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INTRODUCTION

In this project we show that ho we monitor the energy meter wirelessly. By using this technique it is very easy to check the pulse to pulse. When we are monitoring pulse to pulse then we easily detect the maximum load period, easily check the meter failure and at the same time we easily monitor the tapping also.

Logic behind this project is to transfer the pulse of meter via radio frequency module. With the help of radio frequency module we made connectivity between meter and central monitor system. In this project we check the pulse monitoring of two meter at a time.

In this project we use three circuits. One each for the meter and one as a central receiver and transfer the data on the led.

Transmitter circuit.

Figure 1

In the transmitter circuit we use one small energy meter to get the data of pulse . Now first of all we connect a load with the meter. In this section of the project we use one step down transformer to step down the voltage from 220 volt ac to 9-0-9 ac. This transformer is a centre tap transformer having a current rating of 1 ampere. Output of the centre tap transformer is connected to the rectifier circuit. In this project we use full wave rectifier to convert the ac voltage from the transformer to pulsating dc. This pulsating dc is further converted into smooth dc with the help of capacitor filter. Capacitor convert the pulsating dc into regulator we smooth dc and with the help of regulate the voltage to 5 volt dc. regulator to regulate the voltage

Here we use 7805 for 5 volt dc.


Figure 2

Output from the meter is connected to the electronics transmitter circuit via optocoupler device. Optocoupler device provide an optical isolation

between meter and electronics circuit. In this project we use pc 817 optocoupler. Pin no 1,2 is connected to meter internally and output of the optocoupler is connected to the lm358 comparator. Other pin of the comparator is connected to the variable resistor to set the reference voltage. As the pulse is on the op-amp then circuit provide a output signal. Meter provides a 3200 pulse for one unit. These 3200 pulses are transmit by the RF transmitter serially. Here we use 433 MHz transmitters to transmit the pulse. We connect a 4 bit encoder between pulse and RF transmitter. We use HT 12 e encoder to interface the data with RF module HT12 E and HT 12 D decoder are easily available in the market. The 212 encoders are a series of CMOS LSIs for remote control system applications. They are capable of encoding information which consists of N address bits and 12_N data bits. Each address/data input can be set to one of the two logic states. The programmed addresses/ data are

transmitted together with the header bits via an RF or an infrared transmission medium upon receipt of a trigger signal. The capability to select a TE trigger on the HT12E or a
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DATA trigger on the HT12A further enhances the application flexibility of the 212 series of encoders. The HT12A additionally provides a 38 kHz carrier for infrared systems.

Figure 3

In this portion of transmitter circuit we add a small IC 555 here. Here IC 555 work as a astable multivibrator to produce a square wave when required. We use this circuit to check the transmitter for proper working. In actual meter pulse is not very fast, its according to the load. With the help of IC 555 we generate a artificial pulse for fast pulse. One switch is connected between artificial pulse and actual pulse . We select the switch position as we required.

Figure 4

In the receiver circuit we use two decoder to get the data. Data is received by the Rf receiver. This rf module is pair version of the transmitter . Rf receiver demodulate the data and connected to the decoder circuit. In the decoder circuit we decode the data with address matching. IN the portion of project we use two decoder circuit because we use two transmitter with two different energy meter. In both the encoder and decoder circuit we use separate address line for easy decoding. This address coding point is very much important in the project. Output of decoder is connected to the 89s51 controller directly. Controller get the input from decoder and converted into ASCII code and display the same on the lcd display. Here we use 2 by 16 lcd to display the code with specific address and store the data in ram. In later on this data is to be store on the external memory 24c02. Controller not only display the data on lcd but at the same time transfer the data to pc via max 232 ic. Microcontroller convert the data into serially and transfer to the pc at the rate of 9600 bps. 9600 is the default baud rate of the pc for interface. In the pc we display the same data on HyperTerminal or in visual basic platform

In this project we use one 5 volt regulated power supply to convert the 220 volt ac in to 5 volt dc with the help of the 5 volt
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regulator circuit. First OF all we step down the 220 volt ac into 6 volt ac with the help of step down transformer. Step down transformer step down the voltage from 220 volt ac to 9 volt ac. This ac is further converted into the dc voltage with the help of the full wave rectifier circuit

Output of the diode is pulsating dc . so to convert the pulsating dc into smooth dc we use electrolytic capacitor. Electrolytic capacitor convert the pulsating dc into smooth dc. This Dc is further regulated by the ic 7805 regulator. IC 7805 regulator provide a regulated 5 volt dc to the microcontroller circuit and lcd circuit.

