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Original citation:

Ling, T.-C., Poon, C.-S. (2012) Feasible use of recycled CRT funnel glass as heavyweight fine aggregate in barite concrete. Journal of Cleaner Production; 33:42-49.

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0959652612002260?v=s5

Feasible use of recycled CRT funnel glass as heavyweight fine aggregate in barite concrete

Tung-Chai Ling 1,2 , Chi-Sun Poon 1, * 1 The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, 2 University of Birmingham

Kong Polytechnic University, 2 University of Birmingham Abstract The challenge of managing discarded cathode ray

Abstract The challenge of managing discarded cathode ray tube (CRT) waste has become a major environmental concern in Hong Kong and other cities. Recycled CRT funnel glass with a relatively high density (~3000 kg/m 3 ) can be used as a potential material for the production of heavyweight concrete. This paper aimed to investigate the feasibility of using recycled CRT funnel glass, both treated (lead has been removed from the glass surface) and untreated (without removal of lead) as partial and full replacement of fine aggregate in heavyweight barite concrete. The inclusion of barite aggregate and recycled funnel glass increased the hardened density but reduced the compressive and splitting tensile strengths. The replacement of natural fine aggregate with recycled CRT glass had no significant effect on the elastic modulus but considerably improved the drying shrinkage of the concrete. In conclusion, the overall properties of heavyweight barite concrete made with the treated and untreated recycled CRT funnel glass are comparable, except for lead leaching results. The results show that it is feasible to use the treated CRT glass as 100% substitution of fine aggregate in making heavyweight concrete. However, the substitution of untreated glass should limit to below 25% due to its potential lead leaching.

Keywords: Heavyweight concrete, cathode ray tube, recycled glass, barite, mechanical properties

ray tube, recycled glass, barite, mechanical properties 1. Introduction 1.1. Heavyweight concrete Concrete with a

1. Introduction 1.1. Heavyweight concrete Concrete with a density higher than 2600 kg/m 3 is classified as heavyweight concrete (HWC) (Başyigit et al., 2010). HWC is one of the common types of concrete used in nuclear power plants, medical units and in structures where radioactive protection is required (Gencel et al., 2010a; Gencel et al., 2010b; Akkurt et al., 2010). This is due to its ability to attenuate radiation (Akkurt et al., 2006). Besides, HWC can also be used for ballasting for pipelines and similar structures for offshore applications.

Previous studies have shown that aggregates which have a density higher than 3000 kg/m 3 can be considered as heavyweight aggregate for the production of heavyweight

as heavyweight aggregate for the production of heavyweight *First author: t.ling.1@bham.ac.uk ; tcling611@yahoo.com
as heavyweight aggregate for the production of heavyweight *First author: t.ling.1@bham.ac.uk ; tcling611@yahoo.com

concrete (Kilincarslan et al., 2006; Sakr and EL-Hakim 2005). Barite has been widely used in making heavyweight concrete because of its high density (4.1 g/cm 3 ). Esen and Yilmazer (2010) investigated some of the physical and mechanical properties of concrete made using barite (BaSO 4 ) aggregate at different replacement ratios. They found that the unit weight, ultrasound pulse velocity (UPV), modulus of elasticity of barite aggregate concretes increased with an increase of barite aggregate content. In contrast, the tensile and compressive strengths were found to decrease with an increase of barite aggregate content due to the lower mechanical strength of the barite aggregate. Also, Topçu (2003) found that the optimal w/c ratio for heavyweight barite concrete was about 0.4 and the cement content should not be less than 350 kg/m 3 . Akkurt et al. (2008) investigated the effect of freezing and thawing (F-T) on the properties of concrete made with barite aggregate. The results showed that an F-T cycle had no significant effect on the unit weight and compressive strength of the barite concrete. However, the modulus of elasticity decreased with increase of F-T cycle.

Research background
Research background

1.2.

The challenge of managing discarded cathode ray tube (CRT) waste has become a major environmental concern in Hong Kong (Poon, 2008). About 490,000 units per year of CRT waste derived from old TV sets and computer monitors is generated in Hong Kong (Ling and Poon, 2011a). A study has shown that over 4 million tonnes of e-waste are generated per year from eight European countries and the amount is kept growing (EA, 2006). According to EPA (2007), almost 175,000 tonnes of products containing CRT is generated in the United State each year and the majority (80-85%) of this waste ends up in landfills. This is undesirable because the lead contained within the CRT glass can leach from the broken glass cullets and contaminate ground water. Thus, special treatment for discarded CRT glass is necessary before it can be reused or disposed of in landfills, mainly because of the high lead content present in the CRT glass (Lee et al., 2004; Lee and His, 2002; Menad, 1999).

