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Wo orld d Co ongr ress of Socio olog gy o of Sp port t


June 12 J 215, 2 2013 Book o B of Abstr racts

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ISSA 2013 World Congress Book of Abstracts

Keynote Thursday,June13,2013 9:00AM10:30AM SalonA Sport,MusicandSong:WaysofSeeingAboriginal IdentitiesinModernTaiwan AlanBairner,UniversityofLoughborough(United Kingdom)A.E.S.Bairner@lboro.ac.uk RelativelylittleisknownoutsideTaiwanaboutthe islandsindigenousminority.Indeed,someofthe mostsuccessfulmembersofthisgroupthose whohaveplayedMLBsuchasChinfengChenand ChinhuiTsaoareprobablynotevenknownto belongtoindigenoustribesexceptbythemost obsessiveaficionados.Themainaimofthis presentationistodemonstratethatbyfocussing onrelativelysmall,localcasestudies,itispossible tocontributetobroaderdebates.Thetalk specificallyaddressestheplaceinTaiwanese societyofindigenouspeople,whomakeuponly 2%oftheislandspopulation,withparticular referencetothepoliticsofidentity.Whatis revealed,however,isintendedtothrowlightona widerangeofissuesthathaveresonance extendingwellbeyondtheshoresofTaiwan.These includethespreadofChristianity,colonialismand itslegacy,nationalidentity,memory,authenticity, thesymbolicimportanceofspace,andthe relationshipbetweenpopularcultureandidentity formation. SportMegaEvents Thursday,June13,2013 11:00AM12:30PM SalonA ParticipationLegacyandtheHostingofMega SportEvents StephenFrawley,UniversityofTechnologySydney (Australia)stephen.frawley@uts.edu.au Thelegacyofamegasporteventforahostnation orcitycantakemanyforms.Thiscanincludenon sportinggainssuchasurbanrenewal,destination marketingandassociatedeconomicdevelopment. Sportrelatedbenefitscanincludethedevelopment
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ofnewfacilities,reinvigoratedsportorganisations, modernequipmentandpossiblegrowthinsport participation.Thispaperisfocusedonthislast idea,exploringtheimpacthostingmegasport eventshavehadonsportparticipationinAustralia. Thestudyisfocusedonthreerecentevents:the Sydney2000OlympicGames;the2003Rugby WorldCup;andthe2006Melbourne CommonwealthGames.Whilesomestudies suggestedthatsportparticipationdidincreasein Australiafollowingthestagingofthe2000 Olympics,thefailureofassociatedorganisationsto maintainconsistentdatamakesitdifficultto supportthisconclusion.Post2000,the developmentofamoreconsistentdata,andthe increasingdiscoursesurroundingtheconceptof sportparticipationlegacy,itisnowpossibleto examinesportparticipationtrendsinAustraliawith morecertainty.Thisresearchanalysedsport registrationdatacollectedfromnational federationsaswellasdatacollectedfromthe AustralianBureauofStatisticsandtheAustralian SportCommission.Thefindingspresentamixed picture.Itisevidentinsomesports,particularlyat thejuniorlevel,thatelitesuccessandthehosting ofmajoreventsresultedinashortterm participationbounce.However,thisgrowthwas oftennotsustainedoverthelongerterm. SocialLeveragingofEliteandMassParticipation Events:aCaseStudyoftheTourofFlanders IngeDerom,UniversityofBritishColumbia,School ofKinesiology(Canada)ingederom@gmail.com RobertVanWynsberghe,UniversityofBritish Columbia(Canada)robert.vanwynsberghe@ubc.ca Governmentsincreasinglyinvestinthehostingof sportevents.Inordertogainsupportforhosting, governmentsreconcileeconomicandpolitical objectiveswithlocalpopularculturalandsocial ones.Differentlevelsofgovernmentstrategically usesporteventsasavehicletoachievepositive socialoutcomes.Thisprocessisknownassocial leveraging. Thispresentationdetailsresearchexaminingsocial leveragingofthemostpopularannualcycling eventinBelgium:theTourofFlanders.Inthis

ISSA 2013 World Congress Book of Abstracts

eventelitecyclistsparticipateina258kmrace fromBrugestoOudenaardewith600,000to 800,000peoplewatchingalongtheroute. Approximately34millionpeopleinEuropeview elementsoftheTourontelevision.Also,16,000 amateurcyclistsparticipateinthemass participationevent.Thisyearmarksthe100th anniversaryoftheTour,whichisaccompaniedby anadditionalinvestmentofover3millionfrom theFlemishgovernmenttocreatesportingand culturalactivitiesthatarethemedaroundtheTour, resultinginacyclingfestivalforcitizensand internationalvisitors. Qualitativeindepthinterviewsarecompletedwith membersoftheorganizingbodyoftheTourof Flandersandgovernmentofficialsatthemunicipal, provincial,andregionallevelswhohosttheevent. Resultsshowthatthesocialleveragingframework canbeextendedfromalineartoaniterative process.Thissubmissionnotonlydiscusseshow theTourofFlandersisleveraged,butalsohow strategicobjectivesdifferamonglevelsof governmentandhoweventthemedactivities changepublicpolicyandthebuiltand/orsocial environmentinhostcities. MandatingAction:Leveragingthe2010Winter Olympics AmandaDeLisio,UniversityofToronto(Canada) amanda.delisio@utoronto.ca Inthewakeofasportmegaevent,hostcities investenormouslyinordertocreateafavourable impressionoflocalcommunitiestothe(watching) world.The2010WinterOlympichost, Vancouver/Whistler,BritishColumbia,whostrove tobrandcommunitiesasthehealthiestand greenestOlympic/Paralympichostintheworldvia thecreationofaprovincialhealthcampaign, ActNowBC,provedtobenoexception.Inorderto capturetheattentionofyoungpeopleacrossthe province,ActNowBCcreatedsupportmaterialfor newlyimplementedschoolhealthpolicies.Using qualitativedata,thispresentationwillanalyzethe extenttowhichActNowBCpoliciesandother publicstrategies,sociallyleveraged(OBrienand Chalip,2007;2008)aroundtheGames,
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materializedwithinthelocalcontext.Inparticular, itwilldiscusstheimpactofthecampaignona groupofyoungpeople(n=14)fromahighschoolin theGreaterVancouverAreaanddemonstratethe mannerinwhichpublicpolicieswereusedto fashionaparticularvisionofanidealcitizen(both activeandhealthy)asopposetocreatinglasting healthlegaciesforthoselivingwithinhost communities. SportandGlobalization Thursday,June13,2013 11:00AM12:30PM SalonC UnitedStudentsAgainstSweatshops:Social ProtestsandGlobalActivismAgainstSweatshops WhereSportingGoodsforUniversitiesAreMade GeorgeSage,Retired(UnitedStates) ghsage@comcast.net Afundamentalfeatureofcapitalismisthe exploitationoflabor.Theresulthasbeenpersisting structuredconflictsbetweenworkersandtheir capitalistemployers.Socialmovementsorganized byworkersandtheirorganizationsandbyactivists onbehalfoftheworkershavebeenanenduring characteristicofcapitalistsocieties.Contemporary sportisanintegralcomponentoftheglobal capitalistpoliticaleconomy.Sportinggoods manufacturingisoneofthemostflourishingglobal exportprocessingindustries.Sweatshoplaboris thedominantmethodemployedbysportinggoods andequipmentsuppliers.Beginningintheearly 1990sNikeSocialMovementcampaignsbrought theirmessageaboutNikesAsiansweatshop factoriestoAmericanuniversitycampuses.Arising tideofstudentactivismledtothefoundingofthe UnitedStudentsAgainstSweatshops(USAS)in 1997,agrassrootsorganizationofstudentswho formedapowerfulanddynamicsocialmovement targetingNike,Adidas,andotherglobalsporting goodscorporations,particularlythosemaking collegiatelicensedproductsunderunhealthy, unsafe,andunfairworkingconditions.In2012 morethan200collegeanduniversitycampusesin theUnitedStateshadmemberchapters,in

ISSA 2013 World Congress Book of Abstracts

additiontodozensoforganizationsworldwidenot formallylinkedtoUSAS.USAShassuccessfully adoptedantisweatshopcodesandinstitutional policiesagainstsweatshops,especiallysporting goodsfirmswhomakecollegiatelicensed merchandise.Combiningqualitativemethods aboutUSASleaders,activists,andsweatshop workers,alongwithextensivedocumentanalyses,I employaconflict/culturalperspectivetoexamine variousfeaturesofthissocialmovementits purpose,organization,methods,leadership strategies,andoutcomes. NavigatingBodies,BordersandtheGlobalGame: Football,OutMigration&theAdolescentMale BodyinWestAfrica DarraghMcGee,UniversityofToronto(Canada) darragh.mcgee@mail.utoronto.ca HowdoadolescentmalesinWestAfrica understandandexperiencethegameoffootballin theireverydaylives?Andinalocalizedyouth culturewhichisincreasinglydefinedbythespectre ofoutmigration,towhatextentisthepracticeof playingfootballalliedto,andavehiclefor,the ubiquitousdesireto'gooutside'?Theproposed paperisframedaroundsuchpertinentempirical questions,revealingthewayinwhichsubjective articulationsofwhatitmeansto'playthegame' foradolescentmalesinWestAfricaarebotha localizedmanifestationof,andacorporeal responseto,thecrystallizationofaEuropean footballlabormarketandtheconcomitant proliferationoftalentrecruitmentinitiativesonthe Africancontinent.Theuniquecontributionofthis paperliesinitscapacitytoshednewlightonthe precarityoftheadolescentmalebodyinlate modernity,situatingitsdialecticalrelationshipwith themarketforcesofneoliberalcapitalism,andto ourunderstandingofhowathleticbodiesmove through,acton,andnegotiatetheenablingand constrainingparametersofglobalsport.Drawing onextensiveethnographicfieldworkinGhanaand semistructuredinterviewswithadolescentmales, thepaperseekstoexplicatethecontextually specificmeaningsofeducation,workandplayas theyareinculcatedintheadolescentmalebody,

andvisavistheemergenceoffootballasavehicle ofmigration. TheTransnationalFlowofBodyCultures:The GlobalizationofModernYogainthe20thCentury PatriciaVertinsky,UniversityBritishColumbia (Canada)patricia.vertinsky@ubc.ca Moderntransnationalyogahasincreasingly becameunderstoodasapredominantly AnglophonephenomenoninspiteofitsAsian inspirationsoneofthefirstandmostsuccessful productsofglobalization.Nowoneofthefastest growinghealthandfitnessactivities,saidtobe oxygenforthemodernsoul,modernyogacanbe foundeverywhereamongtheaffluent,educated andespeciallywomen.Thispaperwilldiscusshow interestinyogathoughtandpracticesbeganto growinthelate19thcenturyastheresultofan ongoingdialogicalexchangebetweenmodernbody culturetechniquesoriginatingintheWestandthe variousdiscoursesofmodernHinduyogathat circulatedthroughoutthenineteenthcentury.It willfocusespeciallyuponthefeminizationofhatha yogaasitwasreframedandincorporatedinto femalephysicalculturepracticesintheWest duringthe20thcenturyandexamineclaimsabout someoftherisksandbenefitswhichhaveflowed fromthisclassicexampleofHobsbawmsinvention oftraditions.AsAnneHarringtonremindsusin relationtothehistoryofmindbodymedicine, eastwardjourneysrarelytakeusintoanother worldfortheyarelocatedwithincolonialcultural discoursesandnarrativesthathavealready establishedthemselvesasfamiliar.Theysimply takeusdeeperintoourselves.

ISSA 2013 World Congress Book of Abstracts

SportSpectatorshipandFandom Thursday,June13,2013 11:00AM12:30PM SalonD FemaleFansExperienceoftheSignificanceofthe SupportersTrustMovement CarolineDunn,Regent'sCollegeLondon(United Kingdom)dunnc@regents.ac.uk Thispaperlooksindetailathowfemalefanshave reportedtheirexperienceofthesupporters'trust movementinEngland:anew,democraticand equitablewayforsupporterstobecomeinvolvedin thelifeoftheirclub,andbecomepartofafan communitybroaderthansimplecluballegiance. Basedonthenarrativesofmyrespondents,this papersuggeststhatthetrusts'democratic frameworkmakesituniquelyaccessibletofemale fans;involvementisopentoeveryone,andholding officeinthesupporterstrustmovementis dependentonaonememberonevoteelection ratherthanononesexistingsocialnetworkof fandomandhavingtherightcontacts. Indeed,thispaperpresentsanecdotalevidence thatsuggestswomenaremorelikelytobecome involvedinsupporterstrusts,possiblybecause combiningmotherhoodwithparttimeworkor beingastayathomemotherwithnopaidwork outsidethehomeenableswomentohavemore timetodevotetothisvoluntarywork.Itdraws parallelswiththesupportroleswomenseemto beexpectedtotakeinsupportersmovements(as opposedtorolesthatputtheminthepubliceye), andthesupportroleswomenareexpectedto takeinothersituations,suchaswithinthe domesticsphereandinconversation. Italsodiscussestheparticularlygenderedroles assumedbypeoplewithinthemovement,andhow respondentsfelttheywereperceivedbymale fellowfans,withsomefeelingthatputtingoneself inamorevisiblerolewithinthefanbaseopens themuptosexism.

UnderstandingGenderRelationsAmongSport Fans KatieSveinson,UniversityofRegina(Canada) sveinson.katie@gmail.com LarenaHoeber,UniversityofRegina(Canada) larena.hoeber@uregina.ca Whilethereisevidencethatbothwomenandmen supportsportteamsandplayers(Fink,Trail,& Anderson,2002;James&Ridinger,2002;Robinson &Trail,2005),sportfandomiscommonly understoodasamaleactivity(Pope,2011;Wann, Melnick,Russell,&Pease,2001).Womenare marginalizedassportfansbymen,whoquestion theirknowledgeandcommitment,thusreinforcing theirsuperiorityoverwomen(Crawford&Gosling, 2004;Pope,2011).Thereisalsoevidencethat womenareinvolvedinmarginalizingotherwomen assportfans(Jones,2008).Onegapinthesport fanliterature,however,isanexaminationofmen andwomenslivedexperiencesasfans,witha specificfocusontheirinteractionsatthelocallevel tonegotiaterelationshipsbetweenandamong them.AsCrawford(2004,p.54)noted,supporter communitiesarenotjustdefinedbyasharedsense ofbelonging,butalsobypatternsofexclusionand evenoppositiontoothers.Usingtherevised conceptofhegemonicmasculinity,which recognize[s]theagencyofsubordinatedand marginalizedgroups(Connell&Messerschmidt (2005,p.847),thepurposeofthisstudyisto examinegenderrelationsamongsportfanswithin alocalcontext. Acasestudyapproachwillbeusedtolimitthe focustofansofaparticularteam(Yin,2009).In depthinterviewswillbeconductedwith1624 menandwomenwhoselfidentifyasfansofthe sameCanadianprofessionalsportteam.Thedata willbeanalyzedthroughassigningcodes,and identifyingcategoriesandthemes(Strauss& Corbin,1990).

ISSA 2013 World Congress Book of Abstracts

FemaleRugbyUnionFandomPleasures:Analysing ContentandContextinFocusGroupTalk CamillaObel,UniversityofCanterbury(New Zealand)Camilla.obel@canterbury.ac.nz Thispaperinvestigatesconversationsbetween NewZealandfemalefansofmalerugbyunionin focusgrouptalk.Infocusgroupdiscussionsfans exchangedknowledgeaboutplayingstrategies, ruleschanges,predictionsfortheirteams,and jokedabouttheirattractiontofavouriteplayers. Theydidnotdismissaromanticinterestincertain players,althoughtheydidnotseethisinterestas mostimportanttotheirfandom,nordidthey underplaytheirknowledgeofthesport.More importantly,theydidnotconsiderthesepassions asincompatible,butratherreasonedthatoverall theybroughtanimmensepleasureandprideto theirlivesandenabledthemtoletloose.Inthis paperIdrawonsociologicalaccountsofsportsfans andfocusgroupmethodologytoexplorethe participantsinteractionandtalkabouttheir fandom.Whileacademicattentiontofemalesports fandomhasprovidedsomecriticalchallengesto theassumptionthatsportsfandomequatesto masculinefandom,limitedinformationisavailable onfeminizedorfemininesportsfandompleasures andpractices(Tanaka2004;Kim2004).Inthe paperfocusgroupconversationsarereproducedin ordertoshowhowfandomidentitiesare constructedininteractionsbetweenthewomen whoshareexperiences,sometimesagreeingand sometimesdisagreeingandmodifytheiropinions aboutthepleasuresofbeingafemalefanofmale rugbyunion. Sport,PhysicalActivityandAgeing Thursday,June13,2013 11:00AM12:30PM SalonE Sport,AgeingandEmbodimentAmongstSilver Surfers BelindaWheaton,UniversityofBrighton(United Kingdom)b.wheaton@Brighton.ac.uk Imagesofsurfinghavetendedtoreflectconsumer culturesfascinationwithyouthfulness,
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simultaneouslyperpetuatingamyththat participantsarereckless,riskseeking hedonists.Thisimage,however,isbeing challengedwithincreasingnumbersofoldermale andfemalesurferstakingtothewater.Drawingon interviewswith(whatthemediahavedubbed) silversurfers,Iexploretheexperiencesofolder peoplewhosurf.Whileageingisoften conceptualisedasaphaseofcognitiveandphysical decline,surfingisbeingusedasanidentity resourceintheextensionofmidlife (Featherstone&Hepworth,1991)andinthe processofnegotiating(anxietiesabout)ageing (Tulle,2008).Ihighlightthewaysinwhicholder surferschallengedominantdiscoursesabout physicalactivity,risk,age,andgender embodiment.Yet,inaccordancewiththepolitics ofneoliberalism,ageingisincreasinglyseenasa lifephasewhereindividualscan,andindeedare increasinglyrequiredtokeepthemselvesphysically andcognitivelyhealthy(c.f.Millington,2012)via adoptingappropriatesportandleisure activities.Thepaperthereforeconsiderstheways inwhichneoliberaldiscoursesofhealthinwhich consumercitizenstakepersonalresponsibilityfor theirwellbeinginfluencessurfingidentities, practicesanddiscourses. LivingbyNumbers:PressReportingofElite AthletesAgeing EmmanuelleTulle,GlasgowCaledonianUniversity (UnitedKingdom)e.tulle@gcu.ac.uk Layandscientificpronouncementsaboutageing areostensiblyintransition.Whilstbiomedicine continuestoinformthedominantdiscourseofold ageandageing,associatingageingwithinevitable biologicaldeclineandextendingthisto psychologicalandsocialageing,thereisevidence thatwithinthisdiscursivespacethatageing decrementscanbecounteractedbyinteralia physicalactivityinterventionstargetedat improvingphysiologicalandbiomechanical function.Theageingbodyisthereforeunder reconstruction:fromanintractabletoamalleable body,afailingbodytoabodyinprogress.Thereis alsoanewculturaleconomyofageingwhichisa responsetothewholesalemarginalizationofthe

ISSA 2013 World Congress Book of Abstracts

old.Thebodyisproblematizedascontributingto socialandculturalageinganditsreconstructionas amalleablebodyendowedwithphysicalcapital mayoffertheopportunitytoresistageingas framedwithinadeclinenarrative. Thispaperwillexplorehowtheageingofwell knownmaleeliteathletesLanceArmstrongand RogerFedererhasbeendealtwithinthe AnglophoneandFrancophonewrittenpress.Iwill showhowanextendedcareerintheathleticfield positionstheseathletesinanambiguousrelation tothedominantdiscourseofoldage.Inparticular Iwillshowhowthestrategicdeploymentof numbersisusedtoencasetheseathletesbodies intoalinearmodelofphysicalchange,rendering fluctuationsinathleticcapital(competence, performanceandincome)intoincontrovertible evidenceofinevitabledeclineandthatonly exceptionalreputationalcapitalcanrescuethe athletefromthegripsofthisdiscourse. TheEmbodiedPleasuresofPhysicalActivityin OlderAge. CassandraPhoenix,UniversityofExeter(United Kingdom)cassandra.phoenix@pcmd.ac.uk NoreenOrr,UniversityofExeter(UnitedKingdom) Noreen.Orr@pcmd.ac.uk Theembodiedpleasuresofphysicalityhave receivedlittleattentionwithinsociologicalstudies ofsportandexercise.Thisisparticularlythecase whenitcomestotheageing(sporting)body. Drawingfromlifehistoryandvisualdataproduced with50regularlyactiveadultsage60yearsand over,thispresentationwillillustratehowpleasure isexperiencedwithandthroughtheactivebodyin diverseandmultipleways.Itarguesthatthe embodiedpleasuresofbeingactiveinolderage canprovidealternativemeaningsofphysical activity,which,inturncanofferadifferentwayof promotingphysicalactivityacrossthelifecourse. ThispresentationformspartoftheMovingStories project,fundedbytheESRC(RES06130000551) www.ecehh.org/publications/movingstories
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SportinAsia Thursday,June13,2013 11:00AM12:30PM SalonF UnderdogBoxersasSocialProducts:How NamelessFilipinoPugilistsConstitutetheBottom oftheAsianBoxingMarket TomonoriIshioka,HokkaidoUniversity(Japan) ishioka@edu.hokudai.ac.jp ThroughthecasesofnamelessFilipinomigrant boxers,thisstudyaimstoilluminatethesocial structuresoftheAsianboxingmarketandits mechanismofconstantlyproducingunderdog opponents.Recently,boxingpopularityinthe Philippineshasdramaticallyincreasedbecauseof theemergenceofasuperstar,MannyPacquiao. However,countlessanonymousFilipinoboxersare consideredasunderdogopponentsintheringin Japan,Korea,andThailand.Forinstance,in1996, Filipinoboxersfought150fightsinJapan,butthe resultwas11wins,133losses,and6draws.It reflectsthesocialpositionsofFilipinoboxersinthe marketthattheytakeuptheroleexpectingtolose. However,thefactthatFilipinoboxersthemselves aspiretoengageintotheserolesshouldnotbe overlooked.Thisisbecauseofnotonlythe relativelyhighpriceofpursebutalsothehonorsto experiencefightsabroad.Thisstudydissectsthe sociosymbolicrelationshipsbetweentheposition ofFilipinoboxers,whichconstitutethebottomof theAsianboxingmarket,andtheirdisposition, whichisanenginetodevotethemselvestothese disparitytrades.ByusingPierreBourdieustheory ofpractice,thisstudypresentsaneconomic sociologicalinvestigationontheAsianboxing market. "BigFootballPlan":FootballPolicyinTaiwan (20102013) LiangKunMin,NationalTaiwanSportUniversity (Taiwan)a8255@ms25.hinet.net ThispaperexamineshowtheTaiwanMinistryof EducationpromotestheBigFootballPlanand explorestherelationshipbetweenparticipants since2010includingFIFA,theTaiwanMoE,CTFA, andschools.Thisstudyevaluatesthe"BigFootball

ISSA 2013 World Congress Book of Abstracts

Plan"policyandemploysthemethodofsemi structuredinterviewswithgovernmentofficials, theCTFASecretaryGeneralandtheinternational groupofcadres.Thisprovidesthebasisofacritical discussionofthepowerrelationshipamongthe MOE,CTFA,andFIFA.Insum,thisstudyfindssome socialeffectsandpowerrelationshipsthroughthe BigFootballPlaninTaiwan. Keywords:FIFA,footballpolicy,Taiwan SportandMedia Thursday,June13,2013 1:30PM3:00PM SalonA MediaFramingsofNorthKoreaintheLondon 2012OlympicGames LivYoon,UniversityofBritishColumbia(Canada) yoon.liv@gmail.com InthispresentationIreportfindingsfroman analysisofmainstreamnewsmediaframingsof NorthKoreasparticipationintheLondon2012 SummerOlympics.Theresearchwasguidedbythe followingquestions:1)HowwasNorthKoreas involvementintheOlympicsunderstoodand portrayedwithinmainstreamnewsmediainSouth Koreaandinaselectionofothernational contexts?;2)Whatdifferenceswerethere,ifany, betweentheSouthKoreancoverageandother internationalnewsmediacoverage?;and3)What mightthesedifferencesimplyaboutdecision makingprocessesinmainstreamnewsmedia, and/orabouthowjournalistsmightbeimplicated inthepromotionofstereotypesand/or xenophobia? Thestudydrawsonandassessesexistingtheory andresearchonnewsmediacoverageofconflict, sport,andnationalismwithparticularattentionto theinterrelatedconceptsofideology,hegemony, andOrientalism(Said,2003).Theanalysisisguided byNormanFaircloughs(1995)CriticalDiscourse Analysisapproachtoexamininghowlanguage operatesinframingeventsandtopicsinamanner thatmaymakesomepointsorperspectivesmore visiblethanothers.Theoverarchinggoalofthe
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studyistoprovokethinkingabouttheroleofsport mediaproducersinpeacepromotionandinthe perpetuationofconflictandculturalviolence,the potentialimpactsofmassmediaonaudiences,and possibilitiesfordevelopingmorecriticallyinformed approachestocreatingmediamessages. TheMetamorphosisoftheSickManofEast Asia:BodilyDiscourseintheChinesePress CoverageofForeignandChineseAthletesatthe Olympics,19842012 YiyinDing,WasedaUniversity(Japan)ding yiyin@moegi.waseda.jp Afterthe2012LondonOlympicsclimaxedina magnificentfinale,theChineseteamcarriedhome arecord38goldmedals.Thisremarkablesuccess hastakenChinafurtherfromtheformer stereotypeofthesickmanofEastAsiaand towardoneoftheleadingOlympicsports powerhouses.Thepurposeofthisresearchisto conductacontentanalysisofbodilyrelated discourseintheChinesepresscoverageofChinese athletesandforeignathletestotestthehypothesis thatthegrowingsuccessofChineseparticipationin themodernOlympicshasreshapedtheChinese bodyperception.Italsoattemptstoexplore modernChinasroleintheworldanditsrelations withothercountriesandregions. ThecontentanalysissearchedforOlympicrelated sportarticlesand/orheadlinescontainingthe Chinesecharactersforbody(pinyin:Shen)/ (pinyin:Ti)duringtheeightsummerOlympicsthat Chinahastakenpartinsince1984,intwoChinese newspapers:TitanSportandthePeoplesDaily. Thearticleswereanalyzedforpositiveand negativebodilycharacteristics,andcodedforthe attributionofthesecharacteristicstoChineseand foreignathletes.Furthercomparisonsweremade betweentheChineseandmajoropponentsfrom EastAsiaandtheWest(namelyEuropeandNorth America).Thepresentationwillinterpretthe hiddenmessagebehindthebodilyrepresentation ofChineseathletessuchasthewaysinwhich Chineseathletesareperceivedtobephysically inferiortoathletesfromthewestbutphysically superiortofellowEastAsianathletes.

ISSA 2013 World Congress Book of Abstracts

NationalismandtheNationalBasketball AssociationFinals:AnAnalysisofAnnouncer Discourse OlanScott,EdithCowanUniversity(Australia) o.scott@ecu.edu.au DwightZakus,GriffithUniversity(Australia) dhzakus@gmail.com Oneofthekeythemesofcontemporarymediaisto entertaintheaudience;acentralfunctionofthe media[is]fordiversionandenjoyment,inwhich themediaprovidestories,features,music,and filmstomakeaudienceslaugh,cry,relax,orreflect ratherthangaininformation(Wilson,Gutierrez,& Chao,2003,p.40).Throughtheframingofsport broadcasts,whichbecometheindividualscripted storylines,commercialmediaseektogeneratea largeviewershipaspossibleinordertoonsell viewerstoadvertisersandsponsors.Entman (2007)suggeststhatframingisaprocessofculling afewelementsofaperceivedrealityand assemblinganarrativethathighlightsconnections amongthemtopromoteaparticular interpretation(p.164).Assuch,thisstudyseeks touncoverhowtheconceptofnationalismwas portrayedbycommentatorsduringthebroadcasts ofthe2011NationalBasketballAssociationfinals. Further,thescriptingtacticswillbeuncoveredthat wereemployedbysportscasterstopossibly enhancethesalienceofstorylinestoviewers throughaposthocreconstructionofscripts.While awidebodyofliteratureexistsonnationalismand sport,thisresearchanalysesaseriesofeventsnot oftenstudied,anNBAfinals.Acontentanalysisof announcerdiscoursewillbeconductedtouncover howAmerican(N=22)andinternational(N=8) professionalbasketballplayerswereportrayedby announcers.Areliableandvalidated15category taxonomy(Scott,Hill,&Zakus,inpress)willbe usedtoanalyzeandevaluatetheframesthatwere usedbyannouncerstodepictNBAplayers.

SportsandGender Thursday,June13,2013 1:30PM3:00PM SalonC MaleGatekeepersasAccessPointstoPublic SpacesforSouthAfricanFemaleFootballers CassandraOgunniyi,UniversityofJohannesburg (Canada)cogunniyi@ymail.com Discoursesofhegemonicmasculinityare associatedwiththehistoricalandsocial constructionofpower,controlofspaces,and relationshipsbetweenmenandwomen, masculinityandfemininity.Publicspacescontinue tobedominatedbymenwhileprivate,domestic spacesareoccupiedprimarilybywomen.Oneof thereasonswomenhavestruggledtogainaccess tosportsarenasisthatsportsareoftenlocatedin thepubliccommunityspace,controlledand dominatedbymen.Inthesecontextsaccessfor womenremainsrestrictedandlimited.This researchexaminestwentyonecomprehensive casestudieswithinSouthAfricanwomensfootball (soccer)includinginterviewswithplayers,parents, siblings,cousins,teachersandcoaches.Qualitative andquantitativemethodswereusedfordata collectionandanalysis.Theresultsconfirmedpast researchthatfamilycompositionandsporthistory areimportantfactorsinchildrenssport participationpatterns.Inthesecases,19%ofthe girlshadafatherthatwasthemostinfluentialand 24%wereinfluencedbyanolderbrotheror cousin.Intwoofthecases,boththeplayers motherandfatherhadplayedsoccer,howeverthe fatherwasstillthemostinfluentialintheplayers initiationintofootball.Thesecasesdemonstrate thatinorderforwomentogainentryintothe publicsportspheretheyrequiredtheassistanceof agatekeepersuchasamalesibling,parentor coach,oranintermediarysuchasaschoolsport team,whichreinforcesthedominanceofmenin controllingaccesstopublicspaces.