Pin no 40 of the controller is connected to the positive supply. Pin no 20 is connected to the ground. Pin no 9 is connected to external

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resistor capacitor to provide a automatic reset option when power is on.

Reset Circuitry:
Pin no 9 of the controller is connected to the reset circuit. On the circuit we connect one resistor and capacitor circuit to provide a reset option when power is on As soon as you give the power supply the 8051 doesnt start. You need to restart for the microcontroller to start. Restarting the microcontroller is nothing but giving a Logic 1 to the reset pin at least for the 2 clock pulses. So it is good to go for a small circuit which can provide the 2 clock pulses as soon as the microcontroller is powered.

This is not a big circuit we are just using a capacitor to charge the microcontroller and again discharging via resistor.

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Crystals Pin no 18 and 19 is connected to external crystal oscillator to provide a clock to the circuit.
Crystals provide the synchronization of the internal function and to the peripherals. Whenever ever we are using crystals we need to put the capacitor behind it to make it free from noises. It is good to go for a 33pf capacitor.

We can also resonators instead of costly crystal which are low cost and external capacitor can be avoided.
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But the frequency of the resonators varies a lot. And it is strictly not advised when used for communications projects.

How

is

this

time

then

calculated?

The speed with which a microcontroller executes instructions is determined by what is known as the crystal speed. A crystal is a component connected externally to the microcontroller. The crystal has different values, and some of the used values are 6MHZ, 10MHZ, and 11.059 MHz etc.

Thus a 10MHZ crystal would pulse at the rate of 10,000,000 times per second.

The time is calculated using the formula No of cycles per second = Crystal frequency in HZ / 12. For a 10MHZ crystal the number of cycles would be, 10,000,000/12=833333.33333 cycles. This means that in one second, the microcontroller would execute 833333.33333 cycles.
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Pin no 1 to pin no 8 is PORT 1 and Pin no 10 to 17 is PORT 3. Pin no 18 and 19 of the ic is connected to the external crystal to provide a external clock to run the internal CPU of controller . Pin no 20 is ground pin. Pin no 21 to 28 is PORT 2 pins. Pin no 29,30,31 is not use in this project. We use these pin when we require a extra memory for the project. If we internal memory of the 89s51 ( which is 4k rom) then we connect pin no 31 to the positive supply.

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The TWS-434 and RWS-434 are extremely small, and are excellent for applications requiring short-range RF remote controls. The transmitter module is only 1/3 the size of a standard postage stamp, and can easily be placed inside a small plastic enclosure. TWS-434: The transmitter output is up to 8mW at 433.92MHz with a range of approximately 400 foot (open area) outdoors. Indoors, the range is approximately 200 foot, and will go through most walls.....

TWS-434A

The TWS-434 transmitter accepts both linear and digital inputs, can operate from 1.5 to 12 Volts-DC, and makes building a miniature hand-held RF transmitter very easy. The TWS-434 is approximately the size of a standard postage stamp.

TWS-434 Pin Diagram

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Sample Transmitter Application Circuit

RWS-434: The receiver also operates at 433.92MHz, and has a sensitivity of 3uV. The RWS-434 receiver operates from 4.5 to 5.5 volts-DC, and has both linear and digital outputs. Click on picture for larger image

RWS-434 Receiver 16

RWS-434 Pin Diagram

Sample Receiver Application Circuit

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The example above shows the receiver section using the HT-12D decoder IC
for a 4-bit RF remote control system. The transmitter and receiver can also use the Holtek 8-bit HT-640/HT-648L remote control encoder/decoder combination for an 8-bit RF remote control system. Here are the schematics for an 8-bit RF remote control system:

LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY


A liquid crystal display (LCD) is a thin, flat display device made up of any number of color or monochrome pixels arrayed in front of a light source or reflector. It is prized by engineers because it uses very small amounts of electric power, and is therefore suitable for use in battery-powered electronic devices.

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Reflective twisted nematic liquid crystal display. 1. Vertical filter film to polarize the light as it enters. 2. Glass substrate with ITO electrodes. The shapes of these electrodes will determine the dark shapes that will appear when the LCD is turned on or off. Vertical ridges etched on the surface are smooth. 3. Twisted nematic liquid crystals. 4. Glass substrate with common electrode film (ITO) with horizontal ridges to line up with the horizontal filter. 5. Horizontal filter film to block/allow through light. 6. Reflective surface to send light back to viewer.