A number of studies have been conducted to investigate the effectiveness of different methods to remove the lead present on the surface of CRT crushed glass. Chemical treatment methods by using alkali and/or acid solutions have been studied (Foresman and Foresman 2000; Ioannidis and Zouboulis, 2006). In Hong Kong, a four-step simple recycling method has been developed to remove the surface lead and the method consists of: (i) isolation of the leaded funnel glass from CRT; (ii) crushing the glass into smaller particle sizes of less than 5 mm; (iii) removal of lead from the surface of crushed funnel glass by immersing in 5% nitric acid solution for 3 h; and (iv) rinsing the treated glass using tap water to remove the remaining acid. The details of the recycling process have been reported (Poon, 2008; Ling and Poon, 2011a).

1.3. Motivation of the research

Previous studies have proved that the recycled glass appear to be suitable for use in a wide range of applications including concrete, bricks and road engineering (Lin, 2007; Disfani et al., 2012). Topcu and Canbaz (2004) reported that when 60% of natural aggregates in concrete were substituted by recycled glass aggregate, the overall cost of concrete production can be reduced by 2.8%. Recently, recycled aggregates derived from

reduced by 2.8%. Recently, recycled aggregates derived from *First author: t.ling.1@bham.ac.uk ; tcling611@yahoo.com
reduced by 2.8%. Recently, recycled aggregates derived from *First author: t.ling.1@bham.ac.uk ; tcling611@yahoo.com

various sources with diverse characteristics have been shown to be able to be utilized in concrete. Furthermore, some studies have been done to incorporate recycled rubber aggregate in lightweight concrete for a better functional properties and durability (Pelisser et al., 2012; Ho et al., 2011; Mohammed et al., 2012; Richardson et al., 2012).

The recycled CRT funnel glass can be utilized as a fine aggregate for making concrete. The relatively high density (~3000 kg/m 3 ) of the glass as compared to conventional natural aggregates (~2600 kg/m 3 ) renders it suitable for producing heavyweight concrete. This present study aims to assess the feasibility of using recycled CRT recycled glass as fine aggregate for the production of heavyweight barite concrete. Both treated (lead is removed from the surface of crushed glass) and untreated (glass without removal of lead) crushed CRT glass was used as replacements of natural crushed fine stone at 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% by volume. The hardened density, compressive strength, tensile splitting strength and elastic modulus of the heavyweight barite concrete were determined. The resistance to carbonation and the drying shrinkage of the concrete were also assessed.

Chemical compositions (%) Cement Fly ash Calcium oxide (CaO) 63.15 <3 Silicon dioxide (SiO 2
Chemical compositions (%)
Cement
Fly ash
Calcium oxide
(CaO)
63.15
<3
Silicon dioxide
(SiO 2 )
19.61
56.79
Aluminium oxide
(Al 2 O 3 )
7.33
28.21
Ferric oxide
(Fe 2 O 3 )
3.32
5.31
Magnesium oxide
(MgO)
2.54
5.21
Sodium oxide
(Na 2 O)
0.13
0.45
Potassium
(K 2 O)
0.39
1.34
Sulfur trioxide
(SO 3 )
2.13
0.68
Loss on ignition
2.97
3.9
Physical properties
Specific gravity
3.16
2.31
Blaine fineness (cm 2 /g)
3519
3960

2. Experimental details 2.1. Materials 2.1.1. Cementitious materials Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) complying with ASTM Type I and Fly ash complying with ASTM class F were used as the cementitious materials. The chemical compositions and physical properties of these cementitious materials are shown in Table 1.

Table 1. The chemical compositions and physical properties of cementitious materials.

and physical properties of cementitious materials. *First author: t.ling.1@bham.ac.uk ; tcling611@yahoo.com
and physical properties of cementitious materials. *First author: t.ling.1@bham.ac.uk ; tcling611@yahoo.com

2.1.2. Coarse and fine aggregates Natural granite and barite aggregates with 5/10 mm and 10/20 mm size were used as coarse aggregates, respectively, in the control-granite and the control-barite mixes. The barite aggregate has a density of 4,200 kg/m 3 and can be regarded as a radiopaque material because of its high density.

