V. C ONCLUSION A single-phase synchronous reference frame current control based on the PLL circuit was presented. The calculation of the ctitious input current using the frequency and phase detected by the PLL was successful. It has the advantage that it is not necessary the use of lters and does not require digital memory to allocate samples. And also, the proper choice for the peak value of this current has made possible a simplication in the control

Fig. 13.

Capacitor Voltage

without compromising its operation. After this simplication the control become very simple to be implemented in a digital

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[4] J. Salaet, S. Alepuz, A. Gilabert, and J. Bordonau. Comparison between two methods of dq transformation for single phase converters control. application to a 3-level boost rectier. Power Electronics Specialists Conference, 1:214 220, June 2004. [5] S. Manias. Novel full bridge semicontrolled switch mode rectier. IEE Proceedings on Electric Power Applications, 138:252 256, September 1991. [6] Boon-Teck Ooi and Omar Stihi. A single-phase controlled-current pwm rectier. IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, 3(4):453459, October 1988. [7] V.B. Sriram, S. SenGupta, and A. Patra. Control of a transistorised singlephase bridge converter operated in the rectier mode. Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology 2000, 2:353 358, January 2000.

Fig. 14.

Fig. 15.

controller. The control was able to achieve zero steady state current error. It was validated by the simulation and experimental results presented. ACKNOWLEDGMENT This project was supported by CAPES/CNPq. R EFERENCES

[1] B Singh, B.N. Singh, A. Chandra, K. Al-Haddad, A. Pandey, and D.P. Kothari. A review of single-phase improved power quality ac-dc converters. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, 50(5):962 981, October 2003. [2] M.J. Ryan and R.D. Lorenz. A synchronous-frame controller for a singlephase sine wave inverter. Conference Proceedings of Applied Power Electronics Conference, 2:813 819, February 1997. [3] Richard Zhang, Makr Cardinal, Paul Szczesny, and Mark Dame. A grid simulator with control of single-phase power converters in d-q rotating frame. Power Electronics Specialists Conference, 3:14311436, June 2002.

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