ISSA 2013 World Congress Book of Abstracts

HardChoices:CareerPathsofMenandWomenin (andoutof)SportIndustry ToddCrosset,UniversityofMassachusetts, Amherst(UnitedStates) tcrosset@isenberg.umass.edu Thispresentationisasliceofanongoing10year longitudinalstudythatemploysbothqualitative andquantitativemethodstoexploretheimpactof genderonthecareertrajectory,satisfactionand thechoicesofmidcareermanagersandexecutives inthesportindustry. Although,womensparticipationinsporthas expandeddramatically,sportremainsamale dominatedprofession(CarpenterandAcosta, 2010).Theobjectiveofthisprojectis1.)to describewomensplacewithinthesportindustry overtime.Havewomenmadeinroadsintothe managementofsport?Ifsowhere?2.)toexplore womensexperienceandtheirchoicesasmanagers andexecutiveswithinthesportindustryandwhy womenmanagersoptoutofthesportindustry. And3.)toexaminetheimpactofgenderoncareer trajectoryandsatisfaction. FollowingEngland(2010),weanticipatethat womenwholeavethefieldofsportwilltake similarpositionsoutsideofsportwherethey experiencemoregenderfit.FollowingKmecetal. (2010)weanticipatethatnonrecruitedjob changeswithintheindustryresultinmoregender segregationthandoformalorinformalsearches Thispresentationisbasedonasurveydistributed to320managersorexecutiveswhohaveworked insportand/orarecurrentlyworkinginsportand fifteenlifehistoriesofwomensportmanagers.The surveysampleiscomprisedofequalnumbersof menandwomen.Alltherespondentsgraduated withdegreesinsportmanagementfromone institutionbetween1988and1999.Thelife historiesarerecordedandtranscribedphone interviews

Sport,GenderandSovereigntyAResearch Perspective GertrudPfister,UniversityofCopenhagen (Denmark)gpfister@ifi.ku.dk Inthispresentation,Iwilldefinethetermsgender andsovereignty,describethepropagationand interactionsoftheseconceptandprovidean overviewaboutthedevelopmentandthecurrent stateofresearchinthefieldofsportsciences. Subsequently,informationwillbegivenonsport relatedgenderdifferencesandgenderhierarchies inthesportsystemsofWesterncountries.Afocus willbeonofparticipationratesofmenand women,onthegenderproportionsamongsport leadersandcoachesaswellasonthemedia coverageofmensandwomenssports. Inthesecondpartofthepresentation,Iwillrefer topotentialreasonsforthegenderdifferencesand proposeexplanationsbasedonrelevanttheories.I willdraw,amongothers,onConnellsandLorbers conceptofgender,Bourdieusapproachtohabitus andtasteaswellasonsocializationtheoriesand theoriesontheculturesof(sport)organizations. Emphasiswillbeontheimpactofsovereigntyon genderrelationsinsideandoutsideofsport. Thepaperwillendwithadiscussionofcurrent issuesandtopicsoffutureresearch,e.g.women andgenderinsportpolitics,ageingandsportform agenderperspective,theinvolvementofmenin traditionalwomenssportsortheIOCdecisions aboutgenderverification.Theseandothertopics demandnewresearchperspectives,international cooperationandinterculturalcomparisons.

ISSA 2013 World Congress Book of Abstracts

Sport,HealthandRisk Thursday,June13,2013 1:30PM3:00PM SalonD SportillnessNarrativesbyPatientsandMedical Professionals AgnesEllingMachartzki,Mulierinstitute (Netherlands)a.elling@mulierinstituut.nl MirjamStuij,MulierInstitute(Netherlands) m.stuij@mulierinstituut.nl Themedicalisationofsportandphysicalactivityfor bothhealthyandillpeoplefitswithintheongoing processofhealthisminsociety.Researchamong patientsand(elite)athleteswith(chronic)illness hasshownthatcontinuingparticipationinsport activitiesnowadaysrepresentoneofthedominant technologiesformedicalrecoveryandtorecapture embodiedselfworthandidentity.However,apart frompartlyovercomingtheoftendisruptive biographicalimpactofseriousillness,sport participationcanalsofunctionasguiltyreminder, inexplicitlymanifestingthe(physical)declineof theembodiedselvesofpatients.Dominant publishedsportillnessnarrativesandthosethat circulateinhealthsettingsmainlyformvariations ofFranksrestitutionandquestnarrativesand provideaselectivemapthataffectspersonal experiencesandsocialperceptionsofillness.We assumeapossiblemismatchmayexistbetween thelivedandpropagatedsportillnessnarratives forchronicallyillpeoplethatcanleadtofeelingsof guilt,miscommunicationswithmedical professionalsandlowadherencetothepromoted physicalactivityandsportprogrammes.Inour ongoingstudyweanalysetheinteractive (re)constructionandnegotiationsofsportillness narrativesamongpatientswithdifferentchronic illnesses(breastcancer,diabetes,depressionand hiv)andtheirmedicalprofessionals.Wewill presentthefirstoutcomesofquestionnairesandin depthinterviewsamongpatientsandsemi structuredinterviewswithspecializednurse practitionersandphysiotherapists.

InjuryasaPersonalMatter:ViewsofInjury amongCollegeSoccerPlayersinKorea HanbeomKim,SeoulNationalUniversity(South Korea)snubum@gmail.com SunYongKwon,SeoulNationalUniversity(South Korea)kwonsy@snu.ac.kr Socioculturalanalysesaboutathleticinjuryhave beenrelativelyabsentinSouthKorea,andthis paperattemptstoexploreinjuryexperiences amongKoreaneliteathletes.Indepthinterviews wereconductedforcollegesoccerplayers.Most athleteswerefoundtohaveinjuryexperiencesat varioustimesoftheirathleticcareer;however, theytendtoneglectthefactthatinjuriescould haveamajoreffectontrainingandcompetition settings.Athletes,also,haveatendencyofputting victoryandtriumphbeforethemselvesandfeelthe needtosacrificepersonalagendasorproblems whenparticipatinginsports.Athletesthinkinjuries canbecomeadisadvantagetotheircareer, therefore,theyparticipateincompetitionsand trainingsessions,despitethefactthattheinjuries arenotfullyrecovered.Mostly,managinginjuries andinjuryrecoveryisperformedindividually. Injuriesareperceivedastheathlete'spersonal responsibilitywhichisnotthoughttobedealtona teambasis.Thecultureofindividualizedinjuryis discussedwithinthecontextoftheKoreanelite sportsystem. ContemporaryDanceInstructorsandYoga InstructorsViewsaboutHealthyTechnical Training PirkkoMarkula,UniversityofAlberta(Canada) pirkko.markula@ualberta.ca Thepurposeofthisqualitativestudyistoexamine theimportanceoftechniqueincontemporary danceinstructorsandyogainstructors understandingsofhealthypractice.Although contemporarydanceandyogadifferfromeach otherinseveralways,bothofthesephysical activitiesrequirehighmovementskillsandthe injuryratescanbehighamongtheirpractitioners (e.g.,Aalten,1995;Dryburgh&Fortin,2010; Thomas&Tarr,2009).Therefore,itisimportantto examinetheinstructorsviewsabouttheroleof
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propertechnicalexecutionoftherequired movementskills. Mystudydrawsfromtheinsightsof poststructuralisttheorytoexaminethesignificance ofthematerialityofthemovingbodyin contemporarysociety.Whiletheknowledgebases ordiscursiveforms(Foucault,1973)thatdefine contemporarydance,anartform,andyoga,a mindful(fitness)practice,differ,Iaminterestedin comparinghowtheinstructorsinthesehighly codifiedformsofphysicalactivitynegotiate teachingtheirbodilypracticesinahealthyand efficientmanner.Theoretically,thisinvestigationis framedbyMichelFoucaults(1991)readingof disciplinarytechniquesthatcreatedocilebodiesin thecurrentneoliberalsociety.Inaddition, possibilitiesforcreatingsubjects(Foucault,1987; 1993)whobreakoutfromtheconfinesofdiscipline byusingskillfulbodilypracticesareconsidered.I usesemistructured,formal,facetoface interviews(e.g.,Kvale&Brinkmann,2007;Markula &Silk,2011;Patton,2002)tomapfourwomen contemporarydanceinstructorsandfourwomen hatha/Iyengaryogainstructorsexperiencesof teachingmovementtechnique. StudentAthletes Thursday,June13,2013 1:30PM3:00PM SalonE ListeningtotheVoices:TheExperiencesofBlack FemaleStudentAthletesinCanadianHigher Education DanielleGabay,UniversityofToronto(Canada) d.gabay@utoronto.ca Reviewsoftheliteraturerevealthatlittleisknown aboutminorityfemalestudentathletesandtheir experienceswithinCanadianhighereducation.This dearthofinformationisparadoxicalconsidering theacademicandathleticlegacyofthissubgroup, aswellasthenotedimportanceofthestudent experienceandathleticparticipationwithin postsecondaryeducation.Theaimofthisstudyis togatherdataontheexperiencesofBlackfemale
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studentswhoareinvolvedinathletics.Thegoalis togainanunderstandingoftheirexperiencesas students,asathletes,andasBlackwomen. Additionally,thestudyintendstohelpfillagapin theexistingliteratureonrace,sport,andthe studentexperienceinCanada.Themainresearch questionis:Whataretheuniversityexperiences (academic,athletic,andsocial)ofBlackfemale studentathleteswithinCanadianuniversities?This studywillemployanintersectionalframeworkto examinehowrace,gender,athleticismandthe studentroleintersecttoshapethestudent experience.Thisinvestigationutilizesamixed methodapproachconsistingofanonlinesurvey andindepthinterviews.Thispaperwillpresent thefindingsofthisstudy. ASelfReflectiveApproachtoUnderstanding FormerIntercollegiateStudentAthletes EducationalExperiences S.JacobHouston,UniversityofWashington (UnitedStates)jacob.houston@gmail.com Problem Numerousintercollegiatestudentathletessuffer academically.Thishascreatedamajorconcern regardingcollegeathleticsrolewithinhigher education(e.g.,Hawkins,2010;Duderstadt,2000; Gerdy,1997).Thisconcernhaspromptedthe highereducationcommunitytoinquireaboutthe extenttowhichintercollegiateathleticsfitswithin theeducationalmissionoftheacademyand whetherornotstudentathleteseducationally benefitfromtheirparticipationinathletics. Method EightformerU.S.DivisionIcollegeathletes(four males/fourfemales)intennis,track&field,crew, andsoccerwereaskedtoparticipateinan individualsemistructuredinterview.Participants wereaskedtoselfreflectonanyexperiencesthat enhanced(a)personaldevelopment,(b)academic development,and(c)anyexperiencesthathave leftalastingimpressiononwhotheyaretoday. ThisstudyisframedbyAstinstheoryofstudent involvement,Ryan&Decisselfdetermination theory,andBronfenbrenner'sbioecologicaltheory ofhumandevelopment.

ISSA 2013 World Congress Book of Abstracts

ResearchQuestions 1.Howdoformerstudentathletesbelievethat theirparticipationinintercollegiateathletics influencedtheirpersonalandacademic development? 2.Howdoformerstudentathletesfeelthattheir experienceinintercollegiateathleticscontinuesto playaroleintheirlives? Findings Thepreliminaryanalysissuggeststhatthe participantsexperienceinintercollegiateathletics havemotivatedandenhancedtheirpersonal development,academicdevelopment,andhave shapedwhotheyaretoday. Implications Thisresearchcontributestoourunderstandingof theacademicandpersonaldevelopmentof intercollegiatestudentathletesandoffersan opportunityforabroaderdiscussiononhowtore alignintercollegiateathleticswiththeeducational missionofhighereducation. StudentAthletesUnderstandingofDopingand Gender:TheRoleofMisperceptionsand Stereotypes CharleneWeaving,St.FrancisXavierUniversity (Canada)cweaving@stfx.ca SarahTeetzel,UniversityofManitoba(Canada) Sarah.Teetzel@ad.umanitoba.ca Thispaperpresentstheresultsofathreeyear studyexaminingfemaleandmaleuniversity studentathletesperceptionsofgenderand doping.Togaininsightintotheconnections betweendopingandgender,thefirststepofthe projectinvolvedthecreationofanannotated bibliographysummarizingtheliteratureondoping andgenderpublishedinscholarlysourcesfromthe late1960stothepresent.Thisinformation providedthehistoricalbackgroundneededto createaninterviewguidetoaddressstudent athletesunderstandingofgenderanddoping.The secondstepinvolvedindepth,semistructured interviewswithasampleof38Canadianvarsity athletesfromthreeuniversities.Resultsfromthe interviewsindicatethatthestudentathletes interviewedcontinuetoechoseverallongheld
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stereotypesaboutwomenathletesanddoping, whichwewilldiscussinthispresentation.Building ontheworkofLock(2003)andDavisandDelano (1992),thispresentationanalyzesthecultureof dopingattheuniversitylevelandthepersistant genderstereotypesthatlingeronuniversity campuses.Forinstance,thepressuretoadhereto societalstandardsintermsofidealbody composition,theuseofweightlosssupplementsto achieveaspecificphysique,andthefailureto recognizethatthepursuitofleannesscanhinder athleticperformanceandsuccess. SportandAlcohol Thursday,June13,2013 1:30PM3:00PM SalonF TowardsHegemonicDrinking:ANewPerspective ontheSportsAlcoholNexus? CatherinePalmer,UniversityofTasmania (Australia)catherine_palmer@hotmail.com Thispaperengageswith(andchallenges)perhaps thesinglemostdominanttheoreticaltropein studiesofsportrelateddrinking,namely hegemonicmasculinity.Thepapercontinuesan ongoingresearchagendathataskssociologiststo extendourconceptual,theoreticalandempirical frameworksforthinkingaboutsportsassociated drinking.Theargumentpresentedisthatpersistent narrativesofparticularkindsofmaledrinkingin sporthavedominatedthediscourse,whichhas orientedanalysesinparticularwaysandobscured otherrelationshipstosportandalcohol,suchas thoseexperiencedbysportswomen.Drawingon preliminaryempiricaldatawithsportswomen,the paperputsforwardacaseforhegemonic drinkinginwhichdrinkingasastateorcondition ofideologyframesunderstandingsofhow particularwaysofperformingdrinkingseem naturalandnormaloverandabovewhodoes them.

ISSA 2013 World Congress Book of Abstracts

Boozing,Brawling,andCommunityBuilding: SportfacilitatedCommunityDevelopmentina RuralOntarioCommunity KyleRich,UniversityofOttawa(Canada) krich@uottawa.ca CorlissBean,UniversityofOttawa(Canada) cbean@uottawa.ca ZaleApramian,McGillUniversity(Canada) zale.apramian@gmail.com Thesportofhockeyhasbeendiscussedextensively inrelationtosocialidentityformationand psychosocialoutcomesbothpositive(Adams, 2006;Gruneau&Whitson,1993)andnegative (Allain,2008;Wattieetal.,2010)withinCanadian society.Inthispaper,weutilizeacasestudyofa hockeytournamenthostedinasmall,ruraltownin northernOntariotoexamineanddiscussthe complexitiesofthisruralcommunitysportingevent anditsvarioussocialoutcomes.Furthermore,we explorethetensionsthatexistbetweenthevalues madeexplicitbyinstitutionalsportingbodiesand policies,suchastheCanadianSportPolicy,andthe valuesembodiedbythetournamentinorderto demonstratehowinterpretationsoftheseevents maybeflawedshouldtheydeemthemdestructive. Weengageindiscussionsofsocialcapital(Coalter, 2007),socialidentitytheory(Cote&Levine,2002), sportheritage(Ramshaw&Gammon,2005), nostalgiaforsocialexperienceandsport(Masonet al.,2005),aswellastheBakhtiniancarnival (Robidoux,2001)toexaminehowthese idiosyncraticelementsofthetournamentthat violateinstitutionalnormshavebeenretaineddue totheircontributiontothepositivesocial outcomesandconsequentcommunity development.Wealsohighlightaneedformore contextualinterpretationsofruralcommunity sportingeventsinordertobetterunderstandthe complexwaysinwhichtheymaycontributeto localcultureandcommunitydevelopmentaswell ashowstandardizedunderstandingsoftheroleof sportmaybeinadequateforinterpretingthese activities.

SportsFans,AlcoholUse,andViolentBehavior MichaelOstrowsky,SouthernUtahUniversity (UnitedStates)ostrowsky@suu.edu Tomostpeopleitseemsperfectlyobviousthat alcoholuseisoneofthemainreasonswhysports fansexhibitviolentbehavior.However,thetruth ofthematteristhatmostdrinkingamongsports fansdoesnotresultinviolentbehavior.Thus,the linkbetweenalcoholuseandviolentbehavior amongsportsfansismorecomplexthanitseems atfirst.Thispaperorganizesandreviewsthe fragmentedliteratureonalcoholuseandviolent behavioramongsportsfans.Itappearsthat severalfactorsmighthelptodeterminewhetheror notalcoholuseamongsportsfansleadstoviolent behavior.Thesefactorsrangefrommacrolevel socioculturalfactorsfoundinwidersocietyto microlevelcharacteristicsoftheindividualsports fan.Thisdemonstratesthatanyattemptto understandalcoholuseandviolentbehavior amongsportsfansmustconsidersociologicalas wellaspsychologicalfactors. Sport,PoliticsandPolicy Thursday,June13,2013 3:30PM5:00PM SalonA "Dancethenwhereveryoumaybe":Perceptions of'Scottishness'inHighlandDancinginGlasgow, Scotland BethanyWhiteside,RoyalConservatoireof Scotland(UnitedKingdom)B.Whiteside@rcs.ac.uk HighlandDancingisviewedasaformofdanceand sport,asalinktotheromanticpastofHighland history,andaspartofarigidcompetitivestructure regulatedbyofficialboardsandassociations. Despiteorperhapsbecauseoftheseconflicting states,HighlandDancingmayfirstandforemostbe definedbyitsScottishness,aconceptualmyriad ofcultural,socialandpoliticalidentitieslocated nationally,regionallyandlocally(Bairner,2001).A keyperformancearenaforHighlanddancersis HighlandGames,widelyrecognisedasbotha tourismandsportingevent,andthroughits locationwithinthesearenas,HighlandDancinghas
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becomeidentifiedwithaparticularbrandof nostalgicScottishnessthatoftheoldcountry inScotlandandabroad. RelevantstudieshavetendedtofocusonHighland Gamesasawholeandoneventstakingplaceinthe diaspora(e.g.Chabbraetal,2003;Ray,2001).In thispaper,Idrawoninterviewsandobservations ofHighlanddancersataprivatedancestudioin Glasgow.Usingthe'thinkingtools'ofPierre Bourdieu,Iexplorewhythesedancerswanttodo HighlandDancing;hownotionsof'Scottishness' informtheirindividualandcollectivedispositions; andhowparticipationinHighlandDancingbuilds differentbutrelatedkindsofcultural,socialand physicalcapital. Myanalysissuggeststhat,whileHighlandDancing maybeavehicleforsustainingScottishculture acrossthediaspora,withinScotlanditself,dancers aremoreconcernedwiththesocialandphysical aspectsofthedance. TaekwondoandPoliticalIdeologyinTaiwan:An AnalysisofHistoricalSociology HengHsinLien,GraduateInstituteofPhysical EducationofNationalTaiwanSportUniversity (Taiwan)8190kg@gmail.com TonyHwang,GraduateInstituteofPhysical EducationofNationalTaiwanSportUniversity (Taiwan)tonhwang@hotmail.com TaekwondowasintroducedtoTaiwanthroughthe Kuomintang(Chinesenationalistparty,KMT)since 1967.However,therewereveryfewrelevant studiesoftaekwondothroughthehistoricaland sociologicalperspectivesinTaiwanoverthelast fourdecades.Inparticular,sportsplayeda significantroleduringtheKMT'sauthoritarian regimeduring1960sand1980s.Taekwondowas notonlyasport,butalsoasanideologicaltoolof theregime.Someissueswillbediscussedinthis study:Howwastaekwondointroducedinto Taiwan?Howwastherelationshipbetweensports andpoliticalideology?Howwasthedevelopment oftaekwondoduringtheKMT'sauthoritarian regimeperiod?Howdidtaekwondobecomeoneof popularsportsinTaiwan?Inordertoanswerthose
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questions,thisstudyappliesthemethodologyof historicalsociologytoexaminethedevelopmentof taekwondothroughtherelevantliteratures, articles,historicalevents,picturesandtheories.In sum,taekwondowasnotonlyasport,butalsoa toolofpoliticalideologyundertheKMTs dominationfrom1960sto1980s. Keywords:authoritarian,KMT,politicalideology, taekwondo,Taiwan JudoandJapaneseImperialisminTaiwan:An AnalysisofHistoricalSociology ChungHsingChen,GraduateInstituteofPhysical EducationofNationalTaiwanSportUniversity (Taiwan)yg4151@yahoo.com.tw TonyHwang,GraduateInstituteofPhysical EducationofNationalTaiwanSportUniversity (Taiwan)tonhwang@hotmail.com Inretrospect,thedevelopmentofJudocanbeseen asanepitomeofJapanesecolonialism;historically, itremainedetchedinthememoryofTaiwanese peopleastruggle,pain,andconcessionaswell. In1895,theJapaneseintroducedJudotoTaiwan whentheycolonizedtheland.TodayJudo,the globalsport,becomesimmenselypopularacross theworld,gainingitssustainabledevelopment successfully.Overthelasttwodecadesormore, surprisinglyscantaretherelevantstudiesof TaiwaneseJudofromtheperspectivesofhistorical sociology.Inparticular,sportsplayedasignificant roleduringtheJapanesecolonialperiod.Notonly isJudoasport,butitisalsoaculturaltoolofthe Japanesecolonialism.SeveralWesternscholars havemadegreatcontributionstothestudyof sportandcolonialism,whereastherearestillfewin Taiwan.Herewillanumberofsomebediscussedin greatdepthinthisthesis:HowwasJudo introducedintoTaiwan?Howwastherelationship betweensportandJapanesecolonialism?Howwas JudobeingdevelopedduringJapanesecolonial period?HowandwhendidJudobecomeoneofthe mostpopularsportsinTaiwanesesociety?Togive thesequestionsthought,notjustscratchthe surface,thisthesisintendstoapplythe methodologyofhistoricalsociologytoexaminethe developmentofJudothroughtherelevant

ISSA 2013 World Congress Book of Abstracts

literatures,articles,historicaleventsandtheories. Insum,Judoisasanimportantculturalemblemof Japanesecolonialism,havingaffectedthe developmentofJudoinTaiwanoverthelast century. Keywords:Japaneseimperialism,Judo,Taiwan Sport:ContestingSovereignties Thursday,June13,2013 3:30PM5:00PM SalonC SexualExceptionalism:QueerAthleticPrivilege andthePost9/11InternationalGayandLesbian AthleticMovement JudyDavidson,UniversityofAlberta(Canada) judy.davidson@ualberta.ca Recentlysportstudiesscholarshavesuggestedthat theanalysisofnonnormativesexualitiesin sportingcontextssuffersfromalackofrobust interrogation,reproducingnarrowsingle identitarianapproaches(King,2008).Inthis presentation,ImobilisePuars(2007)conceptsof sexualexceptionalismandhomonationalism,and Morgensens(2010)notionofsettler homonationalism,toanalysespecificexamples fromthe2006GayGamesand2006Outgamesto demonstratehowemancipatorysexualidentity athleticeventsalsoreiteratewhite,Western, bourgeoisprivilege.Theargumentisnotjustthat racehastobeaddedtotheanalysisofthe internationallesbianandgaysportmovement;itis thatrelyingonaprimaryfocussuchas homophobiaactuallycontributestothe reproductionofotherformsofpotentoppression.I endwithareadingofthe2010VancouverWinter Olympicsasanewcontextforpost9/11 homonationalismintheproductionofqueer abjection.

BodySovereignties,GayMenandSteroidUse PatrickKeleher,UniversityofToronto(Canada) patrick.keleher@utoronto.ca Gaymenimmersedinbodilypracticeslikesteroid use,thatareproducedwithinsportingandphysical activityspaceslikethegym,areoftenbesaidtobe normative,structured,anddetermined.Butsocial relationsareneverstable,universalnorfixed,and opportunitiesforresistanceandtransgression withinindividualpracticeslikesteroiduse,and withinsport,gymandexercisespaces,cannotbe dismissed.Thispresentationexplorestheculture ofgymspaces,anddrawsonactornetworktheory andspatialframeworkstointerrogatethelived practiceofsteroiduseamonggaymen.Iconsider howbodysovereigntiesandsteroiduseintersect toproduce,extend,resist,challengeandconstrain sovereignbodilyandsocialboundaries,andhow bodilysovereigntiesareaffectedbythepracticeof steroiduse.Iexaminehowsteroidusecomesto beembodied,questiontheroleofsteroidusein mensadherencetobodilyaestheticsandideals, andexaminehowbodiesthatusesteroids themselvesbecomeidealized,activelyproducing certaintypesofbodieswhileatthesametime limitingtheintelligibilityofothers.Andwhilethis projectaskshowsteroidusebringsbodiescloserto particularnormativestandards,italsoquestions thewaysteroidusemaymovebodiesbeyond them.Iconsiderhowsteroidbodiesmaybe consideredqueer(sometimesgrotesque, abnormal,distorted,andunreal,butalso supernormalandsuperhuman),thinkaboutsteroid useasbodilyascesis,andquestionwhethersteroid usecaneverbeconceivedofasatransformingand liberatingapplicationofbodilysovereignty. EveryoneCanPlayExceptYou:Traversingthe BoundariesofSexualSovereigntyinSport RobertOwens,UniversityofNorthCarolinaat Greensboro(UnitedStates)reowens@uncg.edu KenjiYoshino(2000)contendsthatincontrastto homosexuality,bisexualityiserasedthroughthe binaryconstructionofhomosexualand heterosexualidentities.Thisdemarcationof straight/gayallowseachcommunitytomaintain
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seeminglystable,fixedandmonolithicidentities. Whiletheconsequencesofbisexualerasureinthe lesbian,gay,bisexual,transgender,questioning, intersexandally(LGBTQIA)communitieshave beenwelldocumented(Burleson,2005;San FranciscoHumanRightsCommission,2011)onlya fewstudieshavedirectlyorindirectlyaddressedits implicationsforsportsparticipation.Datawere obtainedthroughanonlinesurveyaboutLGBT sportsparticipationand11indepth,semi structuredlifehistoryinterviewswithmale athletesofdiversesexualidentitiesand experiences.Aqualitativeanalysisonthedatawas carriedoutbyusingcriticalgeographerDavid Harveys(1996)sixmomentsofsocialpracticeas aninterpretivelensforexploringhowmale bisexualidentitiesarediscursivelyconstructedand boundwithinLGBTQIAandmainstreamsportthe waysinwhichbisexualathletesnegotiatethese boundaries. SportsandGender Thursday,June13,2013 3:30PM5:00PM SalonD SerenaWilliams:Gender,Raceand(the Perceptionof)ViolenceinWomensProfessional Tennis KristiTredway,UniversityofMaryland(United States)tredway@umd.edu AttheU.S.Opentennischampionshipsin2004, 2009andagainin2011,SerenaWilliamshadpublic disagreementswithoncourtofficialsthatwere understoodbysomespectatorsandanalystsas aggressive,hostile,andevenviolent.Williamsis AfricanAmericanandisverysuccessfulinasport thatisunderpinnedbytheupperclass(and,hence, white)milieuinwhichitwasformed.Her outburstshavebeenunderstoodinthepopular discourseasviolentnotbecausetheyweremore vehementthanothersinthepast,becausethey werent,but,asIwillclaim,becauseofcolorblind racismintheworldoftenniswhich,ineffect, forcesWilliamstoplaybydifferentrulesthanother players.
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Thecontributionsofthispapertothebodyof literatureisthatitlooksattheperceptionof violencewithintennisandbyaBlackfemale athlete.InstudiesonviolenceinaU.S.context, Blackmenareprimarilythefocusandthesports involvedareprimarilyfootballandbasketball.This paperonwomen,violenceandsports,fillsagapin theliterature. TimeforaChange?Bodies,UniformRegulations andtheFormationofIdentitiesinFemale TrampolineGymnasts RhiannonLord,CardiffMetropolitanUniversity (UnitedKingdom)rhlord@cardiffmet.ac.uk CarlyStewart,CardiffMetropolitanUniversity (UnitedKingdom)cstewart@cardiffmet.ac.uk Embodimentsarehistoricallysituatedand contextuallyinformedinsporting contexts.Trampolinegymnasticshastraditionally demandedastandardizeduniformforfemale competitorsintheleotard.However,arecent changetotheuniformregulationnowallows femaleparticipantstowearshortsortightstohelp ensuremorewomenandgirlstofeelconfidentto participateinthesport(BritishGymnastics, 2009).Thispresentationexplorestheformationof specificbodyselvesandidentitiesofeligible femaletrampolinegymnastsoveratwoyear period,followingthisrulechange.Theimpactof thechangeontheconstructionandmaintenance oftheirgenderedidentitiesandassociated embodiedexperiencesovertheirsubcultural careerisfocusedupon.Findingssuggestthat experiencesoftherulechangebothvaryand presentdifferentchallengesdependingonthe stageofcareerandsubculturalpositionoccupied. Crucially,therulechangedoeslittletochallengea dominantsingularfeminineaestheticthat identifiesandexcludesthosegymnaststhatdonot conformtothisideal.Tensionsduring performanceandjudgementofbodiesinthis contextarealsodiscussedinrelationtotheleotard andtheroleofothersubculturalactorsinthe maintenanceofsuchbodyselves.Lastly,the effectivenessoftheinstitutionalruleisconsidered withaviewtoexpandingtherepertoireofbody

ISSA 2013 World Congress Book of Abstracts

narrativesavailableforyoungtrampolinegymnasts toengagewithinthefuture. TheIntendedandUnintendedConsequencesof GenderMarking:TheCaseofWomensFlatTrack RollerDerby MicheleDonnelly,UniversityofSouthernCalifornia (UnitedStates)donnelmk@gmail.com AccordingtoR.W.Connell(2002,1996),thetotal exclusionofonegenderfromanysettingisa powerfulgendereffect,andrequiresthatmore workbedonetoestablishgenderdifferencesin thatsetting.Inthecaseofwomensflattrackroller derby,variousprocessesofgendermarkingare oneimportantwaythatwomenparticipantswork toestablishgenderdifferences.Specifically, womenparticipantsareintimatelyinvolvedin processesofgendermarking,andtheirintentions ingendermarkingtheactivityandgroupare somewhatdifferentthantheusualaims particularlyintherealmofsporttotrivializeand otherwomensactivitiesandwomen participants.Gendermarkingservesasabarrieror boundarymarker;bymarkingtheactivityas exclusivelyforwomen,theyidentifytoeveryone (womenandmen)whomayparticipateandwho maynot.Further,gendermarkingisdoneby womenoftheirownactivityandgroups,doesnot referencepreexistingmensteams.However,in womensflattrackrollerderby,women participantsoftendrawonconventional stereotypesofgenderintheirprocessesofgender marking.Overall,theprocessesofgendermarking employedbywomenparticipantsinwomensflat trackrollerderbyhavebothintendedand unintendedconsequenceforparticipant,public, andmediaperceptionsofthesportandits participants.Theyalsocontributeinsignificant waystotheproductionofaspecificwomen onlynessgenderregime.