All fine aggregates used in this study had particle sizes of less than 5 mm. Crushed fine stone (CFS) with a fineness modulus of 1.8 was used as 100% fine aggregate in both the control-granite and the control-barite concrete. The recycled CRT funnel glass was obtained from a local CRT Waste Recycling Centre. In this study, crushed funnel glass (CFG, untreated) and treated funnel glass (TFG, treated with acid to remove lead) were used to replace CFS. The grading curves of the coarse and fine aggregates are shown in Fig. 1. The physical properties of the coarse and fine aggregates are listed in Table 2.

A superplasticizer ADVA-109 containing no added chloride and weighing approximately 1.045±0.02 kg/l was used as
A superplasticizer ADVA-109 containing no added chloride and weighing approximately
1.045±0.02 kg/l was used as a high range water reducer.
2.2. Mix proportions
A total of ten concrete mixes were prepared including two control mixes (control-granite
and control-barite). The mixtures were prepared with a cementitious material content of
417 kg/m 3 (15% was fly ash), water-to-cementitious material (w/c) ratio of 0.48 and the
ratio of fine-to-total aggregates was kept at 0.42. For comparison, granite and barite
aggregates were used as 100% coarse aggregate to prepare the control-granite and the
control-barite mixes, respectively. Crushed fine stone (CFS) was used as the fine
aggregate. In order to assess the feasibility of using recycled CRT funnel glass in
heavyweight barite concrete, crushed funnel glass (CFG) and treated funnel glass (TFG)
were used respectively to replace 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of equal volumes of CFS.
The details of the mix proportions of the concrete mixes are shown in Table 3.
Table 2. Physical properties of coarse and fine aggregates
Coarse aggregates
Fine aggregates
Crushed
Treated
Crushed
Physical properties
Granite
Granite
Barite
Barite
funnel
funnel
fine stone
10/20
5/10
10/20
5/10
Glass
glass
(CFS)
(CFG)
(TFG)
Fineness modulus
-
-
-
-
1.8
3.0
3.4
Saturated-surface-dry
(SSD) density (g/cm 3 )
2.62
2.62
4.11
4.10
2.62
3.10
2.99
Water absorption (%)
0.87
0.87
1.49
1.47
1.23
0.03
0.03
10% fine value (kN)
159.0
40.7
-
- -
1.23 0.03 0.03 10% fine value (kN) 159.0 40.7 - - - *First author: t.ling.1@bham.ac.uk ;
1.23 0.03 0.03 10% fine value (kN) 159.0 40.7 - - - *First author: t.ling.1@bham.ac.uk ;
100 90 80 70 60 50 40 Granite 10/20 Barite 10/20 30 Granite 5/10 Barite
100 90 80 70 60 50 40 Granite 10/20 Barite 10/20 30 Granite 5/10 Barite
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
Granite 10/20
Barite
10/20
30
Granite 5/10
Barite
5/10
20
Crush
ed fine
stone
Crush
ed funn
el glass
10
Treated fu
nnel glass
0
0.1
1
10
100
Sieve size (mm)
Fig. 1. Grading curves of coarse and fine aggregates.
Table 3. Mix proportions of heavyweight barite concrete
Proportions (kg/m 3 )
Coarse aggregates
Fine aggregates
Notation
w/c
Cement
PFA
Granite
Barite
CFS
CFG
TFG
10/20
5/10
10/20
5/10
Replacement
by vol. (%)
Granite
0.48
355
62
669
335
-
-
727
-
-
0
concrete
Barite
0.48
355
62
-
- 1047
523
727
0
-
0
concrete
-
CFG-25
0.48
355
62
-
- 1047
523
545
209
25
CFG-50
0.48
355
62
-
- 1047
523
364
416
-
50
CFG-75
0.48
355
62
-
- 1047
523
182
623
-
75
CFG-100
0.48
355
62
-
- 1047
523
0
830
-
100
TFG-25
0.48
355
62
-
- 1047
523
545
- 209
25
TFG-50
0.48
355
62
-
- 1047
523
364
- 416
50
TFG-75
0.48
355
62
-
- 1047
523
182
- 623
75
TFG-100
0.48
355
62
-
- 1047
523
0
- 830
100
Percent passing (%)

2.3. Sample preparation The concrete mixtures were prepared using a pan mixer with a capacity of 100 L. The mixing sequence consisted of mixing cementitious materials, and coarse and fine aggregates together with ½ of the mixing water. After mixing for 3 min, the remaining

of the mixing water. After mixing for 3 min, the remaining *First author: t.ling.1@bham.ac.uk ; tcling611@yahoo.com
of the mixing water. After mixing for 3 min, the remaining *First author: t.ling.1@bham.ac.uk ; tcling611@yahoo.com

mixing water (with the superplasticizer pre-mixed in it) was introduced into the mixer, and the concrete was mixed for another 2 min.

