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pH of Salt Solutions

Titration of Strong Acids/Bases

L12

P.528 535

Unit 4 Chemical Systems and Equilibrium

Unit 4 Chemical Systems and Equilibrium

Learning Goals

Describe the process of salt hydrolysis Describe the titration of strong acids/bases

Neutralization Rxn

A salt is formed between the reaction of an acid and a

base. Usually, a neutral salt is formed when a strong acid

and a strong base is neutralized in the reaction:

H + + OH - H 2 O The bystander ions in an acid-base reaction form a salt solution.

Most neutral salts consists of ions that have little

tendency to react with water. Thus, salts consisting of

these ions are neutral salts.

Ions that form neutral salts

Examples of neutral salts:

NaCl

KNO 3

CaBr 2 CsClO 4

Ions that form neutral salts  Examples of neutral salts:  NaCl  KNO 3 

pH changes when acids and bases react

When weak acids and bases react, the relative strength of

the conjugated acid-base pair in the salt determines the pH of its solutions.

A salt formed between a strong acid and a weak base is an acid salt, for example NH 4 Cl.

A salt formed between a weak acid and a strong base is a basic salt, for example NaCH 3 COO.

These salts are acidic or basic due to their acidic or basic ions as shown in the tables here.

 These salts are acidic or basic due to their acidic or basic ions as shown
 These salts are acidic or basic due to their acidic or basic ions as shown

Salt Hydrolysis

describes a reaction of an ion with water to produce an acidic or basic solution (hydronium or hydroxide ions)

Salts that form Acidic Solutions

A salt formed between a strong acid and a weak base is

an acid salt.

Ammonia is a weak base, and its salt with any strong acid gives a solution with a pH lower than 7

HCl + NH 4 OH

In the solution, the NH 4 + ion reacts with water (called hydrolysis) according to the equation:

NH 4 + + H 2 O

) according to the equation:  NH 4 + + H 2 O NH 4 +

NH 4 + + Cl - + H 2 O

to the equation:  NH 4 + + H 2 O NH 4 + + Cl

NH 3 + H 3 O + .

Ex1) What is the concentration of NH 4 + , NH 3 , and H + in a 0.100 M NH 4 NO 3 solution, given the Ka = 5.7x10 -10 Assume that [NH 3 ] = x, then [H 3 O + ] = x, and you write the

concentration below the formula in the reaction:

NH 4 + + H 2 O

NH 3 + H 3 O +

I

0.100

C

-x

+x

+x

E

0.1-x

x

x

K a = 5.7x10 -10 x = 7.5x10 -6

=

x 2 / 0.1

pH = -log(7.5x10 -6 ) = 5.12 The concentration of NH4+ is 0.100 mol/L, NH3 and H+ has the concentration of 7.5x10 -6

Salts that form Basic Solutions

A basic salt is formed between a weak acid and a strong

base.

The basicity is due to the hydrolysis of the conjugate base of the (weak) acid used in the neutralization reaction.

For example, sodium acetate formed between the weak acetic acid and the strong base NaOH is a basic salt. When the salt is dissolved, ionization takes place:

CH 3 COOH + NaOH

acid

base

NaCH 3 COO + HOH

conj base

conj acid

NaCH 3 COO

CH 3 COO - + H 2 O

Na + + CH 3 COO - CH 3 COOH + OH - (hydrolysis)

A salt formed between a weak acid and a weak base can be neutral, acidic, or basic depending on the relative strengths of the acid and base.

If K a (cation) > K b (anion) the solution of the salt is acidic.

If K a (cation) = K b (anion) the solution of the salt is neutral.

If K a (cation) < K b (anion) the solution of the salt is basic.

Ex) Arrange the three salts according to their acidity. NH 4 CH 3 COO (ammonium acetate), NH 4 CN (ammonium cyanide), and NH 4 HC 2 O 4 (ammonium oxalate). K a (acetic acid) = 1.85x10 -5 K a (hydrogen cyanide) = 6.2x10 -10 K a (oxalic acid) = 5.6x10 -2 K b (NH 3 ) = 1.8x10 -5

Buffered Solutions

Solutions that resist a change in pH when a limited

amount of acid or base is added to the solution.

Must have a large quantity of acid to react with any base that may be added.

Must have a large quantity of base to react with any acid that may be added.

The acid and base that it contains must not undergo

neutralization.

How does that work??? Is it possible?

Features of Buffered Solutions

Contains a mixture of weak acid and its conjugate base or

Contains a mixture of weak base and its conjugate acid

The source of the conjugate base or acid is from the salt Example: A buffer is made from CH 3 COOH and its conjugate base, CH 3 COONa(s) (sodium acetate) CH 3 COONa(s) CH 3 COO - (aq) + Na + (aq) If acid was added…

CH 3 COO - (aq) + H + (aq) CH 3 COOH (aq) (added acid neutralized)

If base was added…

CH 3 COOH + OH - CH3COO - (aq) + HOH (l) (added base neutralized)

Acid-Base Titration (strong acid, strong base)

Endpoint: The point in a titration at which a sharp change in a measurable and characteristic property occurs (eg.A

colour change in an acid-base indicator)

which a sharp change in a measurable and characteristic property occurs (eg.A colour change in an

14

which a sharp change in a measurable and characteristic property occurs (eg.A colour change in an
15
15
15

Equivalence point: The measured quantity of titrant

recorded at the point at which chemically equivalent

amounts have reacted.

Ex) In a titration, 20.00 mL of 0.300 mol/L HCl(aq) is titrated

with standardized 0.300 mol/L NaOH(aq). What is the

amount of unreacted HCl(aq) and the pH of the solution after the following volumes of NaOH(aq) have been added? (a) 0

mL (b) 10.0 mL

(c) 20.0 mL

Test your knowledge

1. The reaction of an acid and a base always produces a

salt as the by-product, true or false?

2. Is a solution of sodium acetate acidic, neutral or basic?

3. Are solutions of ammonium chloride acidic, basic or

neutral?

4. Calculate the pH of a 0.100 M KCN solution. K a (HCN) = 6.2x10 -10 ,K b (CN - ) = 1.6x10 -5 .

Answers:

1)

T

2)

Basic

3)

Acidic

4)

pH = 11.1

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