SportandRacial/EthnicIdentity Thursday,June13,2013 3:30PM5:00PM SalonE IndigenousHeartsThroughSportattheSami FestivalRidduRiu BenteOvedieSkogvang,HedmarkUniversity College(Norway)bente.skogvang@hihm.no Thispaperwillfocusonsport,outdoorlifeand physicalactivityattheSamifestivalRidduRiu.I willaddresshowsportmighthavebeenimplicated inthesovereigntyclaimsoftheindigenouspeoples oftheNorhernCap,theSamis.Thefestivalis organizedeveryyearinthevillageManndalenin NorthernNorway.Ihavestudiedoutdoorlifeand sportactivitiesofferedtochildrenandyoungsters atthefestival;Mnidfestivla(313years)and howtheseactivitiesareintroducedand experiencedbyvolunteers,participantsand parents.ThroughfieldworkduringthreeyearsI contemplatedhowphysicalactivitiesincludedin thefestivalcreatetheindigenouspeoples identities.Ifoundamixturebetweentraditional andmodernactivitieswhichhaveoriginsboth locally,nationallyandglobally,influencedby differentethnicitiesandindigenousgroupsnot onlyactivitiesfromSamis,KvensorNorwegians. Thephysicalactivitiescanbeclassifiedinthree groups;1)Traditionalgames,2)Workeducating activities,and3)Sportactivities.Festivalsas phenomenonhavequalitieswhichmight contributeinshapingofidentities.Whether physicalactivitiesareshapingidentity,community, culturalunderstandingandhowthefestivalmight buildbridgesbetweendifferentethnicgroups locally,nationallyandgloballyisstudiedinthelight ofBourdieustheoriesabouthabitusandsymbolic capital. SOAR:SportandHigherEducationforAboriginal Youth SusanLee,UniversityofToronto(Canada) ss.lee@utoronto.ca SportcanprovideavenuesforAboriginalyouthto exploreselfidentity,communityandchange.Using sportandphysicalactivityforthebasisfor
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development,thispresentationwilloutlinethe SOARAboriginalYouthGatheringMarchBreak programattheUniversityofToronto.TheSOAR program,whichisnowrunninginitsfifthyear, outreachestoruralandurbanAboriginal communitiestointroducehighereducationtohigh schoolstudents.ThisinitiativeembracesAboriginal worldviewsincurriculumdevelopment,program promotions,andstudentleadership,inkeeping withthebroaderprovincialmandateofrecruiting, retaining,graduatingandtransitioningAboriginal youth.Byengagingwithexistingrolemodelssuch asAboriginaluniversitystudents,staff,facultyand elders;andexperiencingservicessuchasFirst NationsHouseandtheNativeStudents Association,theAboriginalyouthhaveincreased opportunitiestothinkaboutandconsiderthe potentialofhighereducationforthemselves. Exploringcommunitiesofbelongingiscriticalto theoutreachgoalsofthisprogram.Inaddition,the SOARprogramprovidesaninitiativeforAboriginal youthdevelopmentasAboriginal&Equity InitiativesStudentLeaderstoapplytheirsport, culturalandacademicknowledgetotheSOAR program.Theknowledge,skillsandvalueswhich aregainedfromthesementorshipsfacilitated studentstodeveloptheirleadershipskillsfor futurecareers.Thissessionwilldiscussthe pedagogicalapproachesoftheSOARstudent developmentmodel,andtheresultsofthelearning outcomesoftheSOARAboriginalYouthGathering program. ExploringAboriginalYouthPracticesthroughthe PLAYProgram JaredKope,UniversityofOttawa(Canada) jkope007@uottawa.ca AlexandraArellano,UniversityofOttawa(Canada) aarellan@uottawa.ca Postcolonialandcriticalapproachesstudyingsport fordevelopmentandpeace(SDP)initiativeshave questioneditspracticesandeffectiveness, scrutinizeditsgoalsandtheintereststhey ultimatelyserve,andexamineditssignificanceasa tooltoreproducebutalsoresisthegemonicforces. Buildingoncriticalapproachesanddecolonizing methodologies,thisworkproposesapostcolonial
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indigenousresearchframeworkusingparticipatory actionresearchtoexplorethelocalvoicesonaSDP experienceforAboriginalyouth.Celebratinglocal voicesintendstosubsumethedeficittheorizing thattypicallynourishesindigenousresearch,which tendstoreproducestereotypesofhopelessness andalackofagency.Inthisstudy,localvoiceson thePromotingLifeSkillsinAboriginalYouth programareexplored,usingphotovoiceresearch methodwithaparticipatingcommunity. ThePLAYprogramwasinitiatedin2010andpartly fundedbytheMinistryofAboriginalAffairsof Ontario;itisimplementedandmanagedbyRight ToPlayCanadain55FirstNationcommunitiesof Ontario.ThisstudyispartofaSSHRCfunded researchthatisbasedonapartnershipwithsome ofthepartnerFirstNationcommunitiesandRight ToPlay.Thispapercontextualizestheresearch withintheaforementionedworkingcollaboration; itpresentstheroleoftheAboriginaladvisory committeethatwascreatedtoorienttheresearch design,toservelocalinterestsandtofurther Aboriginalnationbuilding.Twomonthsof fieldworkaregoingtobeundertakeninApriland May2013andpreliminaryresultsfromthedata collectionwillbepresented. Sport,DevelopmentandPeace Thursday,June13,2013 3:30PM5:00PM SalonF S4DEffectsWithintheComplexityofLive Realities CoraBurnett,UniversityofJohannesburg(South Africa)corab@uj.ac.za ThedominanceoftheneoLiberalparadigms,ideal type(Weberian)modelsofknowledgeproduction anduncriticalreportingonprogrammeeffectinthe fieldofSportforDevelopment(S4D),has increasinglybeenscrutinized.Astudyconducted within10Africancountriesaspartofanimpact assessmentoftheGIZ/YDFprogramme(2007 2012),where1,035respondentscompleted questionnaires,122casestudieswerecompiled and310researchparticipantstookpartinfocus

ISSA 2013 World Congress Book of Abstracts

groupdiscussions,servedtoconceptualize programmeeffect.Forthispaper,four comprehensivecasestudies,respectivelyfrom Kenya,Lesotho,RwandaandZambia,serveto interrogatethedeepermeaningandeffectof interventionsinthelivesofyouths.Longitudinal dataandmultistakeholderreflectionsprovide insightsintomultileveledanduptakeeffectsas theyareintegratedintothelivesofthese individuals.Findingssuggestthatregularity, leadership,accesstoresourcesandthelengthof engagementofactivitiesthatgobeyondsport engagementhaverelativelymoresustainableand integratedeffects.Anotherkeyfactorrelatesto beingabletoaddressthemostpressingneedsof individualshavingtolivemeaningfullivesinthe contextsofpoverty,prewarreconciliationand identityformation,haverelativelythemost profoundimpact.Nuancedevidenceinevitably transcendsbeyondthemythical(often evangelical)claimsofmeasuredthecontribution tointerventionrelatedchange.Italsohighlights theinterrelatednessoffactors,thecomplexityof causalrelationshipsbetweeninputand measurableimpacts.Thefindingshave implicationsforavarietyofeducationalsettingsof sportrelatedinterventions. WhenEliteAthletesare'SocialMovement Entrepreneurs':AStudyofHighProfileRunner Involvementin'RunForPeace'EventsinPost ConflictKenyain2008 BrianWilson,UniversityofBritishColumbia (Canada)brian.wilson@ubc.ca NicolienvanLuijk,UniversityofBritishColumbia (Canada)nicolienvl@gmail.com MikeBoit,KenyattaUniversity(Kenya) mikeboit@yahoo.com Inthispaperwereportfindingsfromastudyofthe roleplayedbyhighprofileKenyanrunnersinthe organizationofRunforPeaceeventsthattook placeinresponsetoelectionrelatedviolencein Kenyainlate2007andearly2008.Acknowledging concernsexpressedbysomesociologistsofsport abouttheroleofcelebrityathletesinthesportfor developmentandpeacemovement,wesuggest thatintheparticularcontextswestudied,high
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profileathletesplayedacrucialroleinthe organizationofthereconciliationevents.Informed byinterviewswithKenyanrunnersandothers involvedintheorganizationoftheseevents,we arguethattheapparenteffectivenessofthe athletesinmobilizingresources,pursuingpolitical opportunitiesanddevisingacollectiveactionframe waspossiblebecauseoftheextantpositioningof theathletesintheimpactedcommunities,the activeinvolvementinandpersonalinvestmentof theathletesintheoutcomeofthepeace promotingactivities,andtheuniquepreOlympic momentthattheeventstookplacewithin.Indoing so,wedifferentiatebetweencelebrityathletes whoareapresenceatsportfordevelopmentand peaceevents,andthosewhomightbeconsidered socialmovemententrepreneurs.Weconcludethe paperbydescribinghowstrandsofsocial movementtheorywerehelpfulinguidingour analysisofhighprofileathletesandpeace promotion,andwithsuggestionsforfuture researchpertainingtosportrelatedreconciliation movements. SportAsaContactZone?:TroublingQuestions AboutEasySolutions PeterDonnelly,UniversityofToronto(Canada) peter.donnelly@utoronto.ca MaryLouisePratt(1991,1992)introducedthe termcontactzones,whichshedefinedas"social spaceswheredisparateculturesmeet,clash,and grapplewitheachother,ofteninhighly asymmetricalrelationsofdominationand subordinationlikecolonialism,slavery,ortheir aftermathsastheyarelivedoutacrosstheglobe today."However,sincetheearlydaysofa functionalistsociologyofsportithasbeenassumed thatsportisacontactzoneaplacewheresocial classandethnoculturalbackgroundhavelittle meaning,wheresportisthecommoncurrencyfor bothplayersandspectators. Acriticalsociologyofsportexposedsportasa classistandracistendeavour,generallyputting paidtoassumptionsaboutsportasanaturaland neutralcontactzoneforplayersandspectators althoughtheplatitudinousspeechesgivenatsports

ISSA 2013 World Congress Book of Abstracts

banquetsandthelikestillmaintainthatclassand racedisappearwhenthewhistleblows.Less criticalattentionhasbeenpaidtomodern manifestationsoftheassumptionofsportasa contactzone.Socialpolicyinmulticultural societies,andinternationaldevelopmentand peacebuildingeffortssupportedbytheUnited NationsandsupportedbyNGOs,governments,and transnationalcorporations,areinvariablygrounded infunctionalistassumptionsaboutthecapacityof sporttobeapositivecontactzone. Thispaperusesexamplesfrompastandongoing researchonsportandmulticulturalismandsport andpeacebuildingtoraisecriticalquestionsabout sportasacontactzone,butalsotosuggestsome waysinwhichpositivecontactmaybeestablished throughsport. SportMegaEvents Friday,June14,2013 9:00AM10:30AM SalonB TransformingSovereignties:Regulatory Capitalism,theLondonOlympicsandBeyond JohnHorne,UniversityofCentralLancashire (UnitedKingdom)jdhorne@uclan.ac.uk Acommonacademiccriticismofthecontemporary OlympicGamesisthattheyhavebecome neoliberal,corporateand/orprolympic.This paperexaminesnewOlympicGamesinfrastructure managementprocessesthathaveemergedinthe lastdecade,withspecificreferencetoLondon 2012,toattempttoclarifywhatthismeansin termsofthetransformationofsovereignty.It suggeststhathowtheOlympicshavebeen managed,regulatedanddeliveredreflectsnew modesofurbanpoliticsandregulation.By adoptingregulatorycapitalism(Braithwaite2008) policymakersandGamesorganisersalikehave attemptedtotakethepoliticsoutofinfrastructural development,andsidesteptraditionalmodesof democraticaccountability.Howthosecommunities mostaffectedbythehostingoftheOlympics(and othermegaevents)mayrespondtothis
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transformationwillbeidentified. Reference: Braithwaite,J.(2008).RegulatoryCapitalism,How itworks,ideasformakingitworkbetter. Cheltenham:EdwardElgar. RetheorizingtheSpectacle:TowardstheCritical AnalysisSportMegaEventImagery CaitlinPentifallo,UniversityofBritishColumbia (Canada)caitlin.pentifallo@gmail.com Theobjectiveofthispaperistocombine Benjamins(1999)conceptionofcommodity phantasmagoriawithDebords(1995;Knabb, 2007)critiqueofthespectacleinordertodevelop aninterpretiveframeworkforanalyzingthe discourseofsportmegaeventimagery.In followingthedialecticapproachadheredtoby bothBenjamin(1999)andDebord(1995),this proposedmethodwillallowforintrospectionof imagesusedtosecureconsentforthesportmega eventaswellasthoseimagesproducedasa dissentingcountermeasure.Inthisway,the imagesusedinsupportofsportmegaevents(for example,imagesproducedandcreatedbysport megaeventorganizersandaffiliatesintheformof advertisingandcorporatizedrhetoric)canbe criticallyanalyzedalongsideimagesproducedasa formofresistance(forexample,oppositionally mindedgraffitiandstreetart).Iwilloffera renewediterationofcriticaldiscourseanalysis (CDA)asameansofovercomingBenjamins(1999) figuraltransfixityaswellasDebords(1995) preoccupationwithmetaphysicaland transcendentformsofreality.Indoingso,Iaimto groundthesetheorizationsofthespectacleina tangibleandreadilyapproachablemethodfor uncoveringtheinherentcontradictionsand conflictsassociatedwithsportmegaevent imagery.Theultimateobjectiveofthispaperisto developanunderstandingofCDAasacritical, intertextuallybasedformofdtournement (Debord,1995)withtheintentofapplyingsucha methodologicalapproachtotheanalysisofsport

ISSA 2013 World Congress Book of Abstracts

megaeventimagerycreatedaseitheraformof cultivatingconsentorasameansofresistance. Sport,AlcoholandPromotionalCulture:Brand 'Sign'Warsatthe2011RugbyWorldCup SarahGee,MasseyUniversity(NewZealand) S.Gee@massey.ac.nz SteveJackson,UniversityofOtago(NewZealand) steve.jackson@otago.ac.nz MichaelSam,UniversityofOtago(NewZealand) mike.sam@otago.ac.nz Alcoholcompaniesbenefitfromahighlyvisible relationshipwithsportasofficialpartners, sponsors,andsuppliersofevents,individual athletes,andteams.Theglobalscope,andlocal tension,ofthisrelationshipwashighlightedin2011 whenNewZealand/AotearoahostedtheRugby WorldCup(RWC).Heinekenssponsorshiprightsas RWCWorldwidePartnerandtheofficialbeerofthe 2011tournamentofferedtheglobalconglomerate solepromotionalandadvertisingprivilegesforall officialevents,activities,andfacilitiesassociated withtheevent.Yet,localNewZealandbeerbrand Steinlageralsohadavestedinterestinthe tournamentconsideringtheir25yearsponsorship ofNewZealandsnationalrugbyteam,theAll Blacks.Thispresentationoffersavisualandcritical analysisofanobservedsignwar(Goldmanand Papson,1996)betweenthesetwobeerbrands. Partoftheanalysisdiscussesthecorporateclutter ofimagesthatemergedfromthebrandwars betweenHeinekenandSteinlager.Paradoxically, thesebrandorsignwarsoriginatedfromNew ZealandsMajorEventsManagementAct2007 (MEMA)thataimedtocontrolambushmarketing, includingcleanzoneinitiativesandtherightto associationbyofficialcommercialsponsors.Inthis regard,globallocalpowerrelationsandpolicies inducedSteinlagertoexploremoreinnovative strategiestocaptureothermarketniches(e.g., socialmedia,televisionadcampaigns)rendering boththevirtualandphysicalenvironments saturated.Overalltheanalysisoffersinsightsinto thecomplexitiesandcontradictionsofalcohol sponsorshipandglobalbeerbrandwarswithinthe contextofasportmegaeventhostedwithina

nationwithabingedrinkingculture. SocialClassandSport Friday,June14,2013 9:00AM10:30AM SalonC CareerOpportunitiesandEntrepreneurial RecreationintheDowntownCore:Dispatches Fromthe(Real)CreativeClass JayScherer,UniversityofAlberta(Canada) jscherer@ualberta.ca JordanKoch,UniversityofAlberta(Canada) jrkoch@ualberta.ca NicholasHolt,UniversityofAlberta(Canada) nholt@ualberta.ca In2011,webeganhangingout(Willis,1978)with lessaffluent(andoftenhomeless)youngmenat variousinnercityrecreationalandsocialservice centresinEdmonton,Albertaacitywithamongst thehighestlevelsofeconomicandsocialinequality inCanada.Overthecourseofthistwoyear ethnographicstudy,weregularlyobservedhow thesefacilitiesprovidedbriefbutvaluable opportunitiesfortheseyoungmentoform meaningfulsocialrelationswithpeersandsocial workersalikeviaarangeofsportandleisure activities.However,thesesettingsalsoprovideda crucialbackdropformanyoftheyoungmen mostofwhomembodiedawiderangeofvisible andhiddeninjuriesofclass(Sennett&Cobb, 1973)torationallydiscussahostofissuesintheir lives,includingthecircumstancesunderwhichthey were,instrumentally,willingto'freely'selltheir labourpowerascommodities(e.g.,strugglesover wagesandthelengthoftheworking day).Moreover,despitethecommonsense portrayalofmembersoftheunderclassaslazy, incapacitated,anddisposable,manyofthese youngmendisplayedacriticalandcreative awarenessofanarrayofentrepreneurialnetworks ofeconomicactivitythroughwhichvarious commoditieswerecirculated(seeKelley,2008).In thispresentation,weexplorethesedynamicsand paycloseattentiontohowtheseyoungmen activelynegotiatedavarietyofblack,greyand
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whitemarketsinthismessy,haphazardand,at times,perplexing,urbansetting. TelemarkSkiersasModernIdeologists EivindSkille,NorwegianSchoolofSportSciences (Norway)eivind.skille@hihm.no WithBourdieuswords,sporthasthroughout historyreflectedpeoplespositionsinsocialspace, peoplestasteandpeoplescompositionofvarious formsofcapital.Inotherwords,theformofsport youdoindicatesyourvalues.Basedona representativesurveyoftheNorwegianadult population(calledNorskMonitor,n=4000) followedbyaprincipalcomponentanalysis,and inspiredbyInglehartstheoryofpostmaterialism (andchangeofvaluesinwesternsocieties),four Norwegiancultureswereidentified:thetraditional idealistic,thetraditionalmaterialistic,themodern idealisticandthemodernmaterialistic.Ineachof thesecultures,typicalsocialcharacteristicsof peoplecanbeidentified,aswellassports. Inthispaper,Ifocusonhowskiingingeneraland Telemarkskiinginparticularreflectthevaluesof themodernidealisticculture. Peopleinthisculturearerecognizedbytolerance, cultivationofthedistinctivefeatureofindividuals, andskepticismtowardsauthorities.Acentralaimis selfrealization,andthedevelopmentandthe employmentofindividualcapabilities.Equity betweengendersisimportant,asisenvironmental issues.Peopleinthiscultureareconcernedwith closenessandfriendship,andarewillingto prioritizeothersbeforeoneself.Themodern idealisticcultureshowsclearsignsofradical politicalvaluessuchasequityandapreferencefor public(insteadofprivate)solutionswhenitcomes toforexamplesocialservices.Themodern idealisticcultureisfilledupwithpeoplewithhigher education,whofocusoninformationinsteadof production;thuspostindustrialcultureisan appropriatelabel.

BringontheDancingHorses!:Ambivalenceand ClassObsessionwithinBritishMediaReportsof theDressageatLondon2012 ThomasFletcher,LeedsMetropolitanUniversity (UnitedKingdom)t.e.fletcher@leedsmet.ac.uk Duetohistoricalrelationshipswiththemilitary, royalty,landedgentryandupperclasssociety, equestriansportfacesregularaccusationsofbeing elitistandexclusionary(Riedi2006).Throughanin depthanalysisofBritishpressreportingofdressage eventsattheLondon2012gameswearguethat despiteBritishdominanceofthesport,these historicalassociationswiththeupperclasses, privilegeandelitismwereforegroundedinmany mediareports;trivialisingandattimesmocking dressage.Weidentifythreekeythemesrelatedto thewaysinwhichmediareportsframeddressage anditsparticipantsinheavilyclassladenterms. Facedwiththeirignoranceofthesport,the majorityofarticlesanalysedresortedtoclass basedstereotypesthattrivialised,satirisedand devaluedthisseeminglyelitistand incomprehensiblesport.ThesuccessofTeamGBin dressagemeantthatmediareportswerenever whollycriticalandelementsofthehysteriaand pridesurroundingtheGamesledtoahighly ambivalentresponsetodressagethatreflectsthe vague,confused,contradictory[and]ignorant (Cannadine,1998:x)attitudestosocialclassthat characteriseBritishsocietyatthecurrenttime. Sport,CultureandAdvertising Friday,June14,2013 9:00AM10:30AM SalonD SovereigntyoftheLivingDead:Advertisingand theColonisationandCommodificationofSport Culture SteveJackson,UniversityofOtago(NewZealand) steve.jackson@otago.ac.nz Intheirbidtoglobalizetransnationalcorporations (TNCs)andtheiralliedpromotionalindustries utilizeadiverserangeofstrategiesandsynergiesin ordertoinsertinto,andlocatewithin, local/nationalcultures.Amongsttheirstrategies
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ISSA 2013 World Congress Book of Abstracts

TNCsinvestinarangeofpowerfulandinnovative advertisingandmarketingcampaigns.However, thepressuretoattractandretainpotential consumersaswellastodistinguishbrandshaslead toacompulsivesearchfornewimagesandthemes withtheconsequencethatculturehasbecomea giantminewherenomeaningsystemissacred (GoldmanandPapson,1996).Whilevariousshock tacticssuchassexandviolencehavebecome commonplaceanotherincreasinglypopular strategyisthatofdrawingonthepast.Assuchthe advertisingindustryhasbeenengagingintheuse ofnostalgia,memoryandtheappropriationof history.Thispaperisapreliminaryexaminationof thecommodificationofoneparticularaspectofthe sportingpast.Overall,thepaperhighlightssomeof theimplicationsofsuchpracticesinrelationtoa rangeofmoral,ethical,social,economicandlegal issues. BeerandBarbieDolls:Comparingthe DemographyofAustralianFootballViewershipto theAdvertisingContentofFootballBroadcasts HunterFujak,UniversityofTechnology,Sydney (Australia)hunter.fujak@student.uts.edu.au StephenFrawley,UniversityofTechnologySydney (Australia)stephen.frawley@uts.edu.au Sport,particularlyfootball,hashistoricallybeen perceivedasamaledomain,largelylinkedwith connotationsofmasculinity,strength,aggression andviolence(Bryson,1987).Asabyproduct, sportsmediaconsumptionmaydifferbetween genders,withwomensaidtowatchsportasalast resortwhilemenactivelypursueopportunitiesto consumesportcontent(Lawrence,Gantz&Gantz, 1998).Bylogicalextension,thedemographyand motivationsofsportviewersisofgreatinterestto advertisers,whoinvestsignificantsumsin attemptingtotargetspecificconsumermarkets (Hoehn&Lancefield,2003).Thereforegivenan informedmarket,ahighdegreeofalignment shouldexistbetweentheaudiencecompositionof abroadcastandtheadvertisingitfeatures. Thispaperexploredthedemographiccomposition offootballviewershipinAustraliastwolargest footballcodes(AFLandNRL)throughananalysisof
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televisionratingsdatafromseasons2010and 2011.Ratingsdatawasthencombinedwithan advertisingcontentanalysis,performedovera sampleof31matchesplayedduringseason 2012.Thepurposeofthepaperwastoidentifythe demographiccompositionofaudiencesand determinethealignmentbetweenviewership compositionandadvertisingcontent.Theanalysis showedwomentoformastrongproportionof televisionviewership(approximately40%),a findinglargelyatoddswithhistoricalliteratureand societalnotions.Despitethisreasonable representation,contentanalysisfoundastrong degreeoffocustowardsmaleorientatedbrands, goodsandservicesamongadvertisers.Surprisingly, theprevalenceofgamblingandalcoholrelated advertisingwasweakerthantheirpresencein Australianpolicy/legislativedebateimplies. TheMeaningofSport:ASociolinguisticAnalysis ofAdvertisingCampaignsforSport/EnergyDrink Brands JungWooLee,TheUniversityofEdinburgh(United Kingdom)J.W.Lee@ed.ac.uk Inaconsumersociety,advertisingoperatesasa culturalgenreinwhichvariousmeaningsthat providesourcesofidentityforconsumergroups areconstructed.Inthisrespect,thispaper investigatesculturalvaluesattachedtosports withinthepromotionalcampaignsfortwosports/ energydrinkbrands:GatoradeandMonster Energy.Thesebrandsareselectedontheground thatwhiletheformerisassociatedwithtraditional highperformancesports,thelatterlargely sponsorsnontraditionalextremeorlifestyle sport.Utilisingsociolinguisticmethodssuchas semantics,pragmatics,andsemioticsthispaper comparativelyanalysesthecontentsofthetwo brandswebsitesworkingintheUKconsumer market.SportingtextsfoundinGatorades campaigntendtohighlighttheproductivitywith thelogicofscientificresearch.Thisalsocontains someelementswhichsupporttheideaofBritish patriotism.Thisindicatesthatimplicitmessages promulgatedthroughthiswebsitereinforcethe notionofcapitalismandofstatehood.Onthe contrary,MonsterEnergyswebpageemphasises

ISSA 2013 World Congress Book of Abstracts

emotionalandhedonisticexperiencesofsport.This canbereadasacounterhegemonicmovement againstthesocialvaluesthatthemainstream sportingpracticeunderpins.However,closer inspectionrevealsthatcommercialexploitationof thealternativesportsisevident.Moreover,this websitecontainssexualisedimagesofwomen whoseroleismainlytocheerupmaleathletesand potentiallymaleconsumers.Thissuggeststhat whatseemstobepartofsportingcounterculture infactactivelyengagesintheprocessofsolidifying thedominantideologyofsocietywhichisrather ironic. SportsandGovernance Friday,June14,2013 9:00AM10:30AM SalonE AppearanceandSurvivalinaSportFullofPassion, RegulationofFullContactMartialArts MarianneDortants,UtrechtUniversity (Netherlands)m.dortants@uu.nl Martialartsisasportthatisoftencriticized;by some,itiscalledabarbaricsportandisfrequently connectedtocriminalcircuits.Ingeneral,public opinionintheNetherlandsisthatthereisaneed foraban,whichissupportedbysome administrators.Ontheotherhand,remarkably, therearealsoadministratorswhobelieveinthe pedagogicvalueofmartialartsandwhosee martialartsasaninstrumentintheupbringingof (problematic)youngsters.Thecriticismoffull contactmartialartshasincreasedlastyearsand, therefore,thegovernmentandmartialartssector arelookingforawaytoregulatethesport.Froma culturalperspectivewehaveanalyzedthecultural characteristicsandpowerrelationsthatmaintain thecurrentstatusquo.Researchshowsthat problemsconcerningmedicalsafeness, pedagogicalqualitiesofmartialartsteachersand theentanglementofmartialartsandcriminal circuitscantbesolvedinthepresent organizationalcontext.TheDutchgovernment prefersselfregulation,butthesectorishopelessly fragmentizedduetolonglastingconflicts,distrust,
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managerialincapacityandstrong(financial) competition.Selfregulationwillbedifficult,asthe sectorischaracterizedasaworldofegoswitha complexhierarchyofvalues.Onlythepassionfor theirsportunitesthepeopleactivethissector.All realizethatwithoutregulationmartialartsmay havenofuture.Onlythegovernmentsurpassesall competingpartiesandcanimposestrictrulesand sanctiontheminordertoregulatemartialartsto makethesportmoresafeforallinvolved. SeismicSport:ACaseStudyofSwimming,Hockey andGymnasticsinPostEarthquakeChristchurch, NewZealand RoslynKerr,LincolnUniversity(NewZealand) roslyn.kerr@lincoln.ac.nz JanineGainsford,LincolnUniversity(NewZealand) Janine.Gainsford@lincolnuni.ac.nz JessBould,LincolnUniversity(NewZealand) Jess.Bould@ecan.govt.nz GregRyan,LincolnUniversity(NewZealand) greg.ryan@lincoln.ac.nz ChrisHutchinson,LincolnUniversity(NewZealand) chris.hutchinson@lincoln.ac.nz Throughout2010and2011,thecityof Christchurch,NewZealand,sufferedaseriesof devastatingearthquakesthatcausedserious damagetothecity.Thisstudyisoneofthefirstto examinetheeffecttheearthquakeshavehadon sportinChristchurch.Throughacasestudyof threedifferentsports:swimming,hockeyand gymnastics,thisstudytracesthewaythesports wereaffectedbytheearthquakesandtheir subsequentdevelopmentssincethequakes.The studyadoptsanActorNetworkTheoryperspective, acknowledgingtheearthquakesasnonhuman actantsthatdirectlyaffectedtheworkingsofthe city.Itisfoundthatwithineachsport,therearea varietyofwinnersandlosersbutthatallthree sufferfromintensefrustrationowingtothe changingpowerrelationshipswithinsporting governancethatmakeitdifficultforsportsto continuetoprogress.

ISSA 2013 World Congress Book of Abstracts

DevelopmentofSportsPolicyMakinginPortugal AMesolevelApproach JooCarvalho,CIESISCTE(Portugal) jpca.carvalho@gmail.com Thisarticleaddressesthedevelopmentofthe Portugueselegislationregardingelitesports relatedpublicpolicy.Tobetterunderstandthisits madeananalyticalapproachutilizingtwovery significantmesolevelframeworksofPublicPolicy: AdvocacyCoalitionsandPolicyNetwork.Two importanteventsareanalyzedinthisstudy:the implementationofprofessionalbasketballin Portugalandthecreationofaneworganizationof Portugueseprofessionalfootballclubs(Ligados ClubesProfissionaisdeFutebol),inearly90sand thelate80srespectively.Since1993Portugalhasa newregulatorylegislationregardingprofessional competitionthatwasfollowedbyanewlawonthe professionalsportsparticipantsworkcontract (1998).Tocomprehendthecontextofthese implementations,andtheirinfluenceonthenext sportspublicpolicies,itscrucialtomakean analysistothemainactorsbehindthesechanges andtheirrespectivepoliticalagendas.The Advocacycoalitionsframeworkwillhelpto understandtheroleofsportsspecializedactorsin policysubsystemsandwhatwastheimpactof thosegroupsparticipationonthedevelopmentof legislation.WiththePolicyNetworkitisexpected toshedsomelightontheinterdependency betweensportsgroupsandgovernment, understandingtheirinterestsandpersonalagendas inthesportspolicymakingprocess. Doping Friday,June14,2013 9:00AM10:30AM SalonF AntiDopingEducation:AnalyzingStudent AthletesApatheticAttitudes SarahTeetzel,UniversityofManitoba(Canada) Sarah.Teetzel@ad.umanitoba.ca CharleneWeaving,St.FrancisXavierUniversity (Canada)cweaving@stfx.ca

Thispresentationanalyzestheresponsesprovided insemistructuredinterviewsby38Canadian varsitystudentathletesonthetopicofantidoping programsineffectattheuniversitylevel. Stemmingfromalargerstudyexamining intercollegiateathletesperceptionsofthe intersectionsofgender,dopingandsport,this presentationfocusesontheparticipantsresponses toquestionsregardingtheantidopingeducation theyhavereceivedthroughouttheirathletic careers.Studentathletes,ingeneral,placeda heavyrelianceonotherpeopletohelpthem understandandactincompliancewiththebanned substancelist.Becauseveryfewstudentathletes interviewedhadeverconsultedthelistofbanned substancesthemselves,theyvoicedtheircomfort withrelyingonotherstovetsupplementsand drugsforthem.FramedbySandraHardings argumentsonignoranceandthedistinctions betweenwillfulandstrategicignorance,thispaper analyzesstudentathletesjustificationfortheir acknowledgedobliviousnessandapatheticattitude towarddrugbans,andsituatestheirignorancein thecontextofCanadianuniversitysportculture. DopingasaResultoftheProfessionalRiders Ecosystem.ASurveyforReformingICUDoping PreventionPolicy AubelOlivier,LausanneUniversity(Switzerland) olivier.aubel@unil.ch JrmeBerthoud,LausanneUniversity (Switzerland)jerome.berthoud@unil.ch OhlFabien,LausanneUniversity(Switzerland) fabien.ohl@unil.ch TavernaNatascia,LausanneUniversity (Switzerland)Natascia.taverna@unil.ch Inspiteofstrongercontrolandsanctionpolicies, dopingaffairsstillexistincycling.Dopingisusually seenasaninfractiontoethicbutsolikean individualinitiativeevenwhenthecheaterbuildsa completeorganizationlikeLanceArmstrong. Analyzingdopingasapartofprofessionalriders socialdramaofwork(Hugues,1976),oursurvey showthatdopingpracticescanresultsoftheriders ecosystemfunctioning.