Immediately after the end of mixing, the fresh concrete mix was cast into different types of steel moulds. A mechanical vibrating table was used to compact the fresh concrete. After the samples were initially set (observed by usual inspection), the samples were covered with a thin plastic sheet and stored in a laboratory environment at a temperature

of

23±3°C for 24 hours. After one day, the samples were demoulded and then water cured

at

a controlled temperature of 25±3°C until the day of testing.

Hardened density Compressive strength Tensile splitting strength Static elasticity modulus Carbonation
Hardened density
Compressive strength
Tensile splitting strength
Static elasticity modulus
Carbonation

2.4. Test methods

2.4.1.

100

mm concrete cube samples were used for determining the hardened density

according to ASTM C 642 (2006).

2.4.2.

The compressive strength of 100 mm concrete cube samples was determined at 1, 7, 28,

90 days according to BS 1881: Part 116 (1983). A testing machine with a load capacity of

3000

kN and loading rate of 0.6 kN per second was used for the test. The results reported

are the average values of three cube samples for each mix proportion.

2.4.3.

Cylinder samples with dimensions of Ф100 × 200 mm were used for performing a tensile

splitting strength test according to BS EN 12390: Part 6 (2000). The loading rate was set

at

and 90 days.

0.06 MPa per second. For each mix proportion three samples were tested at 1, 7, 28

2.4.4.

Three Φ100 × 200 mm cylinder samples were used to determine the 28-day static elasticity modulus of the concrete in accordance with ASTM C 469 (2002).

2.4.5.

A

BRE Digest 45. To accelerate the carbonation process, three 100 mm cube samples cured underwater for 28 days were placed in an accelerated carbonation chamber that was set at a 4% CO 2 concentration with a 25 °C constant temperature and 60% relative humidity. The concrete samples were placed in the test chamber for a selected period of 28 and 90 days. Then, the samples were split into two halves and a 1% phenolphthalein solution (pH indicator) was sprayed onto the fractured surface. The depth of the colourless part from the edge of the specimen was measured as the carbonation depth. Four readings were measured in each fractured surface of the specimens.

carbonation test was conducted in accordance with Building Research Establishment,

2.4.7. Dry shrinkage

A modified British standard (BS ISO, Part 8) method was used for the drying shrinkage

test (2009). After demoulding, the initial lengths of three 75×75×285 mm prism samples were recorded using a calibrated dial gauge. After the initial readings, the specimens were

dial gauge. After the initial readings, the specimens were *First author: t.ling.1@bham.ac.uk ; tcling611@yahoo.com
dial gauge. After the initial readings, the specimens were *First author: t.ling.1@bham.ac.uk ; tcling611@yahoo.com

conveyed to an environmental chamber with a temperature of 23°C and a relative humidity of 50% until further measurements at the 56 th and 112 th day.

2.4.8. Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP)

All the ten designed concrete mixes sample were tested for lead (Pb) and Barium (Ba) leachability using the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) in accordance to the US Environmental Protection Agency method 1311 (1992). An extraction solution with a pH value of 2.88 was prepared using glacial acetic acid. For each test, 20 g of crushed concrete samples passing through a 10 mm sieve was added in 400 mL extraction solution within plastics containers. The containers were tumbled for 18 h by a rotary shaker. The leachable heavy metals were then analyzed using ICP-MS method.

heavy metals were then analyzed using ICP-MS method. 3. Results and discussion 3.1. Hardened density 3.1.1.

3. Results and discussion

3.1. Hardened density

3.1.1. Effect of barite aggregate

Fig. 2a shows the results of the hardened density of the control-granite and the control- barite concrete. By keeping the mixing proportion constant, it was able to compare the effect of the use of the two types of coarse aggregate on the hardened density. As indicated in the figure, a density value of 2,607 kg/m 3 was recorded for the control-barite (100% replacement of total volume of granite aggregates), which was about 16.2% higher than that of the control-granite. Hence, the control-barite produced in this study can be treated as a heavyweight concrete (with a hardened density >2600 kg/m 3 ). The increase in the concrete density can be attributed to the relatively higher density of barite aggregate (4.1 g/cm 3 ) when compared to natural granite aggregate (2.6 g/cm 3 ). This result is consistent with the results reported by Esen and Yilmazer (2010).