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A subpixel of a color LCD

Overview
Each pixel of an LCD consists of a layer of liquid crystal molecules aligned between two transparent electrodes, and two polarizing filters, the axes of polarity of which are perpendicular to each other. With no liquid crystal between the polarizing filters, light passing through one filter would be blocked by the other. The surfaces of the electrodes that are in contact with the liquid crystal material are treated so as to align the liquid crystal molecules in a particular direction. This treatment typically consists of a thin polymer layer that is unidirectionally rubbed using a cloth (the direction of the liquid crystal alignment is defined by the direction of rubbing). Before applying an electric field, the orientation of the liquid crystal molecules is determined by the alignment at the surfaces. In a twisted nematic device (the most common liquid crystal device), the surface
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alignment directions at the two electrodes are perpendicular, and so the molecules arrange themselves in a helical structure, or twist. Because the liquid crystal material is birefringent (i.e. light of different polarizations travels at different speeds through the material), light passing through one polarizing filter is rotated by the liquid crystal helix as it passes through the liquid crystal layer, allowing it to pass through the second polarized filter. Half of the light is absorbed by the first polarizing filter, but otherwise the entire assembly is transparent. When a voltage is applied across the electrodes, a torque acts to align the liquid crystal molecules parallel to the electric field, distorting the helical structure (this is resisted by elastic forces since the molecules are constrained at the surfaces). This reduces the rotation of the polarization of the incident light, and the device appears gray. If the applied voltage is large enough, the liquid crystal molecules are completely untwisted and the polarization of the incident light is not rotated at all as it passes through the liquid crystal layer. This light will then be polarized perpendicular to the second filter, and thus be completely blocked and the pixel will appear black. By controlling the voltage applied across the liquid crystal layer in each pixel, light can be allowed to pass through in varying amounts, correspondingly illuminating the pixel. With a twisted nematic liquid crystal device it is usual to operate the device between crossed polarizers, such that it appears bright with no applied voltage. With this setup, the dark voltage-on state is uniform. The device can be operated between parallel polarizers, in which case the bright and dark states are reversed (in this configuration, the dark state appears blotchy). Both the liquid crystal material and the alignment layer material contain ionic compounds. If an electric field of one particular polarity is applied for a long period of time, this ionic material is attracted to the surfaces and degrades the device performance. This is avoided by applying either an alternating current, or by reversing the polarity of the electric field as the device is addressed (the response of the liquid crystal layer is identical, regardless of the polarity of the applied field). When a large number of pixels is required in a display, it is not feasible to drive each directly since then each pixel would require independent electrodes. Instead, the display is multiplexed. In a multiplexed display, electrodes on one side of the display are grouped and wired together
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(typically in columns), and each group gets its own voltage source. On the other side, the electrodes are also grouped (typically in rows), with each group getting a voltage sink. The groups are designed so each pixel has a unique, unshared combination of source and sink. The electronics, or the software driving the electronics then turns on sinks in sequence, and drives sources for the pixels of each sink. Important factors to consider when evaluating an LCD monitor include resolution, viewable size, response time (sync rate), matrix type (passive or active), viewing angle, color support, brightness and contrast ratio, aspect ratio, and input ports (e.g. DVI or VGA).

Color displays
In color LCDs each individual pixel is divided into three cells, or subpixels, which are colored red, green, and blue, respectively, by additional filters (pigment filters, dye filters and metal oxide filters). Each subpixel can be controlled independently to yield thousands or millions of possible colors for each pixel. Older CRT monitors employ a similar method. Color components may be arrayed in various pixel geometries, depending on the monitor's usage. If software knows which type of geometry is being used in a given LCD, this can be used to increase the apparent resolution of the monitor through subpixel rendering. This technique is especially useful for text anti-aliasing.

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Passive-matrix and active-matrix

A general purpose alphanumeric LCD, with two lines of 16 characters. LCDs with a small number of segments, such as those used in digital watches and pocket calculators, have a single electrical contact for each segment. An external dedicated circuit supplies an electric charge to control each segment. This display structure is unwieldy for more than a few display elements. Small monochrome displays such as those found in personal organizers, or older laptop screens have a passive-matrix structure employing supertwist nematic (STN) or double-layer STN (DSTN) technology (DSTN corrects a color-shifting problem with STN). Each row or column of the display has a single electrical circuit. The pixels are addressed one at a time by row and column addresses. This type of display is called a passive matrix because the pixel must retain its state between refreshes without the benefit of a steady electrical charge. As the number of pixels (and, correspondingly, columns and rows) increases, this type of display becomes less feasible. Very slow response times and poor contrast are typical of passive-matrix LCDs. High-resolution color displays such as modern LCD computer monitors and televisions use an active matrix structure. A matrix of thin-film transistors (TFTs) is added to the polarizing and color filters. Each pixel has its own
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dedicated transistor, allowing each column line to access one pixel. When a row line is activated, all of the column lines are connected to a row of pixels and the correct voltage is driven onto all of the column lines. The row line is then deactivated and the next row line is activated. All of the row lines are activated in sequence during a refresh operation. Active-matrix displays are much brighter and sharper than passive-matrix displays of the same size, and generally have quicker response times, producing much better images.
Twisted nematic (TN) LCD Display Technology