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Atafirstlevelthisecosystemismadefromallthe actorswithintheteamwhocoach,train,givecares totheprofessionalcyclists.Iftheirprofessional practicesarenotintendedtoorganizeillegal enhancingdrugsuses,theycanimplicitlydrive riderstodothis.Therisklevelsinateamdepend onthetrainingandcarepractices;hisorganization (whoisdoingwhatwithwhomtosuperviseriders); hisemploymentpolicy;butalsohiseconomicand culturalmodel. Thisecosystemdependalsoontherelationwith sportinstitutions(likeICUwhogivesagreement, edictrules);sponsorsbutsothemediaandpublic opinion. Ourresultleadsustoconcludethatanefficient preventionpolicyneedtoactonthepracticesan representationsofallthestakeolderofthis ecosystemandnotonlyonridersandyoungest ridersthemselves.Basedonacommandofthe InternationalCyclingUnion(ICU)oursurveys include40interviewsinprofessionalteam;the analysisoftheICUdatabaseofprofessionalriders andteamsfrom2005to2011;debateswith70 professionalteamssportsdirectorsandmanagers. SocialRules,SportRules,andtheWorldAnti dopingCodesSpiritofSportClause IanRitchie,BrockUniversity(Canada) iritchie@brocku.ca Codifiedrulesareinstrumentalindetermining behaviorinsport.However,asAnthonyGiddens (1984)remindsusinTheConstitutionofSociety, codifiedrulesinanyinstitutionalsettingare prescribedreflectionsofmoreinformalyet intensiverulesthatstructurethetextureof everydaylife(p.22).Thispresentationbuildson Giddensobservationsinordertoinvestigateone ofthemostimportantcodifiedrulesinsporttoday: thespiritofsportclauseintheWorldAntidoping AgencysAntidopingCode(WADA2009).My overallobjectiveistodemonstratethatthe prohibitionagainstperformanceenhancing substancesbasedonspiritWADAscodifiedrule mustbeconsideredalongsidetwohistorical projectsintheOlympicmovement:first,the attemptonthepartoftheInternationalOlympic
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CommitteetoprofferanimageoftheOlympicsas apureformofsport,andsecond,fortheIOCto maintainorganizationalpowerinternationallyand pushthemovementforward.Theseprojectshave beenmanagedmoreorlesssuccessfullyonthe partoftheIOC,astheorganizationscodified Charterruleshavereactedtotheintensive informalrulesofeverydaylifeidentifiedby GiddenswhilemaintaininganimageofOlympic sportaspure.However,themovementscodified rules,itwillbedemonstrated,arenotalways consistentwithunderlyingrulesofeveryday sportinglife,andsotoothatisthecasewiththe Codesspiritclause.Secondaryhistoricalaccounts areusedalongsidetwoprimarysourcesminutes ofmeetingsoftheworkinggroupthatcreated WADAsfirstCodeandseveralversionsofthe OlympicCharter. SportMegaEvents Friday,June14,2013 11:00AM12:30PM SalonB ResistingSportMegaEvents:Opposition Movements,LocalCommunities,andtheLondon 2012Olympics RichardGiulianotti,LoughboroughUniversity (UnitedKingdom)r.giulianotti@lboro.ac.uk GaryArmstrong,BrunelUniversity(United Kingdom)gary.armstrong@brunel.ac.uk GavinHales,UniversityofEssex(UnitedKingdom) ghales@essex.ac.uk DickHobbs,UniversityofEssex(UnitedKingdom) rhobbs@essex.ac.uk ThispaperexaminesthediverseantiOlympic oppositionandprotestmovementsthatemerged aroundtheLondon2012OlympicGames.The discussionexploresthevarietyofissuesthatwere highlightedbythesemovements,thescaleof oppositionwhichtheeventgenerated,andthe extenttowhichtheseprotestinggroupswere networkedandcoordinated.Thepaperalso examinestheconnectionsandinterplaybetween localoppositionalgroupsandwiderresidentsand communities.Thepaperdrawsonsubstantial

ISSA 2013 World Congress Book of Abstracts

fieldworknotablyparticipantobservationand interviewswithlocalresidentsintheStratford areawheretheLondonOlympicsweremainly located,andwithparticipantsintheOlympic protestmovements.Theresearchforthispaper wasfundedbyaresearchgrantfromtheUK EconomicandSocialResearchCouncil. BeyondPolitical:AStudyofBritishPetroleums PublicRelationStrategiesSurroundingtheLondon 2012OlympicGames ShawnaLawson,UniversityofBritishColumbia (Canada)shawnartlawson@gmail.com Alongsidevastdamagetonaturalfloraandfauna, the2010DeepWaterHorizonoilspillsignificantly damagedpublicperceptionsofBritishPetroleum (BP),thecorporationresponsible.Thispresentation outlinesthepublicrelationsstrategiesmobilizedby BPwithinthecontextoftheLondon2012 Olympics,specificallysurroundingtheirposition assustainabilitypartnertotheGames.Iexamine howBPframeditsrelationshiptotheGames, focusingspecificallyonthestatedandimplicit assumptions(i.e.,abouthowtobestdealwith sportrelatedenvironmentalproblems)that underlayjustificationsforsuchapartnership. Drawingonanalysisofwebbasedtextsandsocial media,amongothersources,Idiscussthespecific waysthatBPspublicrelationsstrategieswere utilizedtogenerateconsentforparticular environmentalapproaches,andtoframe controversialissues(suchastheirroleas sustainabilitypartner)asuncontroversial.This presentationwilldrawonliteraturethatspeaksto corporateapproachestoenvironmentalism,the roleofpublicrelationsinconsensusbuilding,and onenvironmentalsustainabilitywithinsportmega eventplanninganddelivery.Iwillconcludewith discussionsonwhetherand/orhowBPsframingof thispartnershipisconsistentwithwhat Swyngedouw(2007)callsapostpoliticalapproach todealingwithsocietalproblemsonethatlimits debateabouthowtodealwithissuessuchasa sportmegaeventsimpactontheenvironment. Thegoalofthispresentationistocontributeto understandingsofhowpublicrelationsstrategies aremobilizedtoshapepublicperceptionsof,and
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acceptancetowardcorporateledstrategiesto environmentalproblemssurroundingsportmega events. WitherandHowLegacy:Similaritiesand DifferencesbetweenHostingSpectatorand ParticipationorientedSportMegaevents LynnMinnaert,UniversityofSurrey(United Kingdom)l.minnaert@surrey.ac.uk IngeDerom,UniversityofBritishColumbia,School ofKinesiology(Canada)ingederom@gmail.com RobertVanWynsberghe,UniversityofBritish Columbia(Canada)robert.vanwynsberghe@ubc.ca Allsporteventstakeplaceinahostcommunityand thisfacthasincreasinglyinvitedeffortstoleverage thisopportunitytoachievepublicpolicyobjectives. Civicrituals(andspecificallysportingevents)are marketedasacommunityevent,wherethewhole ofagivencitycanuniteinsupportofpursuinga commongoal(Smith&Ingham,2003,p.259). Recentevidence,however,arguesthatdifferent typesofsportingeventsareorganizedtopursue differentcommoncommunitygoals.This presentationwillusetheburgeoningliteratureon leveragingsportmegaeventstodiscusssimilarities anddifferencesbetweenhostingspectatorand participationorientedmegaevents.Wewill elaborateontheevidenceofwitherandhow hostingtheseeventscanachieveprogressivesocial goalsandinclusivesociallegacies.Inparticular,two commonpopularthemesinthemegaevent discoursewillbeconsidered,namelyincreasing physicalactivityparticipationamongyouthand achievingsocialinclusionandaccessibilityamong sociallyexcludedgroups.Relevantliterature relatedtothesetwothemeswillbediscussed.This contributionalsoconfirmsthatgiventhepaucityof evidenceforhostsachievingthelegaciesthey articulateandpursue,itisimportanttoexamine participationorientedmegaeventsinorderto bettermanageleveragingeffortsforspectator orientedmegaeventsandviceversa.

ISSA 2013 World Congress Book of Abstracts

SportandGlobalization Friday,June14,2013 11:00AM12:30PM SalonC UpinFlames:TheOlympicFlameSymbol, InterculturalCommunicationand Commodification JosephMaguire,LoughboroughUniversity(United Kingdom)J.A.Maguire@lboro.ac.uk JackBlack,LoughboroughUniversity(United Kingdom)J.Black@lboro.ac.uk RebeccaDarlington,LoughboroughUniversity (UnitedKingdom)R.J.Darlington@lboro.ac.uk ThebroaddebateregardingtheOlympicGames, OlympismandtheOlympicFlameRelayfocuses ontheperceivedsymbolicvalueoftherelayand thecommodifiednatureofthegamesmore generally.Somescholarsargueforthepotential interculturalunderstandingthattheFlameRelay fosters.Inaddition,ademandismadeforan ethnographicaccountofsuchexperiences.In contrast,otherspointtotheextenttowhich Olympismisembeddedwithinconsumption.As partofabroaderaccountofthe2012UKFlame Relay,attentionhereisgiventoitsvisittoone smalluniversitytown.Datawascollectedfrom interviewswiththosewatchingtheFlameRelay, extensivephotographicrecordoftheevent, fieldworkobservationsandlocalmediaacccounts. Informedbyaprocesssociology/political economyperspectivewehighlightboththe'actual' experienceofthevisitbutalsoitsmediationinthe localandnationalmedia.Theritualappeared temporary,superficialandcontouredbythemajor sponsorsoftheRelay.WhiletheFlamehadsome localsignificance,claimsmadeforitsbroader symbolicvalueappearedmuted. TheGlobalisationofMori/IndigenousKnowledge andNewZealand/NationalIdentityattheOlympic andCommonwealthGames BevanErueti,MasseyUniversity,NewZealand (NewZealand)B.Erueti@massey.ac.nz Forapproximately170yearsMori(indigenous peopleofAotearoa/NewZealand)haveresisted assimilativestrategiestoensurethepreservation
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ofMataurangaMoriMoriknowledgeand culturalpractices.RecentlyMataurangaMorihas becomecommonplaceininternationalsport eventsinvolvingNewZealandathletesandteams tocreateanationalidentitythatdistinguishesNew Zealandfromtherestoftheworld.Theheartof thispaperexaminesthejourneyand implementationofMataurangaMoriintothe NewZealandOlympicandCommonwealthGames teamsincreatingasenseofbelongingandnational identityatAthens2004,Torino2006,Vancouver 2010andDelhi2010. Utilisingaculturallyappropriateresearch methodologyreferredtoasKaupapaMori(Mori perspectives)Theory(KMT)preliminaryanalyses ofthenarrativeprovidedbytheNewZealandteam culturaladvisorilluminatesthatMataurangaMori isenjoyingspacewithinthearenaofmajor sportingglobaleventssuchastheOlympicand CommonwealthGames.Thechallengesendured bytheculturaladvisorarepresentedthrough tangibleandintangibleexamplesofhow (in)sensitivelyMataurangaMorihas beenintegratedwithintheworldofelitesport participation.Althoughunconventional,the contemporarydynamismofMataurangaMori providesanexcitingapproachthatencouragesthe expressionofindigeneityandculturalidentity inmodernmegasportingevents. MotorcycleSportinTaiwan:Globalizationand Sportization WenUeiChang,WasedaUniversity(Japan) shumii@suou.waseda.jp Thisstudyinvestigatesthesportizationof motorcyclesportinTaiwaninaglobalperspective. Thehistoricaltrajectoryofthedevelopmentof motorcyclesportinTaiwanrevealsaunique relationshipwiththemotorcycleindustry,aswell asculturalandeconomicinterchangeswithnearby Asiancountries.Thisstudybeginswiththefirst internationalscooterracingeventheldbya domesticmanufacturer,whichreceived technologicalsupportfromJapan,thenelaborates howthisinfluencedthesubsequentformationof associationsandeventorganizers;theinvolvement

ISSA 2013 World Congress Book of Abstracts

ofthemediaisalsodiscussed.Itisarguedthatthis sportemergedfromapostcolonialsocialcontext, andthenservedtohighlightsocialandidentity changesfromthelate1980suntilthepresent.This studyalsoexemplifieshoweconomicandcultural forcesinfluencethespreadofsport,andoffersan alternativeperspectiveonglobalizationandsport. SportSpectatorshipandFandom Friday,June14,2013 11:00AM12:30PM SalonD UsingPhotoelicitationtoUnderstandSportEvent ExperiencesofLovedOnes:TheCaseofthe Ironman DanielClarke,SchoolofBusiness,Universityof Dundee(UnitedKingdom)d.clarke@dundee.ac.uk Thepurposeofthisstudyistodevelopfresh understandingofhowtriathlonisexperiencedby lovedonesfromtheothersideofthebarrier.Itisa directresponsetopreviouscallsformoreresearch onthedramaticeffectonlifestyle(McCarville, 2007:171)thatcommitmenttothesportof triathloncanhaveonfamilyandfriends.A conveniencesampleofthreewomenwhohave witnessedatleastoneIronmantriathlonevent fromtheothersideofthebarrierwererecruited. Thepaperusesphotoelicitationtocontextualise andencompassthecomplexitywithinwhichthe leisureexperienceofspectatorsislived,andin doingsodevelopsnewunderstandingoftheir emotions,somethingthatismissinginleisure inquiry(Parry&Johnson,2007:121).Photographs wereusedtoelicitstoriesaboutthethreeinter relatedconative,affectiveandcognitive dimensionsof(sport)eventexperiences(Getz, 2008:414).Thisprocessproduced15photographic imagesandoverthreehoursofvoicerecordings, producingmorethan33pagesoftranscriptions. Thetranscriptswerereadandrereadand annotatedseveraltimes,notingespeciallythe aspectsrelatingtothethreeinterrelated dimensions.Thepaperproducesfindingsthatwill beofinteresttonotonlyresearcherswhocarryout leisureinquiriesintotriathlon,butalsotoother
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leisureresearchersstudyingendurancesport, (sport)eventtravel,eventexperiences,event managementandtourismmoregenerally.The resultsmightalsobeofinteresttoparticular professionalaudiencesaimingtoimprove spectatorexperiences,particularlyIronmanand otherendurancesporteventorganizers. MediatedSportMeetsConsumerCulture:The AdvertisingNarrativeandImaginingtheSports FanasConsumer LawrenceWenner,LoyolaMarymountUniversity (UnitedStates)lwenner@lmu.edu Thisstudyconsiderssportcommunicationasan integralpartofconsumerculturethroughthe criticalexaminationoftheimaginedcommunity (Anderson,1983)seeninnarrativescharacterizing sportsfansintelevisioncommercials.Setin broadlyinconsumerculturetheoryandthework ofZygmuntBaumanincombinationwithworkby Crawford(2004)andHorne(2006)onsportin consumerculture,thestudyengagesAbercrombie &Longhursts(1998)spectacle/performance paradigmoftheaudiencetoexaminehowreaders inpromotionalculturesnarrativespacesarecast intothesportsfanroleandseeitperformedto simulateandstimulatecarryingitintothe marketplace.Inbridgingliteratureonthe consumerandthefan,resultsarereportedfrom fivestudiesinterrogatingtheconsumerfanship link.Analysisanddiscussionfocusonhowsport referentialtelevisioncommercialsimaginecontexts ofconsumptionforsportsfansandhowmaleand femalesportsfans,andhowtheyrelate,are imagined. YouCantJudgeaBookbyitsCoverbutCanyou JudgeaManbyhisShirt?Implicationsof AssociativeandDissociativeSportsGroupsfor DonationBehaviors VassilisDalakas,CaliforniaStateUniversitySan Marcos(UnitedStates)vdalakas@csusm.edu BennettCherry,CaliforniaStateUniversitySan Marcos(UnitedStates)bcherry@csusm.edu Afieldexperimentwasconductedtoexaminehow associationswithsportsteamsmayhavea relationshipwithpeopleswillingnessto

ISSA 2013 World Congress Book of Abstracts

donate.Specifically,thestudyusedaperson lookinglikeapanhandlerwithasignaskingfor moneybyastoplight.Thistookplacefortwo consecutivedaysforthreehourseachday.The personworeadifferentshirtforeachofthethree hourseachday:ashirtwiththelogoofthecitys NFLteam,ashortwiththelogoofthatteamsbig rival,andaplanwhiteshirt.Uponcompletionof thesixhoursandafteratotalof711drivingbyhim (dividedquiteequallyamongthethreeshirt conditions),thetotaldonationsincashandvalue offoodofferedtohimwereasfollows:$17.81 whilewearingtheshirtofthelocalteam,$17.11 whenwearingtheplainwhiteshirt,andjust$4.57 whenwearingtheshirtoftherivalteam.The resultssuggestthatwhileaconnectiontothelocal teamdidnotnecessarilyincreasewillingnessto donate,aconnectiontoabigrivalcertainly appearstohavehadadetrimentaleffecton attractingdonations.Thefindingsprovide interestinginsightregardingsociological implicationsoffandomregardingbothlikedand hatedteams. Sport,PhysicalActivityandAgeing Friday,June14,2013 11:00AM12:30PM SalonE RoadCyclingforAgeingAdults:TheNewGolf? KarenSirna,DouglasCollege(Canada) sirnak@douglascollege.ca InrecentyearsNorthAmericahasexperienceda growthinlarge,massparticipatoryroadcycling eventssuchasGranFondos,aswellasroadcycling clubs.Middleandolderagedadultsarelarge contributorstothisphenomenonhowever,littleis knownabouttheirreasonsfordoingso.Thispaper presentspreliminaryfindingsofabroaderresearch studyfocusingonunderstandingwhymiddleand olderadultsareselectingroadcycling,their experienceswiththesportculture,andstructures thatfacilitateorconstraintheirparticipationinit. ThisresearchstudytookplaceinalargeCanadian city.Participantsweremiddleandolderadults (40+years)whoidentifiedasusingroadcyclingfor
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physicalactivity,roadcyclingclubexecutives, coaches,andcyclingstorestaff.25people engagedinsemistructuredinterviewsregarding theirparticipationaswellasperspectivesonthe sportsgrowth.Inaddition,publicsource documentsfromvariouslocal,nationaland internationalmassparticipatorycyclingevents (suchasGranFondos),aswellasroadcyclingclubs andbusinesseswereanalyzed. Themesofcamaraderieandnetworking,fitness andthemonitoringofit,aswellastheopportunity tocollectandtinkerwithtoys,willbediscussedin termsofkeyreasonsboomersofferfor participatinginroadcyclingandcycling clubs.Unpackingthenuancesofthese perspectivesinrelationtothegrowthofstructures suchasclubsandFondosprovidesinsighttobetter understandtheattractionofageingadultstoroad cyclingandcorrespondingchangesinthesports culture. IThinkitShowsYouDontNecessarilyHavetodo SporttobeActiveDefinitionsand UnderstandingsofPhysicalActivityinThree GenerationalFamilies. VictoriaPalmer,GlasgowCaledonianUniversity (UnitedKingdom)victoria.palmer@gcu.ac.uk Thefamilyisoftenidentifiedasadeterminantof physicalactivity,despitethislittleisknownabout howthefamilycontributestoanindividuals physicalactivitybeliefs,understandingsand practices.Inadditionthewayanindividualdefines andunderstandsphysicalactivitymayaffecttheir propensitytobeactive.MyPhDusesanovelmixed methodapproachtoexplorethereproductionof physicalactivitydispositions,associatedbeliefsand embodimentwithinthreegenerationalfamilies. Bourdieustheoryofsocialreproductionstatesthat habitusislocatedwithinthefamilyandthat throughsocialisationwithvariousobjective structuresitcanbereinforced,alteredand reproducedasaction(practices)whencombined withtheaccumulationandutilisationofvarious formsofcapital.BasedonfindingsfrommyPhD researchthispresentationwillexaminehow individualsdefinephysicalactivityandhowthese

ISSA 2013 World Congress Book of Abstracts

definitionsemergewithinfamilies,thuscreatinga familialhabitus.Moreoveritwillexaminewhether familialdefinitionsrelatetophysicalactivity practicesandtherebyhowphysicalactivity practicescontributetothedevelopmentand accumulationofsociallyappropriatephysical capital.Finally,itwillexplorewhetherindividual andfamilialdefinitionsofphysicalactivityreplicate culturalexpectationsreflectedintheembodiment ofaparticularhabitus,andhowthiscanbe understoodassocialreproduction. TheRoleofSocialandCulturalFactorsinthe InvolvementofPhysicalandSportsActivityin Mexico GerardoOrellana,UniversidadNacionalAutnoma deMxico(Mexico)gorellanaster@gmail.com Mexicoisthegreatestconsumerofcarbonated drinksandhasthehighestpercentageofpeople whoareconsideredoverweight.Government actionshavenotadequatelyconsideredsportsasa factorthatdrivessocialdevelopment.Partofthis weaknessinMexicoisalackofspecializedstudies thatidentifytheneedsforphysicalactivity,aswell asthecapacityoflargecorporationstoexert influenceonlegislatorsthroughlobbying,thus limitingthenationalGovernmentspossibilitiesto fostersocialdevelopment. Thispaperpresentsresultsfromastudythat identifiessomeofthesocialfactorsthatinfluence thepossibilityofapopulationsinvolvementin practicingsportsandphysicalactivity,suchas infrastructure,socializationexperiencesand differentneedsbygender,age,regionaland culturalconditions. Thestudywascarriedoutinthecentralsouth regionofMexico,withstudentsofupperhigh schoolofasemiruralcommunity.Itisan exploratorystudyusingamixedmethodologythat wasconductedbetweenSeptemberandDecember 2012. Theresultsshowdifferentiatedconsumptionof physicalandsportsactivitiesamongthestudent population.Theimportantrolethatpublic
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institutionsplayinmarginalcommunitieswithlow economicresourcesregardinghealthcare,andthe promotionofphysicalandsportsactivitieswithin thispopulationishighlighted.Theresultsalso suggestthevulnerabilityofthesecommunities whenfacedwiththeeconomicinterestsof corporationsduetothelackofregulatorypolicies tomitigatehealthrisks. SportandNationalIdentities Friday,June14,2013 11:00AM12:30PM SalonF TheGoodOlHockeyGame?SportSpace,National Identity,andtheDissonantHockeyBody DanielleDiCarlo,UniversityofToronto(Canada) danielle.dicarlo@mail.utoronto.ca Thinkingaboutspaceanditspolitical,culturaland socialunderpinningshasbecomepopularamong socialandculturaltheorists.Weknowthatspace playsanimportantroleintheexperiencesof athletesandhowathletescometoknow themselveswithinspecificsportspaces(Vertinsky &Bale,2004).Forthepurposesofthispaper, takingthesportspaceofhockeyasmystarting point,Iaminterestedinquestioninghowhockey spacecontinuestomaintainracial hierarchies.Morespecifically,Iaimtoillustrate howCanadiannationalismoperatingwithina mythologicalframeworkthatmaintainsCanadian nationalidentitythroughtheassertionofwhite settlermasculinityproducestheembodiednative ofhockeyspaces.Iexamine:(a)howthespaceof Africville,throughthesegregationofmarked bodiesandeventualexpropriationoflandbythe CityofHalifax,playedaroleinsubstantiating Canadianhockeyasawhitemanssportand(b) howdiscoursessurroundingnonwhiteNHLplayers maintainsnotionsofothernessandtheproduction ofwhitenormativity.Focusingonthespatial constitutionofhockeyspacesshapedbyideas connectedtoCanadiannationalmythologythis paperillustrateshowsportsintimatetiesto colonialprojectshasjustifiedtheexclusionof

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particularbodies(readnonwhite)fromhockey spaces. WushuasanOlympicSport:ChallengesBetween TraditionalityandModernity MarcioAntonioTralciFilho,UniversidadedeSo Paulo(Brazil)matfilho@usp.br KatiaRubio,UniversityofSaoPaulo katrubio@usp.br TheChinesemartialarts(Wushu)probablyareone ofthemostpopularculturalpracticesthatcrossed thebordersofChina.Accordingtothe InternationalWushuFederationtherearenational Wushufederationsinmostcountriesofall continents,configuring119memberfederations. Moreover,theIWUFisrequestingWushuasasport intheOlympics:despitebeingdeniedforthe2008 BeijingGamesithasbeenconsideringbyIOCfor the2020Olympiadwhichdecisionwillbe announcedin2013.However,itisknownthatthe Chinesemartialartshadsufferedaprocessof sportizationwhichinitiallyoccursinthecontext ofthepoliticaltransitiontotheNationalRepublic andgenerallyaffectedallChinesephysicalculture. Consideringthis,theaimofthisworkistoanalyze howthepossibletensionsbetweenthe traditionalandthemodern,emergedwithin theNationalRepublicsperiodsinmainlandChina, reflectsonthepleafortheinclusionoftheWushu asOlympicSport.Forthisithasbeendonean analysisoverthe2002videopresentationforthe biddingforWushuinclusionintheBeijings2008 Games.Thisanalysiswillbedonebasedona TheoryofReception,presentmainlyintheworks ofStuartHallandMarshallSahlins,whichconsider thecentralityoftheculturalissuesaswellasthe powerrelationsinvolvedonitsdiscursive construction.Theperspectiveofculturalandsocial historybyEricHobsbawm,E.P.Thompsonand BenedictAndersonwillalsobehelpfulonthe issuesrelatedtonationalandculturalidentities.

ChineseSportsandNationalIdentity,19102012 JianhuiZhang,HebeiInstituteofPhysicalEducation (China)zhangjianhui76@163.com ChaoanZhang,HebeiInstituteofPhysical Education(China)151435223@qq.com Largescalesportevents(e.g,thelongrunning ChineseNationalGames)provideaspecificsitefor theconstructionofnationalidentity(Guoqi,2008; Yan,2007).AsEricHobsbawm(1991)andothers note,suchsportseventsserveasaneffectiveway todefinenationalidentity,and,fosteracommunal senseofbelonging(Anderson,1983;Archetti, 1999;Armstrong&Giulianotti,2001;Bairner,2001; &Horak&Spitaler,2003).The(re)constructionof nationalidentitiesisneverpredetermined,fixed,or simplistic;butrather,isacomplexphenomenon borneoutofhistoricaltensions,broadersocial, politicalandeconomicprocesses,and contemporaryculturalconditions.InthisworkI drawonChinesehistories(circa19102012)(Jing, 2006;Shaozu,1990;Tanhua,2005;Lequan,1998; Jianhui,2011),toexaminethevariedrolessport hasplayedinthepursuitofaunified,andunifiable, nationalidentity.Ireviewfourhistoricalperiods (thelateQingdynasty;theRepublicofChina period;theNationalGovernmentera;and,the People'sRepublicofChinaepoch).Duringthese historicalphasessporttookonpronouncedsocial rolesandpoliticalfunctionsaspoliticians,sports agencies,andstakeholdersendeavoredto simultaneouslyquellinternalnationalfrictionsand fortifythecountrysinternationalstanding(Guoqi, 2008).The2008BeijingOlympicGames,especially, servedtosecuretheChinesegovernments ongoingdesiretoprojectaconsolidated,positive andembracingnationalidentityagainstits uncertaininternationalpoliticalposition.The disseminationofwesternmodernsportsinChina continuestoplayanimportantroleinthe constructionofnationalism,localidentityand nationalidentityformanyChinesepeople.
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ISSA 2013 World Congress Book of Abstracts

SportandMedia Friday,June14,2013 1:30PM3:00PM SalonB TheCulturalSignificanceofaSMILE:Meaning ProductionattheGenderedInterfaceofTelevised andPracticedTeamHandballinNorway TrygveB.Broch,NorwegianSchoolofSport Science(Norway)trygve.broch@nih.no Thispresentationhighlightsgenderedmeaning productionwithinaNorwegianhandballteam.A squadof1314yearoldfemalehandballersinthe Osloregionwerefollowedduringtheseasonof 20112012;anapproximatedurationofeight months.Fieldnoteswerecollectedattwopractices eachweekaswellasseasongamesandcup tournamentsduringtheweekends.Theparticipant fieldobservationsalsoincludedparticipationinthe coachingstaffmanagingandassistingthe coachesduringpracticesandgames. Ofspecificfociduringthispresentationwillbethe girlteamsuseofaparticularsymbolandits metaphoricexpression:thesmile.Throughoutthe seasonobserved,thecoachingstaffemphasized thattheNorwegianwomensnationalhandball teamisrenownedfortheplayersachievements andcharismaticsmile.Theadultcoachesmade referencestonewspaperimagesandtelevision coveragetoverifythisclaim.Thenationalteam andtheir(former)highlysuccessfulfemalehead coachwasbythegirlscoachingstaffregardedas appropriateidolsforboththeirowncoaching practiceaswellastheiryoungplayersoncourt performances.Inthispresentationthemedia imagesoftheNorwegiannationalwomensteam, thecoachesculturalknowledgeproductionand thegirlsadmirationofandaspirationforfemale eliteplayerstatusareanalyzedthroughthe metaphoricprismofthesmile.
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HoneyorVinegar:BloggersandReadersandthe InstrumentalUseoftheAthletesFirstBlogin PromotingDisabilitySport AndreaBundon,TheUniversityofBritishColumbia (Canada)ambundon@gmail.com AthletesFirst(www.athletesfirst.ca)wascreatedas aparticipatoryprojectinwhichIcollaboratedwith Paralympicathletestohostablogexploringtopics relatedtodisabilitysportandtheParalympic Movement.Withinthefirstyear,the34posts generatedinexcessof300commentsandwere seenbyover5,500individualsfrom90countries. Whilethereisgeneralconsensusamongwriters andreadersthatthepurposeofAthletesFirstisto promoteandadvancedisabilitysport,duringthe interviewsitbecameapparentthattherewas substantialvariationastohowindividualsfeltthis goalwasbestaccomplished.Thispaperdrawson thematiccodingof30interviewswithindividuals whohavebeenbloggingforandreading AthletesFirsttoaddressthefollowingquestions:(1) Whatdoreadersandwritersunderstandtobethe instrumentalpurposeoftheAthletesFirstblog?;(2) Whattacticsorstrategiesdotheyengageinto achievethesedesiredobjectives?;(3)Howdothey individuallyandcollectivelynegotiatethetoneand styleoftheblog?Throughthesequestionswestart tounderstandhowbloggersandreaders collaboratetocreateablogthatrangesfrom confrontationaltoconciliatoryintoneandcontent. Theydiscusstheirreasonsforparticipatinginthis blogincludingthewilltoaddresscollective grievances,theneedtoexpressangeratinjustices, themandatetoinformthepublicaboutdisability issuesandthedesiretowelcomenewcomersto themovement.Thesefindingswillbeanalysed withinthecontextofcurrenttheorisingontherole ofbloggingwithinonlineactivistnetworks. SportMediaLiteracy:AnActionResearchProject onSportViewingSkills MitsunoriOhhashi,KyushuUniversity(Japan) mitsuno720@gmail.com Background:Thepurposeofthisstudywasto examineparticipantsmedialiteracyskillsthrough actionresearch.Previousresearchhas