Effect of using CFG and TFG to replace CFS Compressive strength Effect of barite aggregate
Effect of using CFG and TFG to replace CFS
Compressive strength
Effect of barite aggregate

3.1.2.

Fig. 2b shows the effect of replacing CFS by CFG and TFG on the hardened density of heavyweight barite concrete (HWBC). It can be seen that the density of HWBC increased with an increase of the replacement content due to the CRT glass having a higher density than that of CFS. The average percentage increase was about 0.8%, 1.2%, 1.9% and 2.4% at a replacement content of 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%, respectively. It was also noted that the hardened density of the TFG concrete was slightly less than that of the CFG concrete probably because of the removal of lead on the surface of the CRT glass.

3.2.

3.2.1.

The results of the compressive strength tests of the control-granite and control-barite are shown in Fig. 3a. The use of barite aggregate reduced the compressive strength of the concrete. The reason for this is related to the lower crushing strength of barite. As referred to in Table 2, the determined ten percent fine values of the barite aggregate (40.7 kN) were much lower than that obtained for the granite aggregate (159.0 kN). Similar observations reported by Esen and Yilmazer (2010), showed that there was an 11.7% decrease in compressive strength of the concrete prepared with 50% replacement of granite by barite. However, results reported by Sakr and EL-Hakim (2005) indicate an opposite trend (see Table 4).

EL-Hakim (2005) indicate an opposite trend (see Table 4). *First author: t.ling.1@bham.ac.uk ; tcling611@yahoo.com
EL-Hakim (2005) indicate an opposite trend (see Table 4). *First author: t.ling.1@bham.ac.uk ; tcling611@yahoo.com

(a)

2700 2600 2500 2400 2300 2200 2100 2000 Control-granite Control-barite (b) 2700 2680 HWB C
2700
2600
2500
2400
2300
2200
2100
2000
Control-granite
Control-barite
(b)
2700
2680
HWB C with CFG
2660
HWB C with TFG
2640
2620
2600
2580
2560
2540
2520
2500
0
25
50
75
100
Pe ce ntage of volume re place me nt
Hardened density (kg/m3)
Hardened density (kg/m3)

Fig. 2. Effect of (a) barite aggregate and (b) replacement content of CFG and TFG on the hardened density of concrete.

content of CFG and TFG on the hardened density of concrete. *First author: t.ling.1@bham.ac.uk ; tcling611@yahoo.com
content of CFG and TFG on the hardened density of concrete. *First author: t.ling.1@bham.ac.uk ; tcling611@yahoo.com
(a) 60 Control-granite 50 Control-barite 40 30 20 10 0 1 7 28 90 Curing
(a) 60 Control-granite 50 Control-barite 40 30 20 10 0 1 7 28 90 Curing
(a)
60
Control-granite
50
Control-barite
40
30
20
10
0
1
7
28
90
Curing age (day)
(b)
Control-barite
CFG-25
CFG-50
CFG-75
CFG-100
TFG-25
TFG-50
TFG-75
TFG-100
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
1
7
28
90
Curing age (day)
Fig. 3. Effect of (a) barite aggregate and (b) replacement content of CFG and TFG on the
compressive strength of concrete.
Compressive strength (MPa)
Compressive strength (MPa)
Compressive strength (MPa) Compressive strength (MPa) *First author: t.ling.1@bham.ac.uk ; tcling611@yahoo.com
Compressive strength (MPa) Compressive strength (MPa) *First author: t.ling.1@bham.ac.uk ; tcling611@yahoo.com

Table 4. Comparison results of concrete properties between current work and pervious studies