.
In-plane switching (IPS)

control
Some LCD panels have defective transistors, causing permanently lit or unlit pixels which are commonly referred to as stuck pixels or dead pixels respectively. Unlike integrated circuits, LCD panels with a few defective pixels are usually still usable. It is also economically prohibitive to discard a panel with just a few defective pixels because LCD panels are much larger than ICs. Manufacturers have different standards for determining a maximum acceptable number of defective pixels. The maximum acceptable number of defective pixels for LCD varies a lot (such as zero-tolerance policy and 11-dead-pixel policy) from one brand to another, often a hot debate between manufacturers and customers. To regulate the acceptability of defects and to protect the end user, ISO released the ISO 13406-2 standard. However, not every LCD manufacturer conforms to the ISO standard and the ISO standard is quite often interpreted in different ways.

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Examples of defects in LCD displays

LCD panels are more likely to have defects than most ICs due to their larger size. In this example, a 12" SVGA LCD has 8 defects and a 6" wafer has only 3 defects. However, 134 of the 137 dies on the wafer will be acceptable, whereas rejection of the LCD panel would be a 0% yield. The standard is much higher now due to fierce competition between manufacturers and improved quality control. An SVGA LCD panel with 4 defective pixels is usually considered defective and customers can request an exchange for a new one. Some manufacturers, notably in South Korea where some of the largest LCD panel manufacturers, such as LG, are located, now have "zero defective pixel guarantee" and would replace a product even with one defective pixel. Even where such guarantees do not exist, the location of defective pixels is important. A display with only a few defective pixels may be unacceptable if the defective pixels are near each other. Manufacturers may also relax their replacement criteria when defective pixels are in the center of the viewing area.

Zero-power displays
The zenithal bistable device (ZBD), developed by QinetiQ (formerly DERA), can retain an image without power. The crystals may exist in one of two stable orientations (Black and "White") and power is only required to change the image. ZBD Displays is a spin-off company from QinetiQ who manufacture both grayscale and colour ZBD devices.
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A French company, Nemoptic, has developed another zero-power, paperlike LCD technology which has been mass-produced in Taiwan since July 2003. This technology is intended for use in low-power mobile applications such as e-books and wearable computers. Zero-power LCDs are in competition with electronic paper. Kent Displays has also developed a "no power" display that uses Polymer Stabilized Cholesteric Liquid Crystals (ChLCD). The major drawback to the ChLCD display is slow refresh rate, especially with low temperatures.

Drawbacks
LCD technology still has a few drawbacks in comparison to some other display technologies:

While CRTs are capable of displaying multiple video resolutions without introducing artifacts, LCD displays produce crisp images only in their "native resolution" and, sometimes, fractions of that native resolution. Attempting to run LCD display panels at non-native resolutions usually results in the panel scaling the image, which introduces blurriness or "blockiness". LCD displays have a lower contrast ratio than that on a plasma display or CRT. This is due to their "light valve" nature: some light always leaks out and turns black into gray. In brightly lit rooms the contrast of LCD monitors can, however, exceed some CRT displays due to higher maximum brightness. LCDs have longer response time than their plasma and CRT counterparts, older displays creating visible ghosting when images rapidly change; this drawback, however, is continually improving as the technology progresses and is hardly noticeable in current LCD displays with "overdrive" technology. Most newer LCDs have response times of around 8 ms. In addition to the response times, some LCD panels have significant input lag, which makes them unsuitable for fast and time-precise mouse operations (CAD design, FPS gaming) as compared to CRTs Overdrive technology on some panels can produce artifacts across regions of rapidly transitioning pixels (eg. video images) that looks like increased image noise or halos. This is a side effect of the pixels being
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driven past their intended brightness value (or rather the intended voltage necessary to produce this necessary brightness/colour) and then allowed to fall back to the target brightness in order to enhance response times. LCD display panels have a limited viewing angle, thus reducing the number of people who can conveniently view the same image. As the viewer moves closer to the limit of the viewing angle, the colors and contrast appear to deteriorate. However, this negative has actually been capitalized upon in two ways. Some vendors offer screens with intentionally reduced viewing angle, to provide additional privacy, such as when someone is using a laptop in a public place. Such a set can also show two different images to one viewer, providing