ISSA 2013 World Congress Book of Abstracts

demonstratedthatmostspectatorsviewtelevised sportuncritically(Coakley,2009).Thereis, nevertheless,noexistingresearchthatmeasures viewingskillsforsport.Actionresearch methodology(Ral,2012)waschosenforthis study,becauseitallowedmeinvolveparticipants actualviewingexperiencesinmystudy. Methods:Participantswerefourteenuniversity students(10womenand4men).Thisaction researchprojectincludedseveralmethods:a questionnairethattheparticipantsfilledoutafter watchingthreesportvideos,Documentaryabout womanboxerinIndia,Japanesegirls professionalbaseballgameshighlightand LondonOlympicshighlightfromBBCandafocus groupdiscussionwithtwoorthreeother participants.Ithenanalyzedthisdatausing conversationanalysis. Results:Theparticipantspreferredvideos,suchas theLondonOlympics,thatincludedstrong emotionalcontent.Thestudentswereableto analyzedramaticcontent,narratives,andidentify theworkingofsomedominantideologiessuchas theideologyofmasculinity.Forexample,one participantcommented:Womenathletesare portrayedasidolsalthoughmenathletesare portrayedasheroes.Theparticipantswere, nevertheless,unabletofullyunderstandsocial contextsofand/orbackgroundforthenarrative content.Thesefindingsindicatethatincreased instructionincriticalmedialiteraryatthe universityisneeded. Sport,PoliticsandPolicy Friday,June14,2013 1:30PM3:00PM SalonC TheInstitutionalizationofSpontaneousSport UnpackingtheParadox JosefFahlen,UmeUniversity(Sweden) Josef.Fahlen@pedag.umu.se Spontaneoussportingactivitiesareoftenpointed outastheantithesisofactivitiesinsportsclubs.
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Theyareloadedwithexpectationsforfriendlier andlesscompetitiveactivitiesincontrasttothe seriousandperformanceorientednatureof activitiesinsportsclubs.Sowhathappenswhen sportsclubsorganizespontaneoussporting activities?Thispaperisbasedontheresultsofa studyofaprojectlaunchedwithinthelatest,and stillongoing,governmentsportpolicyprogramme inSweden.Theprogrammehasaddedsome50 millionEUROperyeartotheSwedishSports Confederationbudgetwiththeexplicitaimof recruitingnonmembersfromunderrepresented groups.Intheprojectunderstudy,localsports clubsorganizespontaneoussportingactivities wherechildrenandyouthpreviouslynotinvolved inclubsportscantakepartunderthedevicecome asyouare,dowhatyouplease,atnocost.The projectwasstudiedbyanalysesofproject documentation,interviewswithkeystakeholders, questionnairestoprospectiveparticipants,andby observationsofprojectactivities.Resultsshow howorganisation,marketing,financing,leaders competence,facilities,participantswishes,andthe natureoftheactivitiescombineintokeeping childrenandyouthpreviouslynotinvolvedinclub sportsexcludedfromtheactivities.Understandings ofthesephenomenaareofferedbydrawingonthe theoreticalconceptsofembeddedexpectations andembodiedknowledge. Organizational(non)changeinSwedish CommunitySportOrganizations:theExampleof DriveinSport CeciliaStenling,DepartmentofEductation,Ume University(Sweden)cecilia.stenling@pedag.umu.se Thepurposeofthisstudywastounderstand changeincommunitysportorganizations(CSOs)by examiningtheintroductionandorganizingof spontaneoussportactivitieslabeleddriveinsport in6SwedishCSOs.Driveinsportactivitiesdiffer fromtheregularactivitiesofSwedishCSOsinthat theyaremeanttobe:targetedatnonaffiliated youths,freeofcharge,ledbypaidstaff,andfocus ontheintrinsicvalueofsport.Drawingonthe theoreticalconceptsoftranslationand organizationalidentity,datafrom10interviews wereanalyzedtoanswer:1.Howandwhywasthe

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ideaofdriveinsportinterpretedandacteduponin relationtoexistingCSOactivities?2.Whatwasthe outcome,intermsoforganizationalchange,ofthe CSOsencounterwithdriveinsport?Thefindings showthatdriveinsportwasapproachedthrough thepresentselfidentificationoftheCSOs,meaning itwastranslatedintosomethingthatisinlinewith orbeneficialforexistingcoreactivities.Therefore, whiledriveinsportatfirstglancemayseemto havechangedtheCSOs,acloserexamination revealsareproductionoftheirorganizational identities.Thefindingsarediscussedinrelationto the(mis)alignmentofthedriveinsportideawith theCSOsinstitutionalcontext,aswellasthefuture potentialofthedriveinsportideatoleadto organizationalchange.Basedonthefindingsofthe study,policymakersaswellasleadersofCSOsare advisedtoalignnewideasonorganizingwith eitherexistingCSOactivitiesorongoingchangesin theCSOsinstitutionalcontext. HiredProfessionalinaVoluntarySportsClub? PasiKoski,UniversityofTurku,TeacherTraining School,Rauma(Finland)pasi.koski@utu.fi Finnishgovernmentrealizedafewyearsagothat thevoluntarysportsclubswereinachallenging situationbecauseofincreaseddemandsonthe activitiesandpressuresonthevolunteering.An interventionwhere200sportsclubswere supportedtohireafulltimeworkerlaunchedin 2009. Thisarticleanalyzeswhatweretheconsequences oftheprofessionalworkerforthesportclub.The researchmaterialiscollectedinthedifferent phasesduringtheprocessfromthehiredworkers, therepresentativesofthesportsclubs,the volunteersandsomeotherinterestgroupsby questionnaires. Accordingtotheresultsmostofthepilotclubs weredevelopedfavorablyinmanyrespectsduring theproject.Thenumberofparticipantsincreased inabout70percentoftherespondentclubs.The broadeninganddiversifyingoftheactivitieswas commoncharacteristic.
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Commonlytheoperationsandfunctionoftheclubs wereevaluatedmoreplanned,wellorganizedand systematic.Theexpertiseintheclubseemedto increase,andtotheabilityofobtainresourcesthe processeffectsifanythingmorepositivelythan negatively. Themostoftendevelopedsinglecharacteristic seemedtobethewillfordevelopmentwhichcould bevaluableissueinthefuture.Themost problematicissuewasthevoluntarypotentialand itsanimation.Theresultswerenotunequivocal whenvoluntarismwasanalyzed.Thusinpartofthe pilotclubstherewasmorevoluntaryenergydueto theprofessionalwhereasinalmostasmanyclubs thedevelopmentwasunwanted. SociologyofSport:FutureChallenges Friday,June14,2013 1:30PM3:00PM SalonD DecolonisingMethodologiesinQualitativeSport Research:RationaleandPossibilitiesforaQatari Context KellyKnez,AspetarQatarOrthopaedicandSports MedicineHosptial(Qatar)kelly.knez@aspetar.com Thepastdecadehaswitnessedamarkedincrease inbothsportparticipationandconsumptionwithin Qatar.Facilitatedlargelybygovernmentinitiatives, thisincreasehaspotentialfarreachingeffects acrossQatarisociety,rangingfromincreased healthbenefitsamongcitizenstotheintroduction ofQatarasasportingnationtotheQatari nationalidentity Despitethisrapidandcomprehensiveintroduction ofsporttoQatar,littleresearchhasbeen conductedwhichconsidersthebroadintersection ofsportwithQatariculture.Thisisimportantto considerasmodernsport,whichislargelya westernconstruct,hasbeenrapidlyintroducedto aculturethathasadifferenthistoryandbeliefsto thoseinwesterncountries.Furthermore,thesmall bodyofqualitativeliteratureemergingwithinthe fieldofQatarandsporthaseitherbeenconducted bywesterntrainedacademicsorgroundedin

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theoriesandmethodologiesthatmaynotbe sensitiveto,orreflectiveof,aQataricontext.This maybeproblematic,especiallyiftheresearcher hasnotadoptedastrongreflexivestance. Thispresentationwilldrawupontheoretical lessonslearnedfrompreviousqualitativesport researchprojectsconductedinQatarinorderto considerculturallyappropriatemethodologiesto beadoptedforfutureuse. Itissuggestedthatdecolonisingmethodologies offerpotentialandpossibilityforwesternand/or westerntrainedresearcherstoconductqualitative sportresearchwithinQatar.Thewayinwhich decolonisingmethodologiesbothdisruptwestern assumptions,andlegitimiselocalcontextual knowledgeandpractices,offersresearchers workinginQataramoreculturallyrelevant frameworkforqualitativesportresearch. CantheNorthExplaintheSouth?AmericanSport SociologyanditsInfluenceinBrazil. WanderleyMarchiJnior,UniversidadeFederaldo Paran(Brazil)wmarchijr@gmail.com KtiaBortolottiMarchi,UniversidadeFederaldo Paran(Brazil)kbmarchi@ufpr.br GonzaloBravo,WestVirginiaUniversity(United States)Gonzalo.bravo@mail.wvu.edu JayCoakley,UniversityofColorado(UnitedStates) jcoakley@uccs.edu TheinterestinthestudyofsportsociologyinBrazil hasgrownconsiderablyoverthepastthree decades.Whilemuchofthescholarlyproduction hasattemptedtoprovideanswerstoproblems thatareuniquetoBrazil,thesestudiesandthe forcesthathavecausedthemtoflourishhave beeninfluencedbyavarietyofschoolsofthought, peopleandtrendsinsportsociologybornoutside ofBrazil.Inthisstudy,weattempttounveilthe originofthesetrendsandschoolsofthought.The studyinvolvestwophases:first,theexaminationof theAmericansportsociologyschoolandsecond, theanalysisoftheBraziliancontext.Duringthe firstphase,weidentifyandclassifyauthors,models ofanalysisandobjectsofstudythathaveshaped thelandscapeofAmericansportsociology.We presenttheseresultsinataxonomythatwillbe
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usedasaframeworkforanalysistoidentifythe relationshipsbetweenthehierarchyofresearch objectsandthehierarchyofdistributionand consumptionofsportinbothcountries.This presentationdiscussestheconceptualframework tobeusedinthestudywithafocusonthe methodsandresearchdesignappliedduringthe firstphase. Keywords:Taxonomy,SociologyofSport,United States,Brazil AntidopingPoliciesinDevelopingCountries: TowardsReform KaveriPrakash,UniversityofOntarioInstituteof Technology(Canada)kaveri.prakash@uoit.net Evenastherestoftheworldisstrugglingtohalt theeconomicdecline,developingcountriesin particular,likeIndiaareseeingsharpeconomic developmentandrapidsocialchange.Insuchan environmentsportsisincreasinglybecominga pathwaytoachievesuccess,fameandfortune, howevertransient.Thishasledtoasharppushto winatallcosts,leadingindirectlytotheuseof drugstoenhanceperformance.PEDusestarts muchearlierthanitshowsupincompetitive arenas.PoliciestocontroluseofPEDsinsports havenotsucceededinthesecountriesbecause theydonotrecognisethespecificityofcountry situations. Ingeneralsociologistshavebeenusingthe deterrencetheorytostudyPEDuse.However, sinceitcriminalizesPEDuseithasbeendisproven severaltimesinfavorofthosethatseePEDusers aslackinginmoralfibre.Severalotherscriticize poverty,socialstandingetc.asleadingto recreationaldruguse;butnonefocusonPEDuse. Ontheotherhand,literatureinpsychologyfocuses onthepsychologyoftheuseofrecreationaldrugs todefinePEDsthatis,druguseforalteredstatesof mind/inebriationarenotPEDs.Soblanketstudies aboutdruguse,bothrecreationalandnot,are insufficientforacomprehensiveunderstanding. Thispaperlookscriticallyatcurrentliteratureto illustratetheneedfornewsociopsychological modelstoreviewandunderstandPEDusein

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competitivesportsinthecontextofthechangesin developingcountrieswithaviewtoenhancing countryspecificpolicies. Sport,HealthandRisk Friday,June14,2013 1:30PM3:00PM SalonE TheGlobalPhysicalInactivityPandemic:A Critique JoePiggin,LoughboroughUniversity(United Kingdom)j.j.piggin@lboro.ac.uk AlanBairner,UniversityofLoughborough(United Kingdom)A.E.S.Bairner@lboro.ac.uk InJuly2012,TheLancetannouncedapandemicof physicalinactivity.Thispandemicissaidtobe affectingallnationsintheworld(DasandHorton, 2012).Physicalinactivityisthefourthleading causeofdeathworldwide(Kohletal.,2012:67) andisresponsiblefor610%ofalldeathsfromthe majorNCDs.[and]morethan53ofthe57 milliondeathsthatoccurredworldwidein2008 (Leeatal.,2012:9).Claimingthatphysical inactivityispandemicisanimportantmomentin healthdiscourse,sinceitsuggestsashiftin attentionawayfromphysicalactivitybeingpartof theobesityepidemic,andwillthereforerequire alterationsinhowpopulationhealthisaddressed. Giventhepurportedscaleofphysicalinactivity,this researchexamineshowthepandemicis rhetoricallyconstructedandhowsolutionsare proposed.Weapplyagovernmentalityperspective (Rose,1990)toexaminethecontinuity,coherence andappropriatenessofideasaboutphysical inactivity.WearguewithintheLancetthereis disunityaboutwhatisknownaboutphysical activity,problematicclaimsofabnormality,issues withhowsportisdefined,andissuesaround proposedsolutions.Wearguethatresearchers whoproposeasystems(orecological)approachto addressthepandemicneedtoacknowledgeand mitigatethecomplexitiesinherentwithintheirown proclamations.Inordertoavoidbeingeither silencedcompletelyorobligedtoaddresswhatare
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deemedbyotherstobemeaningfulmatters (Bairner,2012),weofferamendmentstothe Lancetscalltoactiononphysicalactivity. Motivations,CompetingPrioritiesandConstraint Negotiation:AConceptualModel BrentMoyle,SouthernCrossUniversity(Australia) brent.moyle@scu.edu.au MatthewLamont,SouthernCrossUniversity (Australia)matthew.lamont@scu.edu.au MillicentKennelly,GriffithUniversity(Australia) m.kennelly@griffith.edu.au Participationinsportandphysicalactivitymakesa significantcontributiontotheoverallhealthand wellbeingofsociety.Asaresultconcernaboutthe motivationsfor,andtheconstraintsto, participationinsportareanimportant considerationforscholars,practitionersandother stakeholdersinvolvedinsportandevent management.Thesportoftriathloniscurrently experiencingaperiodofrapidgrowth.Despitethis growththereisstillanabsenceofresearch exploringthemotivationsandconstraintsathletes overcometoparticipateinthisdemandingsport. Consequently,thisresearchdrawsfromaseriesof indepthinterviewswith21triathletesinAustralia toexploremotivationsandconstraintsexperienced byamateurtriathletes,andshedslightonhow theseconstraintsarenegotiatedtoenable participateintriathlonandtraveltoevents.Nine motivationthemesemerged,withtriathletes motivatedtoparticipateforintrinsicreasons, thoughextrinsicmotiveswerealsoextensively prevalent.Athletesalsoidentifiedarangeof constraintstotheirparticipation.Theseconstraints wereviewedascompetingprioritieswhichathletes hadtonegotiateinordertomaintaintheir participationandtraveltoevents.Competing prioritiesweregroupedintosevendomains: familialrelationships,domesticresponsibilities, sociability,finances,leisure,wellbeing,and work/education.Tonegotiatethesecompeting prioritiesathletesemployedarangeofcognitive andbehaviouralconstraintnegotiationstrategies. Fromthesefindingsaconceptualmodelof motivations,competingprioritiesandconstraint

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negotiationisproposedforfurthertestinginother recreationalsportparticipationcontexts. TheLinkagebetweenPhysicalActivitiesand CompetitiveSports:ACaseStudyofCyclingin Japan HitoshiEbishima,SeijoUniversity(Japan) ebishima@seijo.ac.jp Cyclinghasbeenrecognizedasoneofthemost popularsportsinJapaninrecentyears.Ridinga bicyclehasbeenenjoyedasasportandasa transportationmethodinvariouscontexts.Thehill climbraces,areoneofthegrassrootscycling competitionsinJapanthatattractmany competitivecyclistsaswellasamateurcyclists However,mostofthesurfaceinfrastructures includingroadsandotherpartsoflandscapein Japanarefarlessfavorableforcycliststhanthose inotheradvancedcountriessuchasHolland, GermanyandDenmark.Semistructuredinterviews wereconductedwithcompetitivecyclists, recreationalcyclistsandcommutersaswellas bicycleactivistsofnonprofitorganizationsinorder tocreateacontinuityofcyclingactivitiesasa physicalactivityandasacompetitivesport.Cycling boomsinJapanwerecreatedunderavarietyof complicatedsocialbackgrounds;ecology,health, andinfluencesfromforeigncountries.For promotingsportsandhealthinJapanfurther, continuouslinkagesbetweenphysicalactivitiesand competitivesports,intermsofcyclingactivities, shouldbeestablished. SportandNationalIdentities Friday,June14,2013 1:30PM3:00PM SalonF Globalization,FootballandFrenchNationalism: TheIntermittentLoveStorybetweenthe NationalFootballTeamandtheFrenchSociety PatrickMignon,INSEP(France) patrick.mignon@insep.fr Theaimofthepaperistodevelopsomeideas aboutnationalsportcultureandtheroleof globalizationinthetransformationofnational
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sportcultures.Thepaperaddressestwoquestions: (1)howtounderstandthevanishingcollective spiritoftheFrenchnationalfootballteamduring the1998WorldCupwhenFrancebeatBrazil3to 0?(2)howtounderstandtheintermittentlove storybetweenthenationalfootballteamand Frenchsociety? Overallthepaperfocusesonthespecificmeanings ofFrenchsportcultureduringtwospecificperiods: 1998illusionlyriqueto2010Knysnadisaster, and2012spoiledkids.Thesetwomomentsgave risetoarangeofexaggerationnational interpretations.In1998,thevictoriousnational footballteamwasseenasthetriumphofasocial andracialintegrationprocess;conversely,in2010 and2012,theteamssportingfailurehasbeen seenasafailureofthesamesocialandracial integrationprocess.Themoralpanicwhichhas developedaroundthetwolatestinternational footballcompetitionshasrevealedthespecific placeoffootballcultureinthefabricofFrench societyanditstransformations.First,itshowsthe increasingmeaningofsportingeneralandfootball inparticularinFrenchsocietybecauseof globalizationandincreasedmediacoverage.And, seconditshowsthattheimportanceofsportis connectedtotherolethatpoliticalauthoritieshave givenitsincethe1980sasatooltotacklethe effectsofglobalization. LabourMigration,NationalIdentityand Basketball:TheAcculturationExperiencesofthe LithuanianDiasporaintheEastofEngland. DavidPiggott,LeedsMetropolitanUniversity (UnitedKingdom)D.Piggott@leedsmet.ac.uk AdamB.Evans,UniversityofLincoln(United Kingdom)adevans@lincoln.ac.uk In2004anumberofformerWarsawPactstates(or theA8countries)accededtotheEuropeanUnion. Relaxationoflabourlawsresultedinover33,000 migrantworkers,mainlyfromPoland,Latviaand Lithuania,movingtotheeastofEnglandtofind work,ofteninruralfarmingareas. Studiesinthefieldoflabourmigrationhaveshown thatculturaltransferisonekeysymptomoflabour

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migration.Migrantssenseofplacecanbe dialectical:theyremainpartofanimagined communityathome,aswellasanewcommunity intheirdestination.Thishasaconsiderableeffect onmigrantidentities,includingnationalidentities. Inturn,theinterplayofidentityandplaceimpacts upontheacculturationstrategiesgroupsof migrantsemployastheyadapttoorresisttheir newwayoflife. Thisstudyinvestigatedtheacculturation experiencesofagroupofLithuanianlabour migrantsinaruralcountyintheeastofEngland throughtheirexperiencesasmembersofa basketballcommunity.Basketballisthenational sportofLithuaniaandisseenamongtheDiaspora asasignificantmeansfortheexpressionof nationalidentity.Indepthinterviewswere completedwith12Lithuanianstakeholdersfrom theLincolnshireBasketballAssociation(LBBA)(i.e. players,refereesandcoaches).Theinterviews focusedontheacculturationexperiencesofthe participants,especiallytherolethatbasketball playsinthisprocess.Thefindingsareclusteredinto threemainthemes:acculturationexperiences; nationalidentityandtheimaginedcommunity;and establishedandoutsiderrelations. WereNaturals:PacificIslandersNegotiationsof IdentityandRugbyinAustralia BrentMcDonald,VictoriaUniversity(Australia) brent.mcdonald@vu.edu.au PacificIslandandMaorimenaregrosslyover representedatmostlevelsofrugbyinAustralia suggestingtheenormoussuccessofrugbyasan exemplarofegalitarianandmulticulturalsociety. Drawingonlifehistories,thispaperinvestigates thestoriesofthesemigrantmenandtheir experiencesofrugbyunioninAustralia.Specifically itexamineshowtheyaccountfortheirownand otherPacificIslandersinvolvementandsuccess. Thecentralthemeofthenaturalisvariously utilisedeitherintermsofbiologicaldeterminismor culturalhistorytomakesenseofPacificIslanders performanceinrugby.Asbodiesinscribedfroma varietyofcontexts,thenaturalsuggeststhat rugbyreproducesarelativelynarrowand
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shorttermspeciesofcapitalfromtheperspective ofAustraliansocietywhilstsimultaneously producingmoreenduringpowerandidentity withinthefieldofPacificIslanddiaspora.When performanceinsportisunderpinnedbyabioracist logicandspecificculturalhistorytheoverwhelming commonsensethatensuesisexperiencedatan embodiedlevel. SportinCorrectionalInstitutions Friday,June14,2013 3:30PM5:00PM SalonB PhysicalActivityandExerciseinCanadian Corrections:ACriticalDiscourseAnalysis VictoriaFelkar,TheUniversityofBritishColumbia (Canada)vfelkar@gmail.com Fartoolittleisknownabouttheneedforand extentofphysicalactivityandexercisein correctionalfacilitiesandthepoliciesthatguide thesepractices.Whilethereissomeevidenceat theinternationallevelthatsupportsthepressing needforexerciseandphysicalactivityasbothan individualpracticeandasinstitutionallyorganized correctionalprogramsthereisadearthof informationconcerningphysicalactivityin Canadiancorrectionalfacilities.Mypresentation focusesuponwhatisknownaboutcorrectional policiesandpenalideologyinCanadaregardingthe roleofandopportunitiesforinstitutionalphysical activityandexerciseinprisonsthroughananalysis ofprogramsthatexistwithinWesterncountries.I willuseacriticaldiscourseanalysisapplying Foucauldiantheorytoprovideanalternative approachtothepredominatelyquantitative researchconductedsofarbytheCorrectional ServiceofCanadaandwilldemonstratehowthe interplaybetweencorrectionalpowerandpolicyin prionsimpactsinstitutionalphysicalactivityand exercise.

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PrisonSport:ExploringthePoliticsofPhysical ActivityinCanadianCorrectionalInstitutions MarkNorman,UniversityofToronto(Canada) mark.norman@utoronto.ca Despitethefactthatsportandphysicalactivityare significantaspectsofmanyprisonculturesaround theworld,thereislimitedacademicresearchon theirsignificanceincorrectionalsettings.In Canada,theliteratureisparticularlyscantandis limitedtoanunpublishedMastersthesiswritten over15yearsago(Caplan,1996).Giventhispaucity ofliterature,thispaperrepresentsaninitialstep towardcontextualizingandunderstandingthe socialroleofphysicalactivityinCanadianfederal prisonsbothhistoricallyandatthepresent moment.Inparticular,thispapertraceshow physicalactivityandsporthavebeenpoliticized throughoutthedevelopmentoftheCanadian penitentiarysystemandhowthispoliticizationhas beenlinkedtobroadersociopoliticaltrendsin Canadiansociety.Particularattentionispaidtothe contemporarycontextofCanadiancorrections,in whichcorrectionalpolicyisshiftingfromafocuson rehabilitationtoanemphasisonpunishmentand offenderaccountability.Giventhebroadertrend towardthepenalizationofpovertyinwestern countries(Wacquant,2009)andtheongoing overrepresentationofmarginalizedpopulationsin theCanadiancorrectionssystem,thereare compellingreasonstoexploreandunpackthe diversewaysinwhichphysicalactivityis constructedandexperiencedwithinprison environments. SovereigntyandCorporalPunishment:Who ControlstheBodyofaChild? AaronMiller,KyotoUniversityandStanford University(UnitedStates)amiller333@yahoo.com Whohassovereigntyoverachild'sbody?Isit himself,orisit,untilacertainage,hisparentsor guardians?IsittheschoolortheMinistryof Education?Ifthechildholdsthisright,underwhat conditions,ifany,canitbetakenaway?Ifhis parentsholdthisright,underwhatconditionscan thestatetakeitaway?Iftheschoolorstateholds thisright,underwhatconditions,ifany,canitbe
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takenaway,andbywhom?Issovereigntyover onesbodyabasichumanright,ordoesoneonly maintaintheprivilegeofsovereigntyifheobeys thelawsorrulesofthehome,school,sportsteam, ornationinwhichhelives? Inthispresentation,AaronLMillerwillpresentthe majorfindingsfromhisethnographicstudyof corporalpunishmentinJapaneseschoolsand sports,whichresultedinthebook,Discoursesof Discipline:AnAnthropologyofCorporalPunishment inJapansSchoolsandSports(InstituteofEast AsianStudies,UCBerkeley,2013).Hewillshow howthetermforcorporalpunishmentwas introducedintoJapan,howthepracticewasused bysamuraieducators,militarists,schoolteachers, andmostcontroversially,sportscoaches. Sport,PoliticsandPolicy Friday,June14,2013 3:30PM5:00PM SalonC BrazilianSportFacingTheRio2016Project FernandoMezzadri,ParanFederalUniversity (Brazil)fmezzadri@uol.com.br MarceloSilva,ParanFederalUniversity(Brazil) moraes_marc@yahoo.com.br NatashaSantos,ParanFederalUniversity(Brazil) nata.shas@ig.com.br AmandaCorrea,ParanFederalUniversity(Brazil) amandacja@gmail.com Thispaperaimstopresentthefirstdatafroma researchentitled"TheBrazilianSportFacingthe Rio2016Project:ExpectationsandRealities(2012 2018)".Inordertoachievethepurposeofthe study,asurveyofdocumentsrelatedtothe developmentofBraziliansport,wascarriedoutnot onlyinitssocial/inclusion/participation/ educationspheres,butalsointheperformance realm.Tryingtounderstandalltheseissues,the presentresearchwassplitintothreephases:a) cataloguingdocumentsrelatedtoBraziliansports; b)systematizingdataofoneofthemostimportant programsoffinancingBraziliansport:Athlete Grant;c)systematizingdatarelatedtotheSports

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IncentiveLaw.Atfirst,thefilesavailableonthe websiteoftheMinistryofSport,themaincatalyst managerofsportsinBrazilwerecatalogued.Thus thecataloguingofsourcesfollowedbasicallythree mainblocks:1)generaldocuments,thatcontribute totheunderstandingofhowthesituationof incentivetothesportinthecountryis;2)files aboutprogramsandprojectsrelatedtothe NationalSecretaryofSport,Education,Leisureand SocialInclusion,directedtochildrenand adolescentslistedaspotentialathletes;and3) documentsrelatedtotheNationalSecretaryfor HighPerformanceSports,whichfocuson supportingeliteathletes,inordertooptimizetheir participationininternationalcompetitions. PerformanceMeasurementSchemesinNational SportPolicy:ACaseofCrowdingOut,Cream SkimmingandotherDistortions MichaelSam,UniversityofOtago(NewZealand) mike.sam@otago.ac.nz LukeMacris,UniversityofOtago(NewZealand) luke.macris@gmail.com Theperformancemeasurementregimesinstituted bycentralgovernmentsportagencieshaveboth intendedandunintendedeffectsinrelationtotheir networkpartners.Thepurposeofthisarticleisto identifytheconsequencesforNSOs/NGBsasa resultofgovernmentinvestmentpoliciesand performancemeasures.DrawingfromdatainNew Zealand,twobroadcategoriesofeffectsare identifiedanddiscussed.Thefirstcategoryrelates tothetendencyforperformancemeasurement andmonitoringtoreinforcethe delineation/demarcationbetweeneliteand communitysportduetotherelativeclarityofthe formersmeasures,andtheinstitutionalisationof creamskimmingatnationalandsubnational levels.Thesecondcategoryofeffectsillustrates theapparentparadoxesandvulnerabilitiesof performancemeasurementthatincludethe demandforindicatorstomushroomandthe presenceofgamingbehaviours.Findingsare discussedinrelationtothetransformational impactofperformanceregimesandwhether makingorganisationsauditableplaceslimitson
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theirprofessionaljudgmentandcapacitiesto govern. SportsandGender Friday,June14,2013 3:30PM5:00PM SalonD ItisPassable,ISupposeAdultNorwegian MensNotionoftheirownBodies SteinEgilHervik,HedmarkUniversityCollege (Norway)stein.hervik@hihm.no Introduction Malemuscularbodies,asdepictedinthemedia, reflectdominantversionsofmasculinities(Gill, 2008).JacksonandLyons(2012)howeverfound thatthemenintheirstudyresistedthepressureof anperfectlookingbodybyfocusingonthe functionalityoftheirbody,andtherebyrelating masculinitystronglytotheirpowertofunction.A Polishstudyfoundthatbeingphysicallyactivewas positivelysignificantlycorrelatedwithlessbody dissatisfactionamonghighlyeducatedmen (Demuth,Czerniak,Krzykaa,&Zikowskaajp, 2012).Morphologicaltraitsofthebody,onthe otherhand,werenotsignificantlycorrelatedwith mensofbodysatisfaction(ibid.). Theresearchmentionedabove,andother,studies mightindicatethatmensnotionoftheirown bodiesareconnectedtomasculinities.Theaimof thispresentationistogivesomeinsightintohow adultmenrelatetoandtalkabouttheirown bodies,andhowtheirmasculinitiesaremanifested inthenotionoftheirbodies. Method Thefindingspresentedaredatafrom20qualitative interviewswithadultmeninHedmarkCountyin Norway,agedbetween40and90,ofdifferentclass andethnicbackgrounds.

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Findings/discussion Preliminaryanalysesshowthatthemeninmy studyareconsciousoftheirbodiestoorgreateror lesserextent.Someofthemenmainlyfocusonthe functionalityofthebody,butseveralmenalso revealthattheyareconcernedorsatisfiedwith theirbodiesmorphology. Thefindingswillbediscussedinrelationtotheories ofthesociologyofthebody. RepresentationsofMasculinitieswithinAustralian Football DebAgnew,FlindersUniversity(Australia) deb.agnew@flinders.edu.au MurrayDrummond,FlindersUniversity(Australia) murray.drummond@flinders.edu.au Patriarchaldefinitionsofmasculinityportray femininecharacteristicsasbeingdependantand fearfulandthisalongwiththeprohibitionof certainformsofemotion,attachmentandpleasure promoteadominantstyleofmasculinitywhich subordinatesbothfemininityandother masculinitiesincludinggay,blackandAsian masculinities.Sportisarguedtobeasymbolic representationofthesemasculineprinciples. Australianfootballislargelyamaledomainandhas remainedthiswaysinceitsinceptioninthemid late1800s.Notonlydoessporthavethepotential tocreateaninstitutioninwhichmenaredominant overwomen,itisalsoarguedtobeoneofthemost homophobicarenas.Youngboysinvolvedinsport learnthattobetooemotionallyopenwithhis peersmightrenderhimbeinglabelledgayor sissy.Further,insultssuchasyouthrowlikeagirl arecommonplace,whichdenigratewomenwhile attemptingtohumiliatemen. Thispresentationisbasedonextensivequalitative interviewswith20retiredeliteprofessional Australianfootballers.Whileprovidingahistorical overviewofmasculinitiesandAustralianfootball,it willfocusonthesocialconstructionofmasculinity andlayclaimthattherehavebeenminimal changesassociatedwithmasculinitieswithinthe sportfromitsinception.Thisiscontraryto
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argumentsmadebyotherscholarssuchas Anderson(2009)espousingthenotionofinclusive masculinities.Giventhesignificancethatsporthas inmanymenslivesinAustralia,thisresearchis alsoimportantinassistingintheunderstandingof how,asAustralians,masculinityisconstructed. MakingSenseoftheEverydayFemaleRugby PlayerataGrassRootLevel KaterinaTovia,VictoriaUniversityofWellington (NewZealand)Katerina.Tovia@vuw.ac.nz Todate,rugbyinNewZealandisstillapatriarchal domainthatrepresentsthevaluesandelementsof maleculture,thoseofroughness,physicalityand masculineaspectsonandoffthefield.Womens contributiontothenationalsportasplayersis scarcelymentionedinresearch,oftenmarginalised atthefringesofanalysis,andremainsalargely untoldstory.DespitetheNewZealandBlackFerns winningfourWorldCups,womensrugbystill receiveslimitedattentionintheculturalandsocial analysisofrugby. Themajorityoftheresearchintowomensrugby hasbeenlargelyconcentratedoneliteplayersor playersatthehighestlevelsofamateurrugby.The everydayfemalerugbyplayerislargelyinvisible, unexaminedandinadequatelytheorised. Thispaperreportsonaqualitativeresearchstudy withfemalerugbyplayersinNewZealand.The studyanalysedthelivedexperiencesofwomen rugbyplayerswhoplayatagrassrootlevel, particularlyhowtheymadesenseoftheir experiencesofbecomingarugbyplayer?,whythey continuetoplaythegame,andtheircollective battleagainstpublicperceptionsofwomenrugby playersandthemeaningsattachedto them.Thesefindingsprovidedvaluableinsights intowomensrugbyatagrassrootsleveland suggeststhatthevariousexperiencesofwomen rugbyplayers,bothpositiveandnegative,needto berecognisedsothatwomencanbebettervalued asarugbyplayerratherthanaswomenwhojust playrugby.