Author Current work Sakr and EL-Hakim (2005) Cementitious content, kg/m 3 417 400 Water-to-cement ratio,
Author
Current work
Sakr and EL-Hakim (2005)
Cementitious content, kg/m 3
417
400
Water-to-cement ratio, w/c
0.48
0.40
Coarse agg. (5-20mm), kg/m 3
Granite=1004
Barite=1570
Barite=1570
Barite=1570
Gravel=1125
Barite=1510
Fine agg. (<5mm), kg/m 3
CFS=727
CFS=727
CFG=830
TFG=830
Gravel=750
Barite=1236
Density, Kg/m 3
2244
2607
2672
2665
2350
3250
Compressive strength, Mpa
45.9
42.1
36.5
35.1
44.0
47.0
Tensilte splitting strength, MPa
3.71
2.51
1.93
1.80
2.55
2.85
Flexural strength, MPa
-
-
-
-
3.43
4.42
Elastic modulus, GPa
29.8
20.5
21.0
18.4
20.8
29.0
3.2.2.
Effect of CFG and TFG
Fig. 3b shows the results for the compressive strength of HWBC prepared by using
different content of CFG and TFG to replace CFS. It can be seen that the compressive
strength gradually decreased with an increase in replacement content. A similar trend can
be observed for concrete prepared with CFG and TFG. At the 28 th day, the compressive
strength was decreased from 42.1 MPa (control-barite) to 36.5 MPa and 35.1 MPa when
crushed fine stone was fully replaced by CFG and TF G, respectively. This might be
explained by the smoother surface of the glass aggregate, thus affecting the bonding
between the glass particles and cement paste.
3.3. Tensile splitting strength
3.3.1.
Effect of barite aggregate
Fig. 4a shows the results of the development of the tensile splitting strength of the
control-granite and the control-barite over time. The results show that the control-barite
has a lower tensile splitting strength than that of the control-granite. Also, the reduction in
tensile splitting strength due to the use of barite was more noticeable than the reduction in
compressive strength. For example, when barite was used instead of granite in the
concrete, there was about 32.3% reduction in tensile splitting strength, while only 8.3%
reduction in compressive strength was noted at the curing age of 28 days. This can be
attributed to the high brittleness of the barite aggregate and the initiated cracks
propagated along the longitudinal direction of the specimen, resulting in weaker tension
as the loading was continually applied in the middle of the specimen during the tensile
splitting strength test.
Properties
Mix ratio

3.3.2. Effect of replacement content of CFG and TFG

The tensile splitting strength decreased as the replacement ratio of CFS by both CFG and TFG increased. For example, the tensile splitting strength decreased by 4.6%, 6.8%, 18.5% and 25.7% on average as the replacement ratio was increased from 0 to 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%, respectively. Similar to the case of barite, the negative influence of CFG

Similar to the case of barite, the negative influence of CFG *First author: t.ling.1@bham.ac.uk ; tcling611@yahoo.com
Similar to the case of barite, the negative influence of CFG *First author: t.ling.1@bham.ac.uk ; tcling611@yahoo.com

*First author: t.ling.1@bham.ac.uk; tcling611@yahoo.com

Page 10

and TFG in concrete is more obvious in tension than in compression. This can be understood by the fact that the adhesion between the aggregates and the cement paste play a more dominant role in affecting the tensile properties of the concrete specimens.

(a) 4.5 Control-granite 4.0 Control-barite 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 1 7
(a)
4.5
Control-granite
4.0
Control-barite
3.5
3.0
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
0.0
1
7
28
90
Curing age (day)
(b)
Control-barite
CFG-25
CFG-50
CFG-75
CFG-100
TFG-25
TFG-50
TFG-75
TFG-100
3.0
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
0.0
1
7
28
90
Splitting tensile strength
(MPa)
Splitting tensile strength
(MPa)

Curing age (day)

Fig. 4. Effect of (a) barite aggregate and (b) replacement content of CFG and TFG on the tensile splitting strength of concrete.

CFG and TFG on the tensile splitting strength of concrete. *First author: t.ling.1@bham.ac.uk ; tcling611@yahoo.com
CFG and TFG on the tensile splitting strength of concrete. *First author: t.ling.1@bham.ac.uk ; tcling611@yahoo.com

3.4. Elasticity modulus 3.4.1. Effect of barite aggregate As shown in Fig. 5a, the average 28-day elastic modulus of the control-granite and the control-barite were 29.8 GPa and 20.5 GPa, respectively. In other words, as the granite coarse aggregate was totally replaced by barite, a 31.0% reduction in elastic modulus resulted. Interestingly, Sark and El-Hakim (2005) reported that the use of barite aggregate for total volume of gravel aggregate replacement noticeably improved the elastic modulus by 39.6% (see Table 4), although the barite aggregate used also had lower mechanical properties than that of gravel aggregate.

