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Industrialization and Imperialism

Purpose: To review the standards on Industrialization and Imperialism.

Name_____________ Date______________ Per#______________

Directions: Read the following and take notes while you do. Standard: 10.3 Subject: Industrial Revolution
Industrial Rev. Factors of Production Karl Marx Union Communism Imperialism Vocabulary Enclosures Capitalism Nigeria Crop Rotation Adam Smith Philippines England Thailand

The Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution is the change from hand-made goods to machine-made goods in the 1700s. This is considered a revolution because it changed the way of life for many people. For example, before the Industrial Revolution, a shirt would be made by hand. It would take a lot of time and materials. After the Industrial Revolution, shirts could be quickly made by machine in factories. The Industrial Revolution started in Britain. The reason it started here was because Britain had 4 natural resources that helped it begin. They were iron ore for machines, water power for the factories, rivers for transportation, and deep harbors for long distance trade. Also, enclosures helped Industrialization occur. Enclosures were large fences that were put around land that wealthy people bought. Most of the land belonged to small family farmers. Once their land was bought, they were not needed, and moved to the cities to work in factories. Without their labor, there could not have been an Industrial Revolution. The Industrial Revolution also depended on the work of slaves in the Americas to pick the raw materials that would be used to make goods in the factories. For example, cotton was picked in the Americas, and then sent to the factories in England to make clothes. The other downsides of this were the working conditions. Adults and children were forced to work long hours for little pay. This led to protests to try to improve conditions. It also led to the creation of unions, organizations that fought for workers rights. Unfortunately, child labor still exist (remember Nike). The Industrial Revolution also led to imperialism because European countries needed more materials to keep the factories going and to keep making money. On the test, there may be questions about art during this time. We did not really cover this in detail, but the main artistic movement during this time was romanticism. Also, the test might talk about books during this time such as The Jungle by John Sinclair about how bad the factories were. Try to use clues from the quotes to answer these questions because it always has to do with bad working conditions. They may also ask about science during this time period, such as Louis Pasteurs experiments that found that cleaning yourself helps prevent the spread of germs. This is not a very common question though.

Standard: 10.4 Subject: Imperialism

Imperialism Imperialism is when one country takes over or controls another country. We found that the main reasons for imperialism were religion, ideology (racism), politics (power), economics, and exploration (RIPEE). We studied how this happened in Africa. In Africa, Dr. David Livingstone and Henry Stanley reported to Europe and the U.S. about the natural resources of Africa. This led to the Scramble for Africa. European countries, starting with Britain, competed to take over Africa and get the natural resources that they needed for their factories. In 1884, the Berlin Conference was held. At the Berlin Conference, 14 European countries met to set rules on how to take over Africa. In the end, only two countries, Liberia and Ethiopia, stayed free in Africa. We looked at three examples of imperialism; Nigeria, Ethiopia, and India. In Nigeria, we found that it was easily taken over by Britain. The reasons for this were many. For one, they had over 250 ethnic groups. These different peoples and cultures did not have any unity. The British used this to take over the country. Ethiopia was very different. We learned that Ethiopians were united by their religion; Christianity. They also had a strong leader named Menelik II. Ethiopia, along with Liberia were the only African countries to stay free. India has a very complicated story. The British took over India by using sepoys; Indian soldiers who work for Britain. The British had a tea company that took over much of the land. This kept India very poor and the British were racist. This led to the Sepoy Rebellion, in which the sepoys tried to kick out the British. However, this did not work because the Indian people were divided by religion, some were Muslim and some were Hindu. This was the situation that India was in when Gandhi arrived. Gandhi had studied law in England and had been a lawyer in South Africa before returning to India. He joined the Indian National Congress to help in the struggle against the British. By using non-violent protest (satyagraha), the Indians were able to take make their land. Sadly, Gandhi was killed by one of his own people who did not like that Gandhi worked with people of all religions. The test also tends to ask questions about the start of the Chinese Revolution in this section. Chinese people were upset with foreigners, such as the English, trying to take over parts of China. In fact, they kicked out the English in the Boxer Rebellion in 1900. About 20 years later, the idea of communism becomes very popular among Chinese students and professors. This is the foundation for the Chinese Revolution, led by Mao Zedong.