ISSA 2013 World Congress Book of Abstracts

UrbanSportExperiences Friday,June14,2013 3:30PM5:00PM SalonE APostcolonialAnalysisofSportforDevelopment, CrosssectorPartnerships,andUrban Redevelopment:TheCaseofthePartnership BetweenAngloIndianandM.C.C./LordsCricket Ground DevraWaldman,UniversityofBritishColumbia (Canada)devra@alumni.ubc.ca Sporthasbeenidentifiedbymultinational organizationsasatoolthatcanbemobilizedto promotevariouskindsofdevelopment.Despite this,scholarswhostudysportfordevelopmentand peace(SDP)have,todate,saidlittleabouttherole ofcrosssectorpartnershipsinthedeliveryand implementationofSDPprograms,andtheimpact thesepartnershipshaveonSDPprogram recipients.ThisisasignificantshortcominginSDP relatedliterature,sinceSDPinitiativescommonly relyoncomplexnetworksofpartnershipsbetween variouscrosssectororganizations. Thispaperdescribesandrespondstothisneedto bridgepertinentliteraturesthatspeaktothese topics,andtoconsiderhowaninterrelatedanalysis ofSDPandcrosssectorpartnershipscouldbe conducted.Specifically,thispaperexploresexisting andpotentiallinkagesbetweenliteraturesonSDP, partnershiptheory,andorganizationalpowerand urbanredevelopment.Followingthis,findingsfrom awebsiteanalysisofthepartnershipbetween AngloIndian(aninternationalrealestate investmentcompany)andM.C.C./LordsCricket Ground,thathastheobjectiveofdeveloping12 branded,cricketfocusedcommunitiesthroughout India,isoffered.Thepaperconcludesby emphasizingtheparticularrelevanceof postcolonialtheoryforassessingnotonlySDP relatedwork(asitiscommonlyused)butalsothe crosssectorpartnershipsthatareintegraltomost SDPprojects.

RunningwithNeoliberalism:ThePracticeand PoliticsofSportforDevelopmentinUrban Baltimore BryanClift,UniversityofMaryland(UnitedStates) bclift5@gmail.com DavidAndrews,UniversityofMaryland(United States)dla@umd.edu Shimmeringasaspatialandtemporalbeaconof privatecapitalinvestment(andalliedpublic disinvestment)Baltimoreisthebuilttestamenttoa threedecadetransformationfrombeingacity primarilyfocusedonmanagingthewelfareofits citizenry,toonepreoccupiedwiththe entrepreneurialrestructuringofthecityasamotor ofcapitalaccumulation(Harvey,2001;Ong,2006; Silk&Andrews,2006).Thepervasiveandinvasive spreadofsuchreformativetechniquesof neoliberalgovernance(Rose,2001;Ong,2006)has witnessedmanypublicservicesandagenciesfalling bythewayside.Some,thoughbynomeansall,of theshortfallinsocialwelfareprovisionresulting fromneoliberalrevanchismhasbeenaddressed throughthevolunteeristcontributionsofprivate citizensandorganizations.Asanexemplar,the plightofBaltimoressizeablehomelesspopulation analreadyvulnerablegroupingincreasingly ignoredbyneoliberalpublicpolicy,programming, andfundinghasbecomeevermoredependenton thebenevolenceofprivateeconomiccapitaland volunteeristphysicallabor.Thisprojectprovidesa windowintotheworkingsandexperiencesofthis neoliberalconjuncture,throughanempirically groundedexplicationofonesuchprivateand volunteeristinitiative:namely,theBaltimore chapterofBackOnMyFeet(BOMF).BOMFisa nonprofitorganizationthatpromotestheself sufficiencyofhomelesspopulationbyengaging theminrunningasameanstobuildconfidence, strengthandselfesteem.Withinthisstudy, BaltimoresBOMFpopulationisengagedthrough ethnographicallybasedinquiry,inorderto excavatehowthebodyismobilizedasa meaningfulandviableapparatusofneoliberal governance.

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ISSA 2013 World Congress Book of Abstracts

SocialityOutsidetheStadium:Experiencingthe CityofSport DavidRowe,UniversityofWesternSydney (Australia)d.rowe@uws.edu.au Eversincesportvenueswereenclosedin modernity,apremiumhasbeenexactedfor,and attachedto,gainingentrytothestadium.Since theinceptionandrefinementoftelevision,thishas notbeenamatterofaccessingasuperiorviewing position.Indeed,beingthereoftenmeansan inferiorspectatorialexperienceintechnicalvisual auralterms.Theappealofrealtimecopresence insportispartlybasedonstatus(theacquisitionof ascarce,muchprizedculturalgood),aura (emanatingfromanunreproduciblepropinquity distinctfrommechanical reproduction/transmission,asconceivedbyWalter Benjamininrelationtohighartobjects),and sociality(theenhancementofexperiencecreated bycollective,humaninducedambience). However,andmostconspicuouslyduringmega eventfestivalssuchastheOlympicGames,the celebrationandnecessaryrationingofsport stadiumattendancemeansthatmany,ifnotmost, potentialspectatorsmustbedisappointed.Thisis anundesirableoutcomeformanyreasons,not leastbecausesucheventsarepromotedas desirablemasstourismexperiencesandas unprecedentedopportunitiesforhostresidentsto participateinandtosavourthecarnivalthatthey havefacilitatedandsubsidised.Theproposed solutiontothisproblemistoturnwholehost megaeventcitiesintosportvenuesnobody,itis claimed,needfeelexcludedorthwartedbecause theuniqueeventauraisdiffusedacrossthecity andtemporarilyinsinuatedintoitsentire fabric.Thispaper,basedonobservational fieldworkduringthe2012LondonOlympics, exploresandanalysestheculturalpoliticsof fleetinglytransformingsportinthecityintothecity ofsport.
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Sport:ContestingSovereignties Friday,June14,2013 3:30PM5:00PM SalonF TheCaseoftheFootballClubSheriffTiraspol,one ElementoftheContestingSovereignityofthe RepublicofTrasnistria. RolandoDromundo,UniversitadiPisa(Mexico) rolmau@yahoo.com TheTransnisterMoldovanRepublichasfunctioned asaDefacto,sovereignrepublicsince1992,the yearinwhichthewaragainstMoldovabrokeup.It hasmorethanoncevoteditsindependenceandits possibleannexationtoRussiawithoutreceiving recognitionfromanyUnitedNationsmember. ThisterritorythatliesbetweenMoldovaand Ukraine,electstheirowngovernment,parliament andissuesitsowncurrency.Ithasbeentryingto buildanationalidentitybydifferentmeans,oneof themthroughsports,eventhough,thelackof internationalrecognitionhasforcedthemto compelwiththerulesoftheMoldovanNational Federations. OneofthesecasesistheFootballClubSheriff Tiraspol,theundisputablechampionofthe MoldavianLeaguefor11ofthelast12years.Ithas abudgetthatwouldbetheenvyofmorethanone teamintheSpainorItaly.Ithasadvancedtothe thirdqualifyingroundoftheUEFAChampions Leagueandhasbecomearespectableregional rival. TheClubbelongstoSheriff,thesecondlargest companyinTransnistria,ownerofmostofthe supermarkets,petrolstations,aTVChannel,a constructioncompanybetweenotherbusinesses andseemstobeownedbyIgorSmirnov,the formerpresidentofthisseparatistrepublic. Inthatsense,theFCSheriffTiraspolhasbecome oneelementoftheemergentidentityofthis territorythatlooksforworldrecognition meanwhiletheregionissubmergedina geopoliticaldisputebetweenRussiaandthewest.

ISSA 2013 World Congress Book of Abstracts

TheSigningSovereignties:TurkishDeaf CommunitythroughSportFields PinarYaprakKemalolu,GaziUniversity(Sport ManagementDepartment)(Turkey) pinaryaprak@gmail.com Inthisstudy,itspresentedthathowdeafpeople inthehearingsocietyorassemisovereignof selvesintheschoolsforthedeafinTurkey generatedsovereignselvesandcommunity throughthesportsclubsassignlanguageusers. Thehistorical,conceptualaccountsaswellasthe currentpracticesofthecontestedfieldsand institutionsledtotheconsiderationof interdisciplinaryapproachandtheuseof ethnographicmethods(includingbutnotlimitedto observations,fieldnotes,andinterviews)inthis studyasthevitalimportanceofmanyexperiences inseveralsettingsinvolvedfortheinterpretationof thedeafsportcontexts.Theinvestigations relativelystartedwiththeinvolvementinthedeaf movementsinTurkeyandinthreemainfieldsof studies:sociologyofsport,deafstudiesandsport management.Thesigning(cultural)sovereignties embodimentor(dis)empoweringinteractions with(in)theschools,sportclubs,semiautonomous NationalDeafSportFederation,humanrights movementsaswellasinrelationtoasonesstate ofdeafhoodandsexareoutlined.Theroleof emergentsociocultural(deafstudies)and feministperspectivesinTurkeyemphasized pursuanttotheresults. Footballandtheenemiesofsovereignty: Governanceandcitizenshipatthe2008European FootballChampionships WolframManzenreiter,UniversityofVienna (Austria)wolfram.manzenreiter@univie.ac.at Sportsmegaeventshaveplayedapivotalrolefor thetransformationoflocalgamesintoaglobal business,asinthecaseoffootball.Symptomatic changessuchasallseaterstadiums,CCTVand preemptivesecuritymeasures,theadaptationof matchkickofftimestotheprogrammingschedule ofbroadcastersandtheselloutoflocalclubsto transnationalinvestorshaveevokedtheprotestof traditionalsupportergroupsagainstthedarkside
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ofmodernfootball.However,thereissignificantly moreaboutthesechangesthanthequestionsof ownershipandbenefits.Asdisciplinary technologiesofcrowdcontrolandspace managementhavebeenextendedfromthe stadiumtothecities,involvingthepartial privatizationofpublicspacethroughtheadventof fanzonesandthegradualsuspensionofbasiccivil rights,sportsmegaeventsemergedatthecenter ofdebatesandpoliticsquestioningnationaland territorialsovereignty.Sportsinternationalnon governmentalorganizations,mostnotablyFIFAand UEFA,teamedupwithnationalandtransnational governmentsaspowerwielderswithina transnationalpublicsphereforwhichissuesareat stakethattranscendnationalboundaries.This paperarguesthatthepoliticalsignificanceofsports megaeventsliesintheirshortandlongterm consequencesfortheoverallgovernanceof citizens,notjustinstadiumsandhostcities,but alsoforthosebeyondthedemarcatedplaces. Lookingattheurbanizationoffootballandthe footballizationofthecityinthecontextofthe EuropeanFootballChampionship2008,Iwill demonstratehowfootballinastateof emergencycanbe(mis)usedtorearrangethe relationshipsbetweenstate,economyandthe public. SportMegaEvents Saturday,June15,2013 9:00AM10:30AM SalonB MegaeventsandBottomupDevelopment: BeyondWindowDressing? DavidBlack,DalhousieUniversity(Canada) blackd@dal.ca KatelynnNortham,DalhousieUniversity(Canada) katelynn.northam@dal.ca Sportsmegaeventshavebecomeapivotal strategicpolicypriorityinanincreasingnumberof ambitiousregimesintherisingstatesoftheglobal South.Typically,theseeventsinvolvemassive expendituresofscarcepublicresourcesinways designedtoimpressglobalaudienceswiththe

ISSA 2013 World Congress Book of Abstracts

sophisticationandmodernityofthehost.With fewexceptions,theconceptionofdevelopment thatisembeddedintheplanningandexecutionof theseeventsisprincipallyelitedrivenortop down,withdevelopmentalinitiativesandrhetoric beingcritiquedasasourceoflegitimation,or windowdressing,fortheprincipalbeneficiaries national,international,andcorporate.Thispaper hastwoobjectives.First,itsurveystherecordof recentsportingmegaeventsindeveloping countriesintermsoftheirimplicationsforbroadly basedsocialorbottomupdevelopment.Second, usingtheframeworkofCriticalAlternative Development(ParpartandVeltmeyer2004)asits pointofdeparture,itseekstothinkthroughwhata trulydevelopmentalmegaevent,explicitly focusedonamelioratingpovertyandpromoting socialjustice,wouldlooklike. ARegenerativeFrameworkforPlanning EnvironmentallySustainableEvents MattDolf,UniversityofBritishColumbia(Canada) mattdolf@gmail.com Thepastfewdecadeshaveseenaradicalshiftin theeventindustry,usingeventstoleveragea rangeoflegaciesincludingincreasedeconomic revenue,newinfrastructuredevelopment, addressingclimatechange,andimprovingsocial concernssuchaspeace,poverty,diversity,health, andgenderequity.Thispresentationfocuseson theissueofeventorganizersclaimingtoadopt greenorenvironmentalsustainabilityethics, withoutanexplicittheoreticalandempiricalbasis tosupportstrategyandperformanceassessment. ThistalkexamineshowRegenerativeDesign TheoryandLifeCycleAssessmentcanbeusedas framestoplanandmeasurethesustainabilityof events.RegenerativeDesignTheoryappliesnotions ofplace,scale,stakeholderengagement,longterm thinking,systemsthinking,cradletograve assessment,andregenerationtosustainability planning.WhileLifeCycleAssessmentisamethod formeasuringtheenvironmentalimpactsof productsandservicesacrosstheirentirelifecycle andacrossmultipletypesofenvironmental impacts.Researchfromtwocasestudies:1)the UniversityofBritishColumbiaAthletics
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Departmentand2)the2014SpecialOlympics CanadaSummerGameswillbepresentedto providecriticalinsightsintoimplementationand assessmentofeventsustainabilityplanning. ExpressionofSovereignty,Patriotism,and CommunityIdentitythroughVolunteeringin MegaSportingEvents MayKim,KoreaUniversity(SouthKorea) kimmay@korea.ac.kr KoreasfirstOlympicgoldmedalwaswonin1936 whenKorealostitssovereigntytoJapan.This Olympicgoldmedalbecameanenduringsymbol emphasizingtheimportanceofKoreas sovereignty,(KBS,2010).Continuously,Koreans insistedontheirnationssovereigntyandhave advertisedtheirexcellencethroughparticipatingin andhostingmegasportingevents.Koreanshave alsoshowngreatinterestinvolunteeringatthese eventsalthoughthegeneralratesofvolunteering amongKoreanswerenothigh(Kim,2007).Astudy of1988Olympicvolunteers,revealedthat patriotismwasamajorvolunteermotive(Kim, 2007),aresultemerginginotherresearchonmega eventvolunteers(Matsuoka&Chelladurai,2001). Lately,localKoreangovernments,notthenationof Korea,havebeeninterestedinhostingmega sportingeventstofosterpositivepublicityand economicgrowth.Recentstudiesonmegaevent volunteersinKoreashowedthattheircommunity identitywasrelativelyhigh(Kim,2012).Thatis,as thenationofKoreahaseconomicallyandpolitically developed,Koreansappeartobemoreinterested inthedevelopmentoftheirlocalcommunityrather thanthenationasawholeandmanifestan enhancedidentificationtothelocalcommunity. Thispresentationprovidesfurther analyses/discussiononthesovereignty,patriotism, andcommunityidentityofKoreansrelatedtomega eventvolunteering.Specifically,thequantitative datafromvolunteersatthe2011IAAFWorld Championshipsand2013SpecialOlympicWorld Games,andthequalitativedataofthe1988 Olympicvolunteerswillbereviewedand compared.

ISSA 2013 World Congress Book of Abstracts

Sport,PoliticsandPolicy Saturday,June15,2013 9:00AM10:30AM SalonC Mallparks:TheSocialConstructionofBaseball StadiumsasCathedralsofConsumption MichaelFriedman,UniversityofMaryland,College Park(UnitedStates)mtfried@umd.edu StartingwithBaltimoresOrioleParkatCamden Yards(whichopenedin1992),contemporary baseballstadiumsareextremelyrationalizedand diversesitesforrevenuegenerationasthey incorporatelocalizedveneersofhistoricityand heritagetowardsenhancingconsumption experiences.Similartoshoppingmalls,baseball stadiumsprovidevisitorsavarietyofconsumption experiencesbeyondthegameitself.Although baseballteamshavesoldfoodandsouvenirssince thelate19thcentury,contemporarymallparks offermuchmorethanhotdogsandteamhatswith diverseandsophisticatedoptionsrangingfrom foodchoicessuchassushiinSeattle,Rocky MountainOystersinDenver,andclamchowderin Boston,tosouvenirchoicesofgameused equipment,stuffedtoysofteammascots,and personalizedjerseysthatseemtobeavailableat eachstadium.Theseconsumptionexperiences occurwithinhighlythemedenvironmentsinwhich designerscombineevocativeaestheticelements frombaseballstadiumsbuiltduringtheearly20th centurywithlocalicons.Whilethedesignsof mallparksraiseimportantquestionsabouttheuse ofhistoryandthedevelopmentofconsumption environments,thesestadiumsarealsohighly exclusionaryspacesthatperpetuateexploitative socialrelationsandreinforcethepowerand privilegeofsocialelitesnotonlywithinstadiums, butwithinpublicpolicyaswell.Buildingoff previousresearchandnewdata,thispaper examinesthisgenerationofbaseballstadiums throughaframeworkcombiningGeorgeRitzers insightsaboutconsumptionenvironmentswith HenriLefebvrestheoriesregardingtheproduction ofspace.

ExercisingtheManagement:"OpenSport FacilitiesProject"inJapanandthePoliticsof PhysicalActivityProgrammes NobuhiroIshizawa,HokkaidoUniversityof Education(Japan)mcqeen1jp@yahoo.co.jp InJapan,increasedlongevity,changingattitudesto healthbehaviorsand,theadoptionofmoreflexible workingarrangementsareforcingpractitionersand policymakerstorethinkcitizensdiversesportand physicalactivityneeds(Yamagichi,1998). Organisedandinformalsports,forexample,offera usefulmeansofimprovingthegeneralhealthand physicalfitnessoflocalcommunities,butalso, serveanimportantfunctionincommunity formation,socialization,and,individualself efficacy(Chogahara,2008).Questionsremain, however,overtheeffectivenessofcommunity sport/physicalactivityinitiatives,thestructural conditionsandconstraintstherein,and, opportunitiesforaffectingindividualssocialand politicalagency.InthispresentationIexamineone particularlongrunningpublicinitiative,theOpen SportFacilitiesProject(OSFP),undertakeninthe northernJapanesecityofSapporo.Establishedin 1967,theimperativesoftheOSFParetoprovidea platformtodeliverpublichealthandphysical activityinitiatives,and,facilitategreater communityengagementinsport(Tsukahara, 2010).TheOSFPhasbecomethepredominant featureinSapporossportstrategiesandpolicy development,and,hasapronouncedroleinthe citysvisionforimprovedsustainabilityand communalwellbeing.Usingsemistructured interviews,Iexaminedprojectmanagers experienceswithintheOSFP,and,thewaystheir socializationaffectedtheprogrammesstructure, outcomes,andeffectiveness.Aslaudableasthe OSFPis,Iarguethatsociospatialpolitics (evidencedthroughitsmanagementsystemsand complicatedbydeferentialpowerrelationsand culturalcodesandcustoms)inhibittheprogramme fromachievingitsfullpotential;namely,to engendersportandphysicalactivityrelated lifestylechangesamongJapanesecitizenry.

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ISSA 2013 World Congress Book of Abstracts

PoliticsandOlympics:theGuestCardIssueofthe ChineseTaipeiinOlympicMovement HsinYiTsai,UnivetsityofBrighton(Taiwan) hsinny0007@yahoo.co.uk JuiFaTung,TaipeiPhysicalEducationCollege (Taiwan)juifa007@gmail.com In1949,Chinawasdividedintotwoparties,the KuomintangandtheChineseCommunistparty. Sincethen,the'TwoChinaIssue'hasbecomeabig debateininternationalpoliticsandsports.Itwas onlyin1981,whentheChineseTaipeiOlympic Committee(CTOC)signedanagreementwiththe InternationalOlympicCommittee(IOC),that Taiwanesesportdelegateswereadmittedtoreturn totheinternationalsportstage. TheIOCcharter(2003)showsthatinOlympic movement,allpoliticalinterventionsand discriminationsshouldbeeliminatedandaimsto promotepeaceandfriendshipamongpeopleofthe world.However,Taiwaneseathletesstillstruggle toparticipateinOlympicsduetopolitical intervention.Since1981,therehasbeenno Taiwanesepresidentorgovernorinvitedto participateintheOlympicmovementofequal identityasguestsfromothercountries.Usually, theorganizergivestheguests,whoareinvitedby theOlympicfamilyortheOrganizationCommittee, thenormalGuestCard(Gcard)foraccreditation, howeverduetotheChinesepoliticalintervention, Taiwanesegovernmentofficialswereonlygivena 'GOcard'or'GVcard',lowerlevelcardscompared withtheGCard.Thus,itcouldbearguedthat politicalfactorsarestillamajorissuefororganizers whendecidingwhotoinvitefromtheNational OlympicCommittees. Thisresearchexamines'Guestcardissues'in Olympicmovements,from1996to2012,including theOlympicGames,AsianGamesandEastAsian Games.Adocumentaryanalysisisusedto understandthesituation,andwhattheTaiwanese governmentandtheCTOChavedonetodealwith thisdebate.

SportsandGender Saturday,June15,2013 9:00AM10:30AM SalonD BeingKendoka:MethodologicalNotesonthe EthnographicProcess KateSylvester,VictoriaUniversity(Australia) katesylvester313@hotmail.com Thispaperexamineshowidentityisnegotiated withinaJapaneseuniversitykendoclub.Idraw uponmyowneighteenmonthresearchexperience asamemberoftheclubandconsiderhowmy uniquesocial,physicalandculturaltrajectory facilitateaccesstothefield.Asaresultofthe ethnographicmethod,thispaperisasmuchabout thenegotiationofselfwithinthedojo,asitiswith theothermembersoftheclub.Asanoutsider, belongingorhavingaplaceinthefieldof universitykendoclubsisnevereasyorseamless; ratheritisaconstantprocessofnegotiationand renegotiation,trialanderror,inclusionand exclusion.Centraltothisprocessofdevelopingand negotiatingmutualtrustandunderstandingwith clubmemberswasmyabilityasakendoka.Being partofthedailytrainingregimeprovedof significantimportanceasitprovidedalegitimacyto myplaceinthefield.Infactitismyirregular trajectorythathasallowedboththeinvolvement anddetachmentnecessarytodealwithchallenges suchasnegotiatingmybelongingwhilstforming authentic,reciprocallyenrichingrelationships.I wouldarguethatsuchethnographicworkis invaluableasamethodforgenderresearchand providesnewandexcitingwaystounderstandand theorizetherelationshipbetweensportand genderedidentityinJapan.Indeedintime,withmy commitmenttothedailytrainingandsharingof theirexperiences,Iwasgraduallyallowedaccess intotheirrealheartsandlivesoutsideofthedojo environment.

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ISSA 2013 World Congress Book of Abstracts

TheChangingRelationshipbetweenMaleCoach andEliteFemaleAthletein21stCenturyinChina DongJinxia,PekingUniversity(China) jinxia_dong@pku.edu.cn ZhangRui,PekingUniversity(China) zhrui@pku.edu.cn Therelationshipbetweenmalecoachandfemale athleteisacombinationofthecoachathlete relationsandgenderrelations.Numerousstudies haveexaminedhowthemalecoach/femaleathlete relationshipaffectsanathlete'sselfsatisfaction, performance,andqualityoflife,andhowsuch relationshipisaffectedbygender.Aclose examinationofthemalecoach/femaleathlete relationshipinthenewcenturycanthrowlighton thereinterpretationoftherelationshipsbetween seniorandjunior,andbetweenmenandwomenin contemporaryChina. Basedonliteraturereview,interviewandcase studies,thispaperexaminesthefollowing questions:whatisthefeatureofmale coach/femaleathleterelationshipintodaysChina? Whatchangeshavehappenedtotherelationshipin thefirstdecadeofthecentury?Whatfactorshave generatedthechanges? Itisconcludedthatmalecoach/femaleathlete relationshipincontemporaryChinaiscomplex, dynamicanddiverse.Ithashaschangedgradually fromthehierarchyfatherdaughterrelationshipto amoreequalhusbandwifeorfriendfriend relationship.Winningincentivesdeterminedby womensastonishingperformance,rising individualismresultedfromthemarketoriented reformandtheonechildpolicy,presenceof marriedathletesandhusbandcoach,employment offoreigncoaches,accesstonewmediahaveall playedtheirpartinshapingthenewrelationship. LeftontheShelf:FemaleSporting Autobiographies,EmbodimentandIdentity Formation CarlyStewart,CardiffMetropolitanUniversity (UnitedKingdom)cstewart@cardiffmet.ac.uk

Publishedsportingautobiographieshavebeen termedaculturalphenomenonintheirownright (Freeman,2001),andofferatangibleexampleofa culturallyvaluedpersonalstory.Inthis presentationIbrieflydefine,contextualizeand situatepublishedautobiographiesasculturally governedsocialdocumentswherelittle sociologicalattentionhasbeengiventothem, particularlywithintherealmofsportsstudies. Againstthisbackdrop,theattentiongiventothe sportinglivesoffemaleathletesissignificantlyless so.ThissaidIbegintotakeapreliminarylookat whattypesofstoriesandachievementssporting womenmayneedtotellinordertoachievethat whichisseeminglyculturallydesirableto,andfits thetastesof,thosepublishingandconsuming them.Takinganintersectionalapproachtoidentity formation,attentionispaidtohowfemale embodimentandidentityispresented,concealed andnegotiatedinafewselectedlifenarratives.I hopetooffersomeinsightintothereadingof sportingautobiographiesforsuchpurposes,paying attentiontothemaspolyvocaltextsofcontent andrepresentation,embeddedwithincontextual culturalnarrativestructures. SportandPhysicalEducation Saturday,June15,2013 9:00AM10:30AM SalonE ExploringLivesandEmbodimentofaSecondary SchoolPhysicalEducation RaymondSum,TheChineseUniversityofHong Kong(China)kwsum@cuhk.edu.hk Physicaleducation(PE)haslongbeenconsidered anessentialpartofoveralleducation.Physical educationteachers(PETs)areplayinganimportant rolenotonlyinteaching,butalsootherdailyduties tofulfiltheirprofessionalobligationsinprimary andsecondaryschools.Theembodimentofthe qualitiesofgoodteachersisessentialinorderto shapeandmaintaintheprofessionalidentityof PETs.Atthesametime,PETsalsoneedtoseethat otherpeopleviewthemasembodyingsuch exemplaryqualities(Korthagen,2004).Similar
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ISSA 2013 World Congress Book of Abstracts

characteristicsarealsoembodiedinthesameway, suchastheimageoffairnessandaffirmationfor theroleofofficiating,andthedeterminationfor excellenceandvictoryfortheroleofcoaching.The embodimentsofthesecharacteristicsworkasan expressionofprofessionalidentitywhichaffects thelongtermdevelopmentofacareertrajectory andlivesofaPET.Theaimofthisstudywas thereforetoexploreanddescribelivesand embodimentofaveteransecondaryschoolPETin HongKong.Thestudyemployedaqualitative design,namelyanethnographicactionresearch (EAR)(Tacchietal.,2003)toinquirehowamale secondaryschoolPETmanagedhislivesand improvedhisversatilerolesinordertoembodyin professionaldevelopment,social transformation,politicalempowermentand culturalenrichment. APostwarHistoryofExtracurricularSport ActivitiesinJapan:SportorEducation? AtsushiNakazawa,HitotsubashiUniversity(Japan) nakazawa.atsushi@r.hitu.ac.jp InJapan,alargesystemofextracurricularsport activitiesexistsinjuniorhighandhighschools. Manystudentsparticipateinthesesportactivities, andthissystemisadistinctivefeatureofthe Japaneseschooleducation.Italsodiffersfrom commonsystemsinothercountries.While previousstudieshavepaidmuchattentiontothis uniquesystem,andtriedtoclarifyitsfunctions, theyhavenotclarifiedhowthesystemitselfwas established.Thispaperaddressesthatvoidinthe literature,thatis,thepostwarhistoryof extracurricularsportactivitiesinJapan,focusingon varioushistoricaltransitions,policies,and discourses.Byexaminingtheseissuesingreater detailthaneverbefore,thispaperexaminesthe reasonsJapaneseschoolshaveneededsportsto accomplishtheireducationalmission.Someofthe resultsaresummarizedasfollows:afterWorldWar II,asetofeducationalreformsshiftedJapanese schoolsfromamilitaristictoademocraticmindset. Thereafter,sportswerearguedtohavedemocratic value,andseenassymbolsoffreedomandself government.Whenextracurricularsportactivities werepopularizedbeginninginthe1970s,teachers
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wereforcedtoshouldertheheavyburdenof coachingthesesports.Teachershesitatedto complain,however,andinsteadbeganusingsports asameanstoeliminateproblemswithstudents misbehavior.Extracurricularsportactivitieswere significantlyexpandedinthe1980s,andinthe 1990s2000s,teachershavecontinuedtoshoulder thisheavyburdenasneoliberaleducational reformsaimedatdownsizingJapaneseschools havebeenputinplace. Sport:ContestingSovereignties Saturday,June15,2013 9:00AM10:30AM SalonF SovereignBodies,theObesityDebateandSport: PublicPedagogy,BorderCrossingsandPhysical ActivityatEverySize LouiseMansfield,BrunelUniversity(United Kingdom)louise.mansfield@brunel.ac.uk EmmaRich,UniversityofBath(UnitedKingdom) E.Rich@bath.ac.uk Thispaperisframedbyacritiqueofthe sovereigntyofweightcentricapproachesandanti fatethicsinthepromotionofphysicalactivityand sportforhealth.Drawingoncommunityworkin deliveringphysicalactivityandsportprogrammes weoutlinethesignificanceofapublicpedagogy approachindevelopingalternativewaysof promoting,representingandexperiencing physicalitybeyondweightfocusedperspectives.In doingsoweadvocatethatphysicalactivityand sportpolicymakersandpractitionersneedto undertakebordercrossing(Giroux1992)and workacrossartificialinstitutionalbarriers.The paperoutlinestheprinciplesofanonweight based,crossdisciplinaryHealthatEverySize (HAES)approachtocommunitybasedphysical activityforhealth.Itoffersacriticalexaminationof thepotentialsofharnessingaHAESparadigmasan alternativetoaweightloss,healthfocusedactivity programme.