(a) 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Control-granite Control-barite (b) HWBC with CFG
(a)
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
Control-granite
Control-barite
(b)
HWBC with CFG
HWBC with TFG
25.0
20.0
15.0
10.0
5.0
0.0
Elastic modulus (GPa)
Elastic modulus (GPa)

0

50

Pe ce ntage of volume re place me nt

25

75

100

Fig. 5. Effect of (a) barite aggregate and (b) replacement content of CFG and TFG on the elastic modulus of concrete.

content of CFG and TFG on the elastic modulus of concrete. *First author: t.ling.1@bham.ac.uk ; tcling611@yahoo.com
content of CFG and TFG on the elastic modulus of concrete. *First author: t.ling.1@bham.ac.uk ; tcling611@yahoo.com

3.4.2.

Effect of replacement content of CFG and TFG

The influence of using CFG and TFG on the elastic modulus is illustrated in Fig. 5b. The results show only an insignificant effect. Moreover, in some cases, the use of CFG and

TFG to replace CFS can cause an increase in the elastic modulus of concrete. A study by Topçu and Canbaz (2004) reported that the elastic modulus of concrete increased with increasing use of glass as the aggregate. As for a study by Taha and Nounu (2008), they found that it was difficult to identify the difference in elastic modulus of concrete prepared with 50% and 100% recycled fine glass aggregate. The reason was thought to be that the type of fine aggregate used in concrete does not play an important part in affecting the elastic modulus.

Effect of barite aggregate Effect of replacement content of CFG and TFG
Effect of barite aggregate
Effect of replacement content of CFG and TFG

3.5. Carbonation

3.5.1.

Requirement of a concrete durability depending on the exposure environment and the properties desired. Durability of concrete can be assessed by means of accelerated carbonation depth. The carbonation depth results of the two control concrete samples are shown in Fig. 6a. It can be seen that the carbonation depth of the control-barite concrete was lower than that of the control-granite concrete, which may be due to the better packing density of barite aggregate, resulting in lower pore structures in the concrete.

3.5.2.

Fig. 6b shows the carbonation depth values of the HWBC prepared with CFG and TFG at different replacement ratios. The results indicate that the substitution of CFS by CFG and TFG decreased the carbonation resistance of HWBC. This is because the carbonation resistance is generally associated with the voids present in the concrete and the impermeable surface of recycled funnel glass aggregate might have trapped more air in the concrete matrix, consequently permitting more carbon dioxide to penetrate into the concrete (Ling and Poon, 2011b).

to penetrate into the concrete (Ling and Poon, 2011b). *First author: t.ling.1@bham.ac.uk ; tcling611@yahoo.com
to penetrate into the concrete (Ling and Poon, 2011b). *First author: t.ling.1@bham.ac.uk ; tcling611@yahoo.com
(a) 10 Control-granite Control-barite 8 6 4 2 0 28 90 Curing age (day) (b)
(a) 10 Control-granite Control-barite 8 6 4 2 0 28 90 Curing age (day) (b)
(a)
10
Control-granite
Control-barite
8
6
4
2
0
28
90
Curing age (day)
(b)
Control-barite
CFG-25
CFG-50
CFG-75
CFG-100
TFG-25
TFG-50
TFG-75
TFG-100
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
28
90
Curing age (day)
Fig. 6. Effect of (a) barite aggregate and (b) replacement content of CFG and TFG on the
carbonation depth of concrete.
Carbonation depth (mm)
Carbonation depth (mm)

3.6. Dry shrinkage Concrete shrinkage has become an increasingly important issue to be understood because the potential of drying shrinkage as a function of moisture loss can lead to cracking and contribute to decreased serviceability. Fig. 7 shows the dry shrinkage results. All samples had shrinkage below 0.075% at 56 th day and therefore, according to the Australian Standard AS 3600 (2004), the shrinkage was within an acceptable limit. Comparing the results, control-barite concrete showed the highest drying shrinkage value at both 56 th and

the highest drying shrinkage value at both 56 t h and *First author: t.ling.1@bham.ac.uk ; tcling611@yahoo.com
the highest drying shrinkage value at both 56 t h and *First author: t.ling.1@bham.ac.uk ; tcling611@yahoo.com

112 th days. It is clearly observed that the incorporation of CFG and TFG has a beneficial effect in reducing the drying shrinkage of HWBC. The decrease in drying shrinkage with the presence of recycled funnel glass aggregates may be attributed to the low water absorption values of the glass. This is in agreement with previous study done by Kou and Poon (2009). They results also show that the concrete with 45% recycled glass used as fine aggregate had less drying shrinkage (0.031%) than that of control mix (0.037%).

Control-barite CFG-25 CFG-50 CFG-75 CFG-100 TFG-25 TFG-50 TFG-75 TFG-100 0.08 0.07 Below specified limit
Control-barite
CFG-25
CFG-50
CFG-75
CFG-100
TFG-25
TFG-50
TFG-75
TFG-100
0.08
0.07
Below specified limit of 0.075
0.06
0.05
0.04
0.03
0.02
0.01
0.00
56
112
Curing age (day)
Fig. 7. Effect of replacement content of CFG and TFG on the drying shrinkage of
concrete.
3.7. Lead and Barium leaching
The lead and barium leaching results obtained using TCLP method for all the control
and heavyweight barite concretes are summarized in Table 5. The results indicated that
all the concrete mixes satisfied the TCLP permitted limit (100 mg/L) for barium. With
the exception of CFG-50, CFG-75 and CFG-100, the lead concentrations in the leachate
were also below the acceptable limit of 5.0 mg/L. This would suggest that TFG can be
used as a substitution for fine aggregate up to 100% but the use of CFG should to below
25% due to its higher leachable content.
Drying shrinkage (%)
due to its higher leachable content. Drying shrinkage (%) *First author: t.ling.1@bham.ac.uk ; tcling611@yahoo.com
due to its higher leachable content. Drying shrinkage (%) *First author: t.ling.1@bham.ac.uk ; tcling611@yahoo.com

Table 5. TCLP results of barium and lead leaching from crushed concrete samples

Notation Barium (mg/L) Lead (mg/L) pH Granite concrete 0.84 0.09 4.84 Barite concrete 0.14 0.02
Notation
Barium (mg/L)
Lead (mg/L)
pH
Granite concrete
0.84
0.09
4.84
Barite concrete
0.14
0.02
4.49
CFG-25
0.28
2.20
4.75
CFG-50
0.34
20.69
4.50
CFG-75
0.34
28.19
4.53
CFG-100
0.47
84.36
4.38
TFG-25
0.32
0.53
4.32
TFG-50
0.27
0.76
4.45
TFG-75
0.29
1.81
4.48
TFG-100
0.26
1.84
4.54
TCLP limit
100
5.00
-

4. Conclusion This study investigated the feasibility of using recycled CRT funnel glass (both crushed funnel glass (CFG) and treated funnel glass (TFG)) as fine aggregates in the production of heavyweight barite concrete (HWBC). Based on the experimental results, the following conclusions can be drawn:

In general, the overall performance of HWBC prepared with CFG and TFG are comparable.

The hardened density of the concrete was increased from 2244 kg/m 3 to 2672 kg/m 3 as the natural coarse and fine aggregates were respectively fully replaced by barite aggregate and recycled funnel glass. This is because the barite aggregate and recycled funnel glass had higher density values than those of natural coarse and fine aggregates.

The use of barite aggregate and recycled funnel glass decreased both the compressive and tensile splitting strengths of HWBC. This can be attributed to the lower crushing strength of the barite aggregate and smoother surface of the glass aggregate.

Use of barite aggregate in concrete reduced the elastic modulus by 31%. But no significant difference was observed when the natural fine aggregate was replaced by the recycled CRT glass. It seems that the types of coarse aggregate used affected the elastic modulus more than the types of fine aggregate used in the concrete.

Heavyweight barite concrete had a better resistance to carbonation than the control-granite concrete, whereas the resistance to carbonation was gradually decreased with increasing use of the CRT glass to replace CFS.

Inclusion of recycled CRT glass in HWBC can help to reduce the drying shrinkage.

All the concrete mixes showed lead and barium leaching level below the

mixes showed lead and barium leaching level below the *First author: t.ling.1@bham.ac.uk ; tcling611@yahoo.com
mixes showed lead and barium leaching level below the *First author: t.ling.1@bham.ac.uk ; tcling611@yahoo.com

permissible limits, except for the HWBC mixes containing high (>25%) CFG content.

The above results suggest that it is feasible to use barite aggregate and TFG up to 100% as replacements of natural coarse and fine aggregates for the production of heavyweight concrete, especially for applications in radiation shielding construction. As for CFG, it is suggested that the percentage used should be less than 25% due to its leachable lead content.

Acknowledgment The authors would like to thank the Environment and Conservation Fund, the Woo Wheelock Green Fund, and The Hong Kong Polytechnic University for funding support.

The Hong Kong Polytechnic University for funding support. References Akkurt, I., Basyigit, C., Kilincarslan, S.,

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with barite. Cement and Concrete Research 33 (6), 815–822. *First author: t.ling.1@bham.ac.uk ; tcling611@yahoo.com