ISSA 2013 World Congress Book of Abstracts

MountaineeringandtheSovereigntyofModern Man PeterHansen,WorcesterPolytechnicInstitute (UnitedStates)phansen@wpi.edu Theconquestofmountainshasservedasasymbol forthesovereigntyofmodernmanoverthelast threecenturies.Intheeighteenthcentury,the ascentofMontBlancwasconsideredbysometo representtheconquestofnatureandananswerto thequestion,whatisenlightenment?Yet mountainascentswerenottheresultofcurious individualssuddenlydiscoveringanaesthetic appreciationofnature.Onthecontrary,ascentsof thehighestmountainsintheAlpswereenvisioned asaresultofpoliticaldebatesoversovereigntyand enfranchisementinGenevaandSavoy.These controversiesinGenevaextendedwellbeyondthe worksofRousseautoarticulateapanoramic summitpositionforaspiringcitizensofthis republic.InSavoy,extendeddebateoverthe emancipationfromfeudalduesinspiredpeoplein ChamonixtoclimbMontBlancin1786,andthe mountainsoonbecameadynamicsymbolof sovereigntythroughoutEuropeforrevolutionaries andcounterrevolutionariesalike.Duringthe nineteenthcentury,mountainascentsincreasingly cametobeidentifiedwiththeassertionof individualwill,andPetrarchwasbelatedlyhailedas thefirstmodernmanonMontVentoux.Inthe twentiethcentury,theascentofMountEverest becamethefocalpointforpostcolonialdisputes oversharedsovereigntyafterthefirstascentby HillaryandTenzingin1953.Bytheearlydecades ofthetwentyfirstcentury,however,thethreshold ofachangingclimatehascalledintoquestionboth theconquestofnatureandthisoncetriumphal summitpositionofindividualmodernman. FleshlyAssemblages:ExistentialandElemental EntanglementsinMudRunning GavinWeedon,UniversityofBritishColumbia (Canada)gavinweedon@gmail.com Thispapersetsouttorecastontologiesof embodiedpracticeinwhichactivephysicalityis foregrounded,andinwhichaheightenedsenseof existentialawarenessisheldtoformtheraison
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detreoftheexperience.Tocounterthese anthropocentrictendenciesandaugmentthose studieswhichhavesoughttocomprehendthe liminalcommunionof(sporting)bodyandworld,I intendtotraceandmakevisiblethehuman nonhumanentanglementswhichconstitutethe socialityofmudrunning,andtheassemblages whichtheiraffectivepropensitiesconstitute, confoundandcomminglewithin.Mudrunning(or alternativelyobstaclecourseracing)denotesan increasinglypopularcombinationofendurance running,adventureracingandmilitaryesque trainingamongsportandexerciseenthusiasts,and invokesbothelementalobjectandactive, embodiedsubjectinitsmoniker.Apprehendingthe entanglementofincarnate,existentialexperience andtheelementalcharacterofnonhumanthings inthiscaseobstaclesassembledformudrunners totraverseleadstotheconceptoffleshly assemblages:hybrid,socionatural conglomerationsinandthroughwhichthe adhesive,affectivecapacitiesofhumanand nonhumanmaterialitiescascade,coalesceand disperse,yetwhichareonlyknowablethrough humanepistemologies.Thepaperisintendedto mountachallengetoobjectorientedphilosophy throughtheexampleofanovertlycarnalpractice, toreimagineanthropocentricaccountsofactive physicalitybyemphasizingtheagenticcapacitiesof ostensiblytractableobjects,andtoadvocatefor furtherposthumaniststudiesofsportandphysical culture. SportandMedia Saturday,June15,2013 11:00AM12:30PM SalonB TheMontrealImpact:MakingSenseofaNew PopularMedia/SportPhenomenon. AnoukBlanger,UniversityofQuebecinMontreal (Canada)belanger.anouk@uqam.ca BachirSiroisMoumni,UniversityofQuebecin Montreal(Canada)moumni_bachir@hotmail.com OnMay122012,theMontrealImpact,aMontreal basedprofessionalsoccerteam,madeitsdebutin

ISSA 2013 World Congress Book of Abstracts

theMajorLeagueSoccerMLSasthe19th franchiseandthirdCanadianclubinfrontofa crowdof60,860spectatorsestablishingarecord attendanceforprofessionalsoccerinCanada. Soccerhasgrowntobecomethemostpopular amateursportpracticeinQuebecandinCanada overthelastdecade,andprofessionalsoccer certainlyconstituteagrowingmediaspectacle.Yet verylittleresearchinvestigatesthismediasport phenomenonandtheculturalsignificanceofthese franchisesinCanadiancities. WithitsownSaputostadium,alargefanbase,and growingmediacoverage,theMontrealImpacthas cometosignifymorethanjustareflectionofa growingamateurpractice.Infact,theImpact constituteanimportantvectorofidentificationand apopularspectacleinMontreal.Basedonan analysisoflocalpresscoverage(19922012)andof aseriesoffandiscussionblogs(3fanassociations and2relatedsportnetworkblog),thispaperaims atunderstandingsociologicallythisnewandrising popularmedia/sportphenomenoninMontreal. Morespecifically,weareinterestedinthespecific rolelocalmediacontractsandcoverageplaysalong withthesingularsignificanceandattachment whichtiesMontrealerstotheirteam...atiethat operatesbeyondsocceritsefyetisradically differenttotheattachmentMontrealershave otherlocalprofessionalsportteams. FrancescoTotti:StardomandPlace MatthewGuschwan,UniversityofAlaska Southeast(UnitedStates) mcguschwan@uas.alaska.edu ThisessayexaminesthestardomofItaliansoccer player,FrancescoTotti,intermsofhisconnection toplace.DrawingfromRichardDyerstheoretical frameworkonstars,theessayinterrogatesthe waysinwhichTottisimageisconstructedthrough intentionalpublicity,buthow,inturn,hisimage respondstopublicdemandsanddesires.Inourera markedbyglobalization,media,andconsumerism, Tottihasbecomeaprolificsymbolofthecityof RomeandwhatitmeanstobeRomanforoutsiders andRomansalike.HisRomanitstandsincontrast totheglobalmediabrandofhiscontemporary,
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DavidBeckham,whoseemstohavetranscended placethroughworldwidemediapresence.Forhis admirers,TottibecomesthearchetypeofRoman masculinity.Tottisstarultimatelytellsusabout howpeoplenegotiaterootedidentitiesinand throughmedia. ProsumptionandCulturalCapitalinSurfand SkateSocialWorlds ChristopherCutri,BrighamYoungUniversity (UnitedStates)chris_cutri@byu.edu BeckyBeal,CaliforniaStateUniversityEastBay (UnitedStates)becky.beal@csueastbay.edu BelindaWheaton,UniversityofBrighton(United Kingdom)b.wheaton@Brighton.ac.uk Surfingandskateboardingaresocialworldsthat prioritizeaDoItYourselfethosandcreativeways ofperformingapersonalstyle.Inbothcases reputationsarebuiltonmediatedversionsofones performancemorethanresultsinformal competitions.Thus,oneneedsstructuralsupport todevelopboththephysicalandartisticskillsbut alsotocirculatethoseimages.Theuseofvideoing onesperformanceisasignificantsourceof feedbackwhichmeansanathleteneedstohave thesupportofavideographer.Additionally,the abilitytoeditvideorecordingstohighlightones personalstyleandcirculateonsocialmediais centraltoonespowerinthesocialfieldtodefine symbolicandculturalcapital. Whereasactionsportshavebeenidentifiedby variouscharacteristicslikecreativity,DIY,and individualism,wereflectonanothercentralfeature ofactionsportsthathasbeenundertheorized,the actualconstructionandcirculationofcultural capital.FollowingNiklasWoermans(2012)lead, weusetheoreticalconstructsofProsumptionand Bourdieusculturalcapitaltoexaminethecentral rolevisualculturehasinthesesocialworlds.

ISSA 2013 World Congress Book of Abstracts

Sport,IdentityandBelonging Saturday,June15,2013 11:00AM12:30PM SalonC ArabInvestmentinTopProfessionalClubs: "Money,IdentityandGeopolitics" MahfoudAmara,SchoolofSport,Exerciseand HealthSciences,LoughboroughUniversity(United Kingdom)M.Amara@lboro.ac.uk BorjaGarciaGarcia,SchoolofSport,Exerciseand HealthSciences,LoughboroughUniversity(United Kingdom)B.GarciaGarcia@lboro.ac.uk Oneofthemostnotoriousconsequencesofthe recentliberalisationandcommercialisationof EuropeanfootballisthegrowinglevelsofArab capitalinvestmentintheEuropeanfootballmarket. Severalprofessionalfootballclubshavebeentaken overbyArabinvestorsinEngland,Franceand Spain.Moreover,UEFArecentlyawardedtheQatar basedtelevisionchannelAlJazeeratherightsto broadcastChampionsLeaguematchesinFrance, whilsttherearestrongsuggestionsthatAlJazeera willalsobidtobroadcastPremierLeaguegamesin theUKdomesticmarket.Withthese considerations,thispaperinvestigatestheimpact ofandtheperceptionaboutArabinvestmentinthe Europeanfootballmarket.Setagainsta backgroundofmistrusttowardsforeigncitizensin thecontinent,thepaperaimstoascertainthe perceptionofrecentArabeconomicinvestmentin someclubsofthetopEuropeanfootballmarkets. Thepaperwillanalysethecasestudiesofthree EuropeanclubsrecentlytakenoverbyArab investors:ParisSaintGermaininFrance,Malagain Spain,andNottinghamForestintheUK.Thescam overGetafeFCtakeoverbyArabsheikhswillalso beincorporatedtocomplementandtoreveal someofthemisapprehensionsemergingfromthe othercasestudies. Thepapersetstoelucidate,whetherArab investmentisperceivedasathreat,anopportunity orboth.Todoso,thecasestudiesaddressthree differentdimensions:Economic, governance/regulatoryandsocietal/identity.The paperwillemployaqualitativemethodology,
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tracingbacktheoriginsandthereactionsofthese casestudiesthroughmediacontentanalysis,and reviewofacademiccontributions. SportClubIdentityorCommunityIdentity:Which HasGreaterSaliency? DwightZakus,GriffithUniversity(Australia) dhzakus@gmail.com JamesSkinner,GriffithUniversity(Australia) j.skinner@griffith.edu.au Asindividualswebelongtoseveralcommunities simultaneously.Family,workplace,religion, profession,lifestyle,andsportclubsarepossible communitiestowhichonemightbelong.Akey questioniswhethermembershipinasportclub hasgreatersaliencyforanindividualintermsof theirselfandsocialidentitythantheirmembership ofthebroadercommunity.Twosamples,oneofa generalpopulationandoneofmembersofrugby clubsweresurveyedintwoseparatestudies.The questionnairesemployedinbothstudiescontained itemswhichdemonstratedhighreliabilityand validityinpreviousstudies.Theseitemsincluded3 measureseachofselfidentityandsocialidentity (Samir,1992)and3itemsofcommunityidentity (Nasar&Julian,1995).Inthefirststudyofsmall capitalcity,ZakusandChalip(1998)founda significantrelationshipbetweenselfandsocial identityandselfandcommunityidentity,butnot betweensocialidentifyandcommunityidentity.In thesecondandcurrentstudy,aconsultancyforthe QueenslandRugbyUnion(QRU)byZakus,Skinner, andOgilvie,permittedapartialreplicationofthe abovestudy,plusawaytofurtherexploresocial identitiesandrelationships.TheQRUstudyfocuses onsocialcapitalandsowegatheredadditional datathatwillpermitanalysisofhowasportclub, asaformofcommunity,relatestoselfandsocial identity,aswellashowbroadercommunity identitymightbeimpactedbysportclubidentity. Resultsofthestudywillbereportedtothe conference.

ISSA 2013 World Congress Book of Abstracts

Coast,Countryside,andtheNationalTrust: ExaminingYoungAdults'ExperiencesofNature ThroughSport JoseyField,EuropeanCentreforEnvironmentand HumanHealth(UnitedKingdom) josey.field@pcmd.ac.uk CassandraPhoenix,UniversityofExeter(United Kingdom)cassandra.phoenix@pcmd.ac.uk TimColes,UniversityofExeter(UnitedKingdom) t.e.coles@exeter.ac.uk Littleisknownabouthowyoungactiveadults(age 1830)relatetothenaturalenvironmentsand thosewhocareforthemthatformthebackdrop fortheirsports.Notably,Atkinson(2011)has exploredtheexistentialdestabilisationofmental andphysicalselfexperiencedbyfellrunnersasa pleasurableformofplay.Whilstengaginginan outdoorssportisthoughttoinduceasenseof wondermentandconnectiontothenatural environment,buttheimplicationsofthese associationsuponwellbeingandenvironmental agencyarenotwellunderstood. Thispresentationwillreportoncurrentresearch examiningtheroleofnaturesports(climbing, surfing,trailrunning,andmountainbiking)in fosteringyoungadultssenseofwellbeingand belongingrelativetothenaturalenvironment.In addition,itwillconsidertheextenttowhichthese experiencesmighttranslateintoanemotional connectiontotheworkofanenvironmental charity.Toexploretheseaspects,15mobilesemi structuredinterviewsthatincludedagraphicaland visualelicitationelementwillbedrawnupon.The meaningsthatparticipantsattributetotheir sports,andsubsequentlyhowtheyrelatetothe naturalenvironmentsinwhichtheyareactive,will bepresented.Thiswillbefollowedbyadiscussion oftheimplicationsrelativetoactiveadults interactionswithacharitableenvironmental landowner(TheNationalTrust),whoresidesonthe peripheryoftheircommunitiesofinterest. ThisresearchisfundedthroughtheESRCCASE StudentshipSchemeincollaborationwiththe NationalTrust.
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SportSpectatorshipandFandom Saturday,June15,2013 11:00AM12:30PM SalonD WatchingtheWatchers:Anthropological PerspectivesonSportSpectatorshipandFandom NoelDyck,SimonFraserUniversity(Canada) ndyck@sfu.ca Stylizedrenderingsoftheactivitiesandinclinations offansandspectatorsofoneoranothersport constituteafundamentalfeatureofsportstudies. What,indeed,isasportingeventwithoutan audience?Butbythesametoken,how,inpractice, dowegoaboutthetaskofwatchingandseekingto comprehendtheparticipationofthosewho,forthe mostpart,onlystand(orsit)andwatchmatchesor competitions,whetherinpersonorviamedia?This paperinterrogatesthemannerinwhich anthropologicalaccountsofsportsendeavourto examinethedimensionsanddynamicsofsport spectatorshipandfandominawiderangeofsocial andgeographicalsettings.Anthropologistswho examinesportmay,foravarietyorreasons, sometimesfinditconvenienttopassthemselves offasfellowtravellersinthesociologyofsport. Yet,theirworksoftenpromptratherdifferent typesofreadingswhenscrutinizedbyan anthropologicalaudiencethatdoesnotnecessarily subscribetooneoranotherconventional understandingofthesocialsignificanceofsportor sportspectatorship.Whatthenmight anthropologicalstudiesofsportsfansindifferent localesandindifferentsportdisciplinestellus aboutnotonlysportspectatorshipandfandombut alsoaboutthesalienceofdisciplinarydifferencesin shapingthewayswewatchthewatchersofsports? TheGlobalisationofUltrasCulture:An InternationalComparisonofJapaneseandItalian Fangroups MarkDoidge,UniversityofBrighton(United Kingdom)m.doidge@brighton.ac.uk Ultrasculturehasbecomeoneofthemost pervasiveanddynamicformsoffootballinthe21st century.Thisstyleofsupportincorporates spectacularchoreographiesofflags,drumsand

ISSA 2013 World Congress Book of Abstracts

flares,aswellasincorporatingchantsandclapping tocreateanauralandvisualspectacle.Ultrasare overwhelminglymasculineandtheprideandlove oftheirclubandhometowniscentraltotheir identity.FromitsoriginsinItalyinthelate1960s, thisstyleoffanculturehasspreadacrossthe world.UltrasculturehasspreadacrossSouthern andEasternEuropeandisnowthemostimportant supporters'cultureinGermany,aswellas emerginginBritain.WhentheJLeaguestartedin 1993,footballandsupportersculturewas relativelyunknowninJapan.Japanesefanslooked toSouthAmericaandEuropefortheirinfluences. Yettheydidnotmerelycopythesecultures;they fusedthemwithJapaneseculturetoproducea distinctivelyglocalisedculture.Globalmedia,in particularsocialmedialikeYouTube,allowsfansto observeandlearnfromotherfansperformances. Thesevariationsarethenincorporatedintoexisting choreographiesandhelptobuildadistinctive glocalculture.ThroughananalysisofItalianand Japaneseorganisedfangroups,thispaperwill demonstratehowtherearemanysimilarities betweenthesetwostylesofsupport;yetitwillalso demonstratehowdistinctivelocalinfluences adaptsonlycertainfeaturesofultrasculturewithin itsspecificmilieu. SpectatorshipandSocialClass:Specificitiesof TeamSportFansinCzechia PavelSlepicka,CharlesUniversityinPrague, FacultyofPhysicalEducationandSport(Czech Republic)slepicka@ftvs.cuni.cz IrenaSlepickova,CharlesUniversityinPrague, FacultyofPhysicalEducationandSport(Czech Republic)slepickovai@email.cz Sportconsistsofalargenumberofbrancheswhich offersportspectaclesfordiversespectatorcrowds. Asthehistoryofsportdevelopmentrevealed, individualsportsgraduallystartedtoformtheir ownfanbases.Consequently,sportsspectatorsas aspecificsocialgroupdonotconstitutea homogeneousgroup. Thepaperfocusesonsociodemographic characteristicsofsportsfansofthesixmost popularspectatorsportsintheCzechRepublicat
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present(football/soccer,icehockey,basketball, handball,volleyballandfloorball).These characteristicswereinvestigatedwithinan extensivequestionnairesurveyasapartofthe projectentitledSpectatorsreflectionofsports matches.Thesampleconsistedof5560 respondents,whoattendedmatchesofthetop competitionsofthesurveyedsportsduringayear. Theresultsshoweddifferencesamongsurveyed sportsasthesocialstatusoftheirspectators concerns.Spectatorsoffootball,icehockeyand handballareplacedlowerinthestratification systemthanfansofvolleyball,basketballand foorball. SportsandGender Saturday,June15,2013 11:00AM12:30PM SalonE FlyingThroughtheAirinSearchofPossibilities: ExplorationsofWomensAerialPerformances aroundtheTurnoftheTwentiethCentury BiekeGils,UniversityofBritishColumbia(Canada) bieke.gils@gmail.com AroundtheturnofthetwentiethcenturyinNorth AmericaandEurope,theconceptofflightandthe abilitytoflytookonrenewedmeaningand interest.Notonlydidtheinventionoftheairplane around1903captivatetheimaginationofbroad rangingaudiences,flyingactsontrapezesin circusesandvaudevilletheatreswereequally popularandspectacular.Amongthegrowing numberofdaringflyerswerewomenathletesand performerswhosoughtadventureand/orthe meanstomakealivingoutsideofthehome.Their highlyunconventionalprofessionasaviatoror trapezeartistrequiredthemtonegotiatea complexbalancebetweenpersonalaspirationsand workingopportunitiesinmalecontrolledarenas. Despitethedifficultiestheyfaced,their performancesevokedasymbolicfreedomfrom earthlyconstraints,astatemanywomenatthat timeaspiredtointheirstruggleforsuffrageand genderequality.

ISSA 2013 World Congress Book of Abstracts

DrawingonVictorTurnerandMikhailBakhtins notionsofliminalityandtransgressivepractices,I illustratehowwomensaerialperformances aroundthecenturysturncouldbeconceivedofas providingthresholdsfromwhichpossibilities emerged.Thoughfemaleaerialistsprovocative performanceswereoftenviewedwithmuch anxietybythoseconcernedwithchanginggender roles,thefantasyassociatedwithaerial performancesandidentitiesassistedablurringof genderboundariesandthetransgressionof traditionalcategoriesoffemininity.Aerial performances,takingplaceininbetween,or liminalspaces,permittednewreadingsofthe femalebodyinmotionasbecominganda motivationformanywomentoclaimgreater authorityovertheirbodiescapabilities. FemaleCommitmentsinSnowboarding SarahAugsburger,UniversityofLausanne (Switzerland)sarah.augsburger@unil.ch In2009asmallgroupoffemalesnowboarders createdtheassociationLadiesFirstin Switzerland.Theirobjectivewastoenhance femininefreestyle(skiingorsnowboarding),a disciplinethatisprogressivelygrowing.Thegoal wastocreateavisiblespaceforgirlstoencourage themtoparticipateinfreestyle.Withinthiscontext theyfoundedacompetitionnamedLadiesFirst Challenge(LFC). Theaimofthisresearch(whichcomesfroma doctoralthesisstartedafewmonthsago)isto understandthecommitmentofthesewomen (Becker,1985)andtheapparentneedfor homosociabilitythroughlifecourseinterviews (Bertaux,2006).Whatistheirbackground?What kindofexperienceshavetheyhadinsnowboarding thatledthemtocreatetheirassociation?Several studies(Anderson,1999;Thorpe,2008)showthat snowboardingisamaledominatedenvironment inparticularmediacoverageanalysisenhances masculinevalues(courage,strength,risktaking), orstrategiesofconstructionandnaturalisationof masculinehegemonyfrommalesnowboarders. Canweidentifyprocessesofmimicry,regarding theclassicmixedorganisations(andasa
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consequenceledbymenessentially)?In confrontingthedata(interviews,observations) withobservationsofotherclassic(mixed) competitionsandinterviewswithmale snowboarders,wewanttodeconstructthese commitmentsandtorepositionLFCinthewhole contextoffreestyleinSwitzerlandinorderto understanditsimpact. Keywords:snowboarding,femalecommitments, genderconstruction SkateboardingWomen:BuildingCollective IdentityinCyberspace ChristineDallairechristine.dallaire@uottawa.ca StephMacKay,CarletonUniversity(Canada) smack013@uottawa.ca ThispaperreconsiderstheSkirtboardersblog, producedbyacrewoffemaleskateboarders,asa spacewherecrewmembersattempttoreflexively startamovementand,indoingso,constructand circulateawidercollectiveidentity(Taylor& Whittier,1992).Throughadiscourseanalysisof blogcommentsanduserinterviews,weattemptto understandhowyoungwomenwhovisittheblog interpret(re)presentationsoffemale skateboardersandwhethertheybecomeengaged inthemovementtopromoteskateboardingamong women.Dotheyadoptthiscollectivesubjectivity? Whiletheanalysissuggeststhattheydofeelpart ofthemovement,itraisestheissueofbloguser accesstothemorespecificSkirtboarderidentity. SportandMedia Saturday,June15,2013 1:30PM3:00PM SalonB EffectofGenderontheWorkofSports Journalists:theFeminineWritingintheSwiss SportsDailyPress LucieSchoch,UniversityofLausanne(Switzerland) lucie.schoch@unil.ch Thisstudyinvestigatesthespecificityofwomen sportsjournalistswritinginthecontextofthe FrenchspeakingSwissdailypress.Sports

ISSA 2013 World Congress Book of Abstracts

journalismremainsatraditionallymalejournalistic arenainSwitzerland,despiteasignificantincrease inthenumberofwomenrecruitedinthesports columnsoftheSwissFrenchpress,thatisgenerally theresultofparticulareditorialdecision.By analysingwomensworkingpractices(observations andinterviews)andoutput(contentanalysis),it showsthatwomensportsjournalistsdonotadopt thecustomaryprofessionalnormsandvaluesof thisjournalisticspecialityandtendtoproduce unconventionalarticles.Thisfemininewritingis characterizedbyaninterestinsoftnewsanda psychologicalorhumanperspectivewhichis differentfromtheusualtreatmentofsportsnews focusedonfactsandtechnicalanalysisdeveloped bythelargemajorityoftheirmalecolleagues.It takesplacewithinstructuralmechanisms particularlymodesofrecruitment,genderdivision oflabour,theacknowledgementofskillsandthe organisationalmechanismswithinsports newsroomsaswellasdailyinteractionsinthe workplaceandthetasteofwomenjournalists. Womenjournalistsemployasubversivestrategy, playwiththestereotypicalimagesoftheir professionalcompetencesanditgivesthem professionalsatisfaction.However,thewaythey exercisetheirprofessioncontributestothe definitionofmasculineandfemininejournalistic valuesandpracticesandtothemaintenanceofthe existinggenderorderinsportsjournalism. MakingJobsEasierbutMoreScarce:Newspaper SportsReporters'AttitudesTowardtheRiseofthe Internet Edward(Ted)Kian,OklahomaStateUniversity (UnitedStates)edward.kian@okstate.edu Newspapershavelongbeenapreeminentpartof U.S.culture(Nord,2006).Overthepast15years, however,thenewspaperindustryhasbeen decimated,primarilyduetotheadventofthe Internetasadominantnewssource(Warren, 2009).DuetothevastarrayoffreeWebsites online,mediaconsumersareincreasinglyunwilling topayforprintedproducts,whereasadvertisers areabletoreachmoretargetedand/orbroader audiencesthroughcheapermeansviaonlinesites suchasCraigslist(Fahri,2008).Accordingly,
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newspaperjobslosseshavebeensteep,withmany publicationsalsoreducingtheirtotalpagesand eventscovered(Smith,2012).Pompeo& Jedrzejczak(2010)foundthatatleast166 Americannewspapersstoppedproducingaprint editionorshutdownentirelyovertheprevioustwo decades.Accordingly,somelaidoffnewspaper sportsreportersfoundsimilarjobsontheInternet, butthemajoritywereleftunemployedorentered newfields(Kian&Zimmerman,2012).Inthisstudy, semistructuredinterviewswereconductedwith sportswritersemployedfulltimeatU.S.daily newspaperswithcirculationsof30,000orhigher. Aninterviewguidewasdesignedtogauge experiencesandattitudestowardtheadventofthe Internet,focusingontheeffectsonworkroutines, reporting,writing,jobresponsibilities,job expectations,jobsecurity,aswellastheadventof theInternetsoverallinfluenceonthenewspaper industry,journalism,andsociety.Inthesearchfor primarythemes,theoreticalanddefinitional memoswillbewrittenonreoccurringconcepts. Primarythemesemergingfromthedataandtheir implicationswillbediscussed. TheCametoBuryCaesar:MediaCoverageofJoe Paterno'sFuneral DarcyPlymire,WesternIllinoisUniversity(United States)dcplymire@wiu.edu Inthefallof2011,JoePaternobecamethe winningestcoachinNCAAfootballhistory.Atthat time,hewasrepresentedbythepressasanheroic icon,asolitary,moralfigurewhowonwhileplaying bytherules.Daysafterhesethisrecord,hewas firedbyPennStateforfailingtotakeamoralstand whenhislongtimeassistantcoach,JerrySandusky wasaccusedofsexaullyabusingboysin1999and in2002.WhilePaternowasaccusedofnocrime, hisfailuretoreportcosthimhisjob.Afewweeks afterhewasfired,Paternowasdiagnosedwith lungcancer,andhediedinJanuary2012.The purposeofthispaperistotracetheshifting discourseaboutPaternofromhisnear canonizationbythesportingpresstohisfallfrom grace.Centraltothispaperistheassumptionthat thepressbothmadePaternoaniconandreduced himtoafallenidol.Thepaperconcludeswitha

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discussionoftheimplicationsofthereframingof PaternofollowingtheindictmentofSanduskyon chargesofchildsexualabuse. OpenSession Saturday,June15,2013 1:30PM3:00PM SalonC TheProliferationofKnockOffSportsJerseys:An EmpiricalInvestigation KennethBrandonLang,BloomsburgUniversityof Pennsylania(UnitedStates)klang@bloomu.edu Everyyear,consumersaroundtheworldspend200 billiondollarspurchasingcounterfeitwatches, sunglasses,clothing,perfume,pursesandother goods.Socialscientistshaveextensivelystudied consumers'motivationsforpurchasingcounterfeit itemsandhaveconcludedthat,inmostcases, peoplearefullyawarethattheyarepurchasing unlicenseditemsanddosotosavemoney.There arenotanypublishedstudiesthatconsider consumers'motivationsforpurchasingcounterfeit sportsjerseys.Ihavereadnumerouspopular culturearticlesandblogswhoseauthorssuspect thatmanyofthepeoplewhopurchaseknock off/unlicensedjerseysdosothinkingthattheyare actuallylicensed.Acomprehensive25question onlinesurveyadministeredtoaconvenience sampleofBUstudentsandtheirfriendsisusedto uncoverahostoftrendsandpatternsconcerning "knockoff"jerseyownershipandsatisfaction.The principalgoalofthisresearchistoexaminethe followingquestions:Whobuyscounterfeitjerseys? Howmuchmoneydopeoplespendonthem?Do theyknowthattheyareunlicensed?Whydo peoplebuythesejerseys?andHowsatisfiedare peoplewiththeirpurchases?Multivariateanalysis isalsousedtoidentifyhowpeople'sattitudes toward"knockoff"jerseysareimpactedbysuch independentvariablesasincome,age,race,sex, educationandinterestinsports,amongothers.
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TheChangingLandscapeofAthletesRightsand SocialMediaRelations MargaretMacNeill,FacultyofKinesiologyandPE, UniversityofToronto(Canada) margaret.macneill@utoronto.ca RosieMaclennan,FacultyofKinesiologyandPE, UniversityofToronto(Canada) rosie.maclennan@mail.utoronto.ca Thesportmediascapeishotlycontestedterritory. Majorsportingassociations,sponsors,agents,and mediacorporationshavelongstruggledtoclaim jurisdictionalrightsoverathletesimagesand communicationwithfans.Athletesinmanynations continuetosignawaybasichumanrightsto expressionandownershipoftheirrepresentations inordertocompeteatmajorgames.Theriseof socialmediahavefurthercomplicatedthe relationshipsathleteshavewithmajorplayersin thesportmediasponsornexus.Thispaperwill presentinsightsfromtheformativestageofa participatoryactionresearchprojectwithCanadian nationalteamathletescompetingatOlympicand PanAmericanGames.Whileathletesare embracingnewwaystoengagewithfansandkey actorsinthenexus,therearemanystrugglesover rightstoexpressioninsocialmedia,privacyissues, participationinsocialresponsibilityinterventions, andtheonlinecommodificationofathletes performancesandimages. LessonsfromUttarPradeshandBihar:Sport DevelopmentInitiativesandthepotentialfor IndiasSociologiesofSport SanjayTewari,LNMithilaUniversity(India) sanjay.tewari@yahoo.co.in Forsometime,theUnitedNations,international sportfederations(e.g.theIOCandFIFA),andNon GovernmentalOrganisations(e.g,IndiasPanchayat YuvaKridaAurKhelAbhiyan[PYKKA]rural organisation)haveusedsportasatoolforsocial development.Sportdevelopmentprogrammes, includingthoseinIndia,arefrequentlyfoundedon theassumptionthat,underappropriateconditions, sportcanpositivelyinfluencesocialcohesion, integration,inclusion,andmobility.ThePYKKA

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project,forinstance,providesyouthwith communityactivitiesandeducationalopportunities tonurturesocialcohesionandindividual responsibility.Withtheiremphasisonalleviating socialills,fosteringprogress,generatingallusions oflocal,nationalandinternationalaccord,and, demonstratingthealtruismofsportgoverning bodies,sportdevelopmentinitiativesareworthyof sociologicalanalysis(Burawoy,2005;Darnell,2012; Wilson,2012).Despitethepotentialofsport developmenttohighlightbroadersocial complexities,sociologistsinIndiaremain disinterestedinthearea(andwithsportgenerally) asavenuesoflegitimatestudy.Yet,sport developmentprogrammes,invariably,provide sociologistsusefulopportunitiestoknowand engagewithbodypolitics,questionsofstructure andagency,and,emancipationandsocial transformation.Accordingly,inthispaperIdrawon Bourdieu(1992;1993)andGiddens(1990;2009)to understandtheconstructionof,andconsequences thereof,sportdevelopmentprojectsandthe broaderprocessestowhichtheyareapart.I discussmyongoingresearchwithyouthinthe IndianstatesofUttarPradeshandBihar,and,I considerhowsportdevelopmentagendasare oftenconfoundedbytensions,negotiations,and resistancescontoursofthelocalcontext. SociologyofSport:FutureChallenges Saturday,June15,2013 1:30PM3:00PM SalonD Loggingontowww.olympic.org.nz:Navigating NationalNarratives,SportEspacesandtheDigital Age GeofferyKohe,InstituteofSport&Exercise Science,UniversityofWorcester(UnitedKingdom) g.kohe@worc.ac.uk Sportscholarswhoutilizetheinternetare confrontedwithanarrayoftantalizing opportunities.Inadditiontoaidingarchival research,theinternetprovidesfertilespacesfor narrativemakingandcritique.AsBrown(2004), Landsberg(2004),Ross(2011),Staley(2002),and
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others,havevariouslycontended,newdigital technologiesarepromptingacademicsto reconsiderthewaystheygoabouttheirresearch andteachingpractice.Forsportsociologistsand historians,forexample,theproliferationofezines, fansites,blogs,Facebook,twitter,clubwebpages, andsportorganisationwebsiteshasopenednovel avenuesforanalysisandrepresentation.While digitalsources,sites,andspacesmayexcitesport scholars,theyalsoraisequestionsaboutnarrative makinganddigitalmaterialuse.Inthispaper,I examinetheNewZealandOlympicCommittees (NZOC)website,www.olympic.org.nz.NZOChas recentlybeenundertakingaseriesofpublic projectstomarkitshistoryandpromoteits nationalimage.Partoftheirinitiativeshasbeento usetheirwebsitetonarratekeyhistoricalmoments whichtheyhaveinterwovenwithregularsport news.ThenarrativesNZOCarecreatingofthe OlympicmovementinNewZealandareamlange ofhistoricalreminders,administrationitems,and contemporarycelebrations.NZOCswebsite,I contend,andtheuseofthesesortsofdigitalspace moregenerally,presentssportresearcherswith newconsiderationsaboutrepresentation, collectivememory,andnarrativereconstruction. YoungAdultsandHypermodernSportPractices: TowardsanEpistemologicalTransformationinthe FieldofSociologyofSports FranciscoToledoOrtiz,UniversitdeMontral (Canada)francisco.toledo.ortiz@umontreal.ca BetweentheXIXthandtheXXthcenturies,asan outcomeoftheIndustrialRevolution,thesociology ofsport,particularlytheonefromFrenchtradition, wasdevelopedfromthreemainepistemological approaches.Thefirstonewastheclassical Marxistsdivisionbetweenalienatedworkand sparetime(timefreedfromthecontrolofthe Industry).Thisdivisionwasbasedonaclear separationbetweensocialpracticesdevotedto workandactivitiesconcerningtheprivatelife.The secondepistemologicalapproachwasbasedon MarcelMausssconceptofbodytechniques. Thisapproachpermittedresearchersinterestedon sporttofocusontheculturalandsocialboundaries thattakeplaceonsociallearningfromphysical

ISSA 2013 World Congress Book of Abstracts

education.ThethirdonewasFoucaultsideaof biopower.Thislastapproachhelpedsociologist ofsporttoemphasisethewaymodernsocieties constructeddisciplinarybodiesthroughthe legitimationofapoliticaldiscursiverationality. ThroughresearchIconductedamongyoung professionalsinQuebec,holdingauniversity degree,andtheiramateurssportspractices,Iwant toproposeanewapproachtotheorizepost industrialsportsandleisure.Thisnewapproach, thatIcallhypermodernsportconstitutesaway todescribesocialtransformationanditseffectson postmaterialisticlifestyles.Throughthisnew epistemology,sportcouldbeusedasasocial observatoryofthetransitionbetweenthe industrialmodernityandthepostindustrial modernity. ComparingtheDataCollectionMethodologiesof EnglandsMorrisDanceFieldResearchers AdamSheard,YonseiUniversity(SouthKorea) adam@yonsei.ac.kr YoungShinWon,YonseiUniversity(SouthKorea) wonys@yonsei.ac.kr Thepurposeofthisstudywastoanalyzethedata collectionmethodsusedbythefieldresearchersof EnglandsMorrisDancetodeterminetheextent thattheseresearchersconsideredbotheach othersworksaswellasthoseofmodernfolk dancetheorists.Recenttheoreticaldevelopments inthefolkdancefieldofresearchcoupledwiththe increasingnumberofscholarscalleduponto preserverapidlydisappearingfolkdancecultures havecreatedtheneedforthisstudy.Inorderto analyzethedatacollectionmethods,Grounded Theorywasutilizedtocodelargequantitiesof qualitativedataandcompareitonaquantitative scale.Thisstudyrevealedtwomajorfactors regardingthedatacollectionmethodologiesoffolk danceresearchers:first,therepetitionofdata acrossdifferentstudieswithnoreferencingtoeach otherrevealedthatMorrisDanceresearchershad notconsideredallexistingworksbeforeconducting theirfieldresearch,andsecond,thesmallamounts ofdatacollectedvs.thelargepotentialdatathat couldbecollectediftheauthorshadreferredto
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thecriteriaputforthbymoderntheoristsrevealed thatsomeauthorshadnotreferredtomodernfolk dancetheorybeforeconductingtheirresearch.In conclusion,thisstudydiscoveredthatinorderto furtherthefieldoffolkdancestudiesmore communicationisnecessarybetweenscholarsand standardcriteriaforfieldresearchneedtobe developed. Gender,RaceandEthnicity Saturday,June15,2013 1:30PM3:00PM SalonE EXPOSED!!CASTER!BRITTNEY!SERENA!Black FemaleAthletesEnduringStruggleforCorporeal Integrity DeliaDouglas,IndependentScholar(Canada) dddougla@gmail.com Ablackwomansbodywasneverhersalone FannieLouHamer WiththeexceptionoftheCasterSemenyaaffair, sportstudiesscholarshiphasdemonstrateda negligibleinterestinthelivesofblackfemale athletes.Thus,whiletheliteraturereflectsmore sophisticatedanalysesofgenderandracethese formationsaretypicallyconstructedasexclusive categoriesasevidencedbylabelssuchasgender andsportandraceandsport.Thesefamiliar binarieshavecontributedtoaneither/orframing thatunderminesthecomplexityanddiversityof blackwomenslivesbyplacingtheminadiscursive positionthatprivilegesselectelementsoftheir experiencesandidentities.Forblackwomenthe meaningofsovereigntyisinextricablylinkedto slavery:classifiedaschattel,rendereddevoidof humanqualities,theirwholeworthlayintheir labouringbodies.Accordinglytheembodiednature ofsportperformancerendersitakeysiteforthe (re)productionand(de)constructionofblack femalecorporealintegrity.ConsequentlyIexamine theperceptionandtreatmentofthreeathletes: CasterSemenya,BrittneyGrinerandSerena Williams.Significantly,eachathletehasbeen describedbyhercompetitorsandthepublicas

ISSA 2013 World Congress Book of Abstracts

possessinganunnaturalphysicalityandembodying masculinetraitsthatgivethemanunfair advantage.Iarguethattheirblackfemaleathletic bodiesandtheirsportingexcellencea)cannotbe known/recognizedbecausetheyexistinthe intersticesofthesocialcategoriesofraceand genderand:b)thelegacyoftheirclassificationas captivebodiesinformsresponsestotheseathletes selfdefinitionandeffortstoasserttheir humanness. FacetsofIntegration:RecentImmigrantWomens PerspectivesonhowtheywanttoParticipatein PubliclyDeliveredPhysicalActivity DonnaLee,UniversityofBritishColumbia(Canada) leedonna@alumni.ubc.ca RecreationopportunitiesinCanadahaveoften resultedintheexclusionofimmigrantsorthe expectationthattheyneededtoassimilateand adoptdominantcustomsinordertointegrate (Tirone,2010).However,manyimmigrantsand ethnicminoritieswanttoengageinrecreationin waysthatincorporateaspectsoftheircultural heritage,andthatallowforthedevelopmentof socialandprofessionalconnections(Frisby,2011; Stodolska,2000;Tirone&Pedlar,2000). Furthermore,animportantaspectofinclusionis thedegreeofchoiceavailabletocommunity membersintheirlevelofengagement,ranging fromstraightforwardparticipationinrecreational programs,toinvolvementinplanninganddecision making(Ponic&Frisby,2010).Thepurposeofthis studyistobetterunderstandthedifferentwaysin whichrecentimmigrantwomenwanttoengagein publiclydeliveredphysicalactivityopportunities. Qualitativeinterviewswereconductedwith womenwhorecentlyimmigratedtoCanadafrom differentcountrieswhocurrentlyresideinone communityinBritishColumbia.Participants discussionsreflectedanumberofdifferentfacets relatedtointegration.Someexpressedadesirefor opportunitiesthatcouldenablenotonly participationwithotherimmigrantsforsocial support,butalsowithCanadianbornindividualsto learnaboutthesocietyinwhichtheynowlive.In additiontostraightforwardparticipationinphysical activity,someparticipantsexpressedthedesirefor
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deeperinvolvement,suchasopportunitiestovoice theirconcernsandsuggestions.Furtherfindings fromthisstudyandimplicationsforpublic communitylevelprogramsandserviceswillbe presented. BecominganIdealWoman:GenderRoles NegotiationamongTaiwaneseWomenwhoBelly Dance YuchiChang,WasedaUniversity(UnitedStates) pecco1317@gmail.com PoHsiuLin,NationalTaiwanNormalUniversity (Taiwan)lintw@ntnu.edu.tw Confucianvaluesstronglyinfluencedgender stereotypesinTaiwan.Anidealgoodwomanwas expectedtobemodest,frugal,caring,virtuousand filial.SocioeconomicchangeinTaiwanandthe globalizationofculturalindustryhavecontributed totheconstructionofmodernwomenimagesas independent,feminineandbeautiful.However,the traditionalidealwasnottotallydisplaced.In particular,marriedorolderwomenarestillmore constrainedbytraditionalgenderexpectations; interestingly,theyhavebecomethemajorityof bellydanceparticipantsinTaiwan.Contraryto traditionalgenderexpectations,thedisplayofbody andfemininityisexceptionallyencouragedinbelly dancing.Utilizingdatacollectedfromparticipant observationandinterviewswith21married, middleagedbellydancersinTaiwan,thisstudy examineshowwomenintegratebellydancingwith idealgenderimageswithoutconflict.Resultsshow thatmostbellydancerstaketheiridealgender imageasonethatcombinesthemodernnotionof beautywiththetraditionalnotionofgoodness.By viewingbellydancingasabodytoningexerciseor leisureactivity,afrugalandnaturalapproachto acquirefemininityandbeauty,interviewees differentiatethemselvesfromthebadothers i.e.dancinggirls,materialgirls,andartificial beautiestoconstructabeautifulandgood femaleimage.Moreover,mostintervieweesassert thatbellydancingempowersthem,physicallyand mentally,tobetterserveinotherrolesathomeor atworkingplaces.Bycreativelyintegrating, Taiwanesebellydancersshowthattraditional virtuescanbemaintainedevenwhileparticipating

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inadancewithfeministconnotations. OpenSession Saturday,June15,2013 3:30PM5:00PM SalonB Sport,Play,andHistoricalTransformation: ExtendingHuizinga'sCritique ThomasHenricks,ElonUniversity(UnitedStates) henricks@elon.edu InaclassicworkHomoLudens,theDutchhistorian JohanHuizingadescribesthehistorical transformationofplay.Inhisview,activitiesthat oncefeaturedrelativelyfreeandopenpublic discoursewerenow,atleastintheirindustrial manifestation,managedbylargesocialand politicalorganizations.Theresultwasanarrowing ofpersonalandpublicexpressionandadiminution ofsocialvitality.Anextremeversionofthis processinhisviewwassportwhichhaddevolved intoacommitmenttosterileexcellence.The currentpaperreviewsHuziingascritiqueandthen extendsitintoamoregeneralaccountofthe historicaltransformationofplay.Fourperiods premodern,earlymodern,latemodern,andpost modernareindentifiedandthenanalyzedin termsoftheirpotentialforpersonalandsocial realization.Specialemphasisisgiventosportin thepostmoderncontext.Inthatregard,the authorpresentshisdescriptionofpleasure domes,commerciallysponsoredsettingsthat constructenjoymentfortheirpatronsandoffer newcombinationsoftherolesofplayersand spectators.Theauthoranalyzestheseemerging formatsintermsofthedegreesandkindsof freedomthattheypresent. TheRelationshipbetweentheTeamCohesionand theLevelofAspirationamongtheSoccerPlayers inDjelfaGovernorate BrahimiTarek,STAPSOuargla(Algeria) sociologie20@gmail.com Thisstudyaimedtounderstandtherelationship betweenteamcohesionandlevelofaspiration amongstsoccerplayersinDjelfa,andtodetermine thedifferencesinthecohesionandaspiration
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levelsamongstsoccerplayersintheGovernorate ofDjelfaaccordingtoacademicqualification, playingposition,experience,andclubdegree variables.Toachievethat,thestudysampled480 soccerplayersfromprofessional,firstdegreeand seconddegreeclubsintheGovernorateofDjelfa. Thesamplerepresents30%ofstudypopulation, TheGroupEnvironmentalQuestioner(GEQ) (Carronetal,1985)wasusedtomeasuretheteam cohesionwhichiscomposedof34itemsand distributedintofourdomains:groupintegration tasks,individualattractiontogroupsocial,group integrationsocialandindividualattractiontogroup tasks.Aspirationscale(developedbyMoawad& AbdelAtheem,2005)wasappliedtodetermine aspirationlevel,consistingof36itemsdistributed intofourdomains,optimism,abilityofformulate objectives,acceptanceofnewideasand depressiontolerance.Toaddressquestionsinthe study,means,percentages,standarddeviation, personcorrelation,OneWayANOVAandScheffes posthoctestwereused.Theresultsshowedthat theteamcohesionlevelofthesoccerplayersin theDJELFAwashighforalldomains,wherethe percentageofresponsewasmorethan81%,and washighforthetotalscoreofcohesion(69.7%), therankorderofdomainswereasfollows:firstly, groupintegrationsocial(87%).Secondly,individual attractiontogrouptasks(79.2).Thirdly,Group integrationtasks(76%).Finally,individual attractiontogroupsocial(71.4%). TheSportingLifecourse Saturday,June15,2013 3:30PM5:00PM SalonC TheCareerofCameroonianProfessional Footballers:QuestioningtheNontransitionoutof Football JrmeBerthoud,LausanneUniversity (Switzerland)jerome.berthoud@unil.ch Thedatapresentedarethefirstresultsofa doctoralresearchlookingattheaftercareerof Cameroonianprofessionalfootballers.Whatdothe playersdooncetheirfootballcareerisfinishedand

ISSA 2013 World Congress Book of Abstracts

howcanweexplaintheirnewengagementoutof football?In2011and2012wehaveconducted around30lifestoriesinterviews(Bertaux,1997) withretiredplayers.Thefieldworkofthis researchhasbeenmainlydoneinthecountryof originoftheplayersandinFrance,main destinationforFrenchspeakingAfricanfootballers. Throughtheconceptofcareers(Hughes,1996; Becker,1985),wehavetriedtounderstandplayers lifecourse.Wehavelookedatthesportcareer,the socialcareerandthecareerintermsofeducation andprofessionallifeoutsidefootball.Wesuppose thattheaftercareercanbeunderstoodasthe resultofsuccessivestepsinthosedifferentcareers, separatedbytransitionsorturningpoints (Strauss,1962)duringwhichtheathletesidentity isparticularlyundermined,beforebeingreshaped. Theobjectiveofourresearchistodefinethe playersmainactivitiesandcentresofinterestonce theirfootballcareerisbehindthemandtheway theyengagedintothem.Thefirstresultsofour researchshowthatitisverydifficultfortheplayers totalkopenlyabouttheiraftercareerlife.Howcan weinterpretthissituation?Whatarethestrategies theydeveloptoavoidtalkingaboutsomethingthat oftendoesnotmakesenseforthemandwhatcan welearnoutofit? DevelopingaFrameworkforUnderstanding ToxicitiesEmbeddedintheOrganizationalCulture ofHighPerformanceFigureSkating CathyMills,UniversityofBritishColumbia (Canada)cathy.mills@alumni.ubc.ca Organizationalcultureisanumbrellaconceptfor thinkingaboutculturalandsymbolicphenomena includingsymbols,meanings,artifacts,values,and basicassumptions(Alvesson,2012;Schein,1992). Muchpreviousorganizationalcultureresearchhas beencritiquedforitsfunctionalistnaturethat attemptstoincreaseorganizationalefficiencyby reduc[ing]humanbeingstopartsofawelloiled societalmachine(Alvesson&Willmott,2003,p. 2).InthispaperIproposeatheoreticalframework thatdrawsuponcriticalmanagementstudies (CMS)touncovertakenforgrantedtoxicities withintheorganizationalcultureofhigh
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performancesport.Toxicities,suchastheintense pressuretowinandexpectationstodress,actand performincertainways,withinorganizational culturesthathavepervasivenegativeeffects, underminingindividualsconfidence,hope,and selfesteemanddamagingtheirmoraleand performance,bothatworkandoutside(Maitlis, 2007,p.1204).CMSexploresnonperformativity anddenaturalizationinanattempttoimprovethe overallwellnessoforganizationalmembers.It proceedsfromtheassumptionthatdominant practicesofmanagementandorganizations systematicallyfavorsome(elite)groupsatthe expenseofthosewhoaredisadvantagedbythem (Alvesson,Bridgman,&Willmott,2009).This theoreticalframeworkposesimplicationsfor methodology,astakingtheperspectivesofthose whoaremostadverselyaffectedbytoxicities becomesparamount(e.g.theathletes). HockeyPlayersLifecoursesinSwitzerland OrlanMoret,UniversityofLausanne(Switzerland) orlan.moret@unil.ch Sincethe1980s,theprofessionalizationandthe increasingcommercializationofhockeyin Switzerlandhaveengenderedcareeraspirations, evenatrelativelycommonlevelsofcommitment. Thehockeyplayerthushasaparticular professionalcareersinceheisabletoplayduringa definiteperiodoftime,invariouslabourmarkets, successivelyorsimultaneously. Followingtheinteractionistperspectiveofcareer (Becker,1963),ourworktriestobetterunderstand thelifecoursesofhockeyplayersbornbetween 1955and1995andhavingplayedatthetwo highestlevelsoftheSwisschampionship(NLA, NLB).Thesequenceanalysisappliedtooursample (approx.500players)especiallytheoptimal matchinganalysis(Abbott,1995),revealswell suitedtointegratediversetrajectoriesof individualsengagedinacomplexsuccessionof statusesandroles.Thedatacanthenbe interpretedthroughindividualaswellashistorical temporality.

ISSA 2013 World Congress Book of Abstracts

Particularattentionwillbegiventotheavailable resourcestheycanusefortheirprofessional integration.Arediplomasofanyhelp?Whatisthe natureofnetworkstheycanuse?Doestheirsocial capitalresultfromstrongties(bonding)or accordingtoGranovetter(1973),"thestrengthof theweakties"(bridging)isratheracceptable?The strongspecializationofsportworkersseemsto preventprofessionalmobilitytowardsother businesssectors.Despitethislowrecognitionof sportingcapitaloutsidethesportsmarket,it sometimesseemsavaluetoexchangeforajob. PedagogyandPhysicalEducation Saturday,June15,2013 3:30PM5:00PM SalonD

pedagogyandsportfordevelopmentandpeace. Basedonmycriticaldiscourseanalysis,whichwas guidedbypostcolonialtheoryandcritical pedagogy,Ifoundthatthepedagogicalstrategies presentedwithinthematerialwereunderpinned bydiscoursesofrisk,deficiency,andindividualism. Importantly,itwasalsoapparentthataspectsof criticalpedagogywereappropriatedandintegrated intothecurriculummaterialinwaysthatwere mostlyinlinewithneoliberalphilosophiesof development.Iconcludebyarguingforcaution withregardstohowcriticalpedagogyispromoted withinsportfordevelopmentandpeace. ACaseStudy&Dialogue.ThePast,Presentand FutureoftheOntarioHealth&PhysicalEducation Curriculum LauraMcIntyre,UniversityofToronto(Canada) lauraleighmcintyre@gmail.com Recently,theOntarioHealth&PhysicalEducation Curriculumhasoccupiedanimportantand controversialpositionwithintheprovinces politicalworld.Inherfirstpressconferenceas OntariosfirstopenlygayPremier,KathleenWynne announcedherplantorevisitthecontroversial sexualeducationcurriculumsheattemptedtohave passedduringherappointmentasMinisterof Educationin2010.ThisinclusiveAccepting EducationAct(Bill13)drewfirefromultra conservativegroupsforitssuggestionof curriculumthattakesupalternativelifestylesin elementaryschools.Bill13wassubsequently forcedtothebackburneroftheLiberalspolitical agendaafterangryparentsandcitizenslashedout againsttheproposedbill.Thispoliticalandmedia drivenattentionsurroundingthehealthand physicaleducationfieldinvigoratesanongoing dialogueregardingthefuturedirectionofOntarios physicaleducationcurriculum,especiallywith regardstodiscoursesofinclusivity.Howwillthese politicallydrivendiscoursesbefiltereddownto youthintermsofwhattheywilllearnabouttheir bodies,theirsexualityandphysicalactivity?How mightthesenewdiscoursesenableandconstrain genderedandsexualsovereigntiesforyouthwithin asportandphysicaleducationcontext?This presentationinviteseducators,sociologistsand
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PedagogyoftheOppressed,oraPedagogyof Oppression?ExaminingthePotentialofCritical PedagogywithinSportforDevelopmentand Peace ShawnForde,UniversityofBritishColumbia (Canada)shawn.forde@alumni.ubc.ca Overthelastdecade,theuseofsportasatoolto facilitatevariousformsofdevelopment, particularlywithinthe'developing'world,has looselycoalescedintoafieldtermedsportfor developmentandpeace.Oneprominentaspectof thisfieldinvolvestheuseofsportasavehiclefor achievingavarietyofeducationalobjectives,yet verylittleresearchhasbeenconductedonthe pedagogicalstrategiesthatareusedby organizations.Furthermore,manyscholarshave recentlyarguedthateducationalframeworks withinsportfordevelopmentthatareguidedby criticalpedagogyofferthepotentialofempowering participantsandcreatingsocialchangewithin communities(Darnell,2012;Hartmann&Kwauk, 2011;Nicholls,2009;Spaaij&Jeanes, 2012).Therefore,inthispaperIusemyown experiencesinsportfordevelopment,aswellas thefindingsfromacriticaldiscourseanalysisof sportfordevelopmentandpeacecurriculum material,toexaminethestrategiespresentedin curriculumandtobuildondiscussionsrelatingto

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socioculturalscholarstoconsiderthehegemonic andcounterhegemonicnarrativesinthecurrent, presentandfutureOntariohealthandphysical educationdocuments.Acasestudysurrounding theGrade8OntarioPhysicalEducation Curriculumsrecentconceptofhealth,mediaand sexualliteracyswillbeintroducedandtheorized withinthesedominantnarrativesonhealthandthe bodytoignitethisdiscussion.

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ISSA 2013 World Congress Book of Abstracts Felkar, Victoria ............................................ 39 Field, Josey ................................................... 54 Fletcher, Thomas .......................................... 22 Forde, Shawn ................................................ 64 Frawley, Stephen .......................................... 1, 23 Friedman, Michael ....................................... 47 Fujak, Hunter ................................................ 23 Gabay, Danielle ............................................ 11 Gainsford, Janine .......................................... 24 Garcia-Garcia, Borja .................................... 53 Gee, Sarah .................................................... 21 Gils, Bieke .................................................... 55 Giulianotti, Richard ...................................... 26 Guschwan, Matthew ..................................... 52 Hales, Gavin ................................................. 26 Hansen, Peter ................................................ 51 Henricks, Thomas ......................................... 62 Hervik, Stein Egil ......................................... 41 Hobbs, Dick ................................................. 26 Hoeber, Larena ............................................. 4 Holt, Nicholas .............................................. 21 Horne, John .................................................. 20 Houston, S. Jacob ......................................... 11 Hutchinson, Chris ......................................... 24 Hwang, Tony ................................................ 14 Ishioka, Tomonori ........................................ 6 Ishizawa, Nobuhiro ....................................... 47 Jackson, Steve .............................................. 21, 22 Jinxia, Dong ................................................. 49 Keleher, Patrick ............................................ 15 Kennelly, Millicent ....................................... 37 Kerr, Roslyn ................................................. 24 Kian, Edward (Ted) ...................................... 57 Kim, Hanbeom ............................................. 10 Kim, May ..................................................... 46 Knez, Kelly .................................................. 35 Koch, Jordan ................................................ 21 Kohe, Geoffery ............................................. 59 Kope, Jared ................................................... 18 Koski, Pasi ................................................... 35 Kun Min, Liang ............................................ 6 Kwon, Sun-Yong .......................................... 10 Lamont, Matthew ......................................... 37 Lang, Kenneth Brandon ............................... 58 Lawson, Shawna .......................................... 27 Lee, Donna ................................................... 61 Lee, Jung Woo ............................................. 23 Lee, Susan .................................................... 17 Lien, Heng Hsin ........................................... 14 Lin, Po-Hsiu ................................................. 61 Lord, Rhiannon ............................................ 16 MacKay, Steph ............................................. 56 Maclennan, Rosie ......................................... 58 MacNeill, Margaret ...................................... 58 Macris, Luke ................................................ 41 Maguire, Joseph ........................................... 28 Mansfield, Louise ......................................... 50 Manzenreiter, Wolfram ................................ 45 Marchi Jnior, Wanderley ............................ 36 Markula, Pirkko ............................................ 10

Author Index
Agnew, Deb ................................................. 42 Amara, Mahfoud .......................................... 53 Andrews, David ........................................... 43 Apramian, Zale ............................................ 13 Arellano, Alexandra ..................................... 18 Armstrong, Gary .......................................... 26 Augsburger, Sarah ....................................... 56 Bairner, Alan ............................................... 1, 37 Beal, Becky ................................................. 52 Bean, Corliss ............................................... 13 Blanger, Anouk .......................................... 51 Berthoud, Jrme .......................................... 25, 62 Black, David ................................................ 45 Black, Jack ................................................... 28 Boit, Mike .................................................... 19 Bortolotti Marchi, Ktia ............................... 36 Bould, Jess ................................................... 24 Bravo, Gonzalo ............................................ 36 Broch, Trygve B. ......................................... 33 Bundon, Andrea ........................................... 33 Burnett, Cora ............................................... 18 Carvalho, Joo ............................................. 25 Chang, Wen Uei .......................................... 28 Chang, Yuchi ............................................... 61 Chen, Chung Hsing ...................................... 14 Cherry, Bennett ............................................ 29 Clarke, Daniel .............................................. 29 Clift, Bryan .................................................. 43 Coakley, Jay ................................................ 36 Coles, Tim ................................................... 54 Correa, Amanda ........................................... 40 Crosset, Todd ............................................... 9 Cutri, Christopher ........................................ 52 Dalakas, Vassilis .......................................... 29 Dallaire, Christine ........................................ 56 Darlington, Rebecca .................................... 28 Davidson, Judy ............................................ 15 De Lisio, Amanda ........................................ 2 Derom, Inge ................................................. 1, 27 DiCarlo, Danielle ......................................... 31 Ding, Yiyin .................................................. 7 Doidge, Mark ............................................... 54 Dolf, Matt .................................................... 46 Donnelly, Michele ....................................... 17 Donnelly, Peter ............................................ 19 Dortants, Marianne ...................................... 24 Douglas, Delia ............................................. 60 Dromundo, Rolando .................................... 44 Drummond, Murray ..................................... 42 Dunn, Caroline ............................................ 4 Dyck, Noel ................................................... 54 Ebishima, Hitoshi ........................................ 38 Elling-Machartzki, Agnes ............................ 10 Erueti, Bevan ............................................... 28 Evans, Adam B. ........................................... 38 Fabien, Ohl .................................................. 25 Fahlen, Josef ................................................ 34

ISSA 2013 World Congress Book of Abstracts Sirois-Moumni, Bachir ................................. 51 Skille, Eivind ................................................ 22 Skinner, James .............................................. 53 Skogvang, Bente Ovedie .............................. 17 Slepicka, Pavel ............................................. 55 Slepickova, Irena .......................................... 55 Stenling, Cecilia ........................................... 34 Stewart, Carly ............................................... 16, 49 Stuij, Mirjam ................................................ 10 Sum, Raymond ............................................. 49 Sveinson, Katie ............................................ 4 Sylvester, Kate ............................................. 48 Tarek, Brahimi ............................................. 62 Teetzel, Sarah ............................................... 12, 25 Tewari, Sanjay .............................................. 58 Toledo Ortiz, Francisco ................................ 59 Tovia, Katerina ............................................. 42 Tralci Filho, Marcio Antonio ....................... 32 Tredway, Kristi ............................................ 16 Tsai, Hsin-Yi ................................................ 48 Tulle, Emmanuelle ....................................... 5 Tung, Jui-Fa ................................................. 48 van Luijk, Nicolien ....................................... 19 VanWynsberghe, Robert .............................. 1, 27 Vertinsky, Patricia ........................................ 3 Waldman, Devra .......................................... 43 Weaving, Charlene ....................................... 12, 25 Weedon, Gavin ............................................. 51 Wenner, Lawrence ....................................... 29 Wheaton, Belinda ......................................... 5, 52 Whiteside, Bethany ...................................... 13 Wilson, Brian ............................................... 19 Won, Young-Shin ......................................... 60 Yaprak Kemalolu, Pinar ............................. 45 Yoon, Liv ..................................................... 7 Zakus, Dwight .............................................. 8, 53 Zhang, Chaoan ............................................. 32

McDonald, Brent ......................................... 39 McGee, Darragh .......................................... 3 McIntyre, Laura ........................................... 64 Mezzadri, Fernando ..................................... 40 Mignon, Patrick ........................................... 38 Miller, Aaron ............................................... 40 Mills, Cathy ................................................. 63 Minnaert, Lynn ............................................ 27 Moret, Orlan ................................................ 63 Moyle, Brent ................................................ 37 Nakazawa, Atsushi ...................................... 50 Natascia, Taverna ........................................ 25 Norman, Mark ............................................. 40 Northam, Katelynn ...................................... 45 Obel, Camilla ............................................... 5 Ogunniyi, Cassandra .................................... 8 Ohhashi, Mitsunori ...................................... 33 Olivier, Aubel .............................................. 25 Orellana, Gerardo ........................................ 31 Orr, Noreen .................................................. 6 Ostrowsky, Michael ..................................... 13 Owens, Robert ............................................. 15 Palmer, Catherine ........................................ 12 Palmer, Victoria ........................................... 30 Pentifallo, Caitlin ......................................... 20 Pfister, Gertrud ............................................ 9 Phoenix, Cassandra ...................................... 6, 54 Piggin, Joe ................................................... 37 Piggott, David .............................................. 38 Plymire, Darcy ............................................. 57 Prakash, Kaveri ............................................ 36 Rich, Emma ................................................. 50 Rich, Kyle .................................................... 13 Ritchie, Ian .................................................. 26 Rowe, David ................................................ 44 Rubio, Katia ................................................. 32 Rui, Zhang ................................................... 49 Ryan, Greg ................................................... 24 Sage, George ................................................ 2 Sam, Michael ............................................... 21, 41 Santos, Natasha ............................................ 40 Scherer, Jay ................................................. 21 Schoch, Lucie .............................................. 56 Scott, Olan ................................................... 8 Sheard, Adam .............................................. 60 Silva, Marcelo .............................................. 40 Sirna, Karen ................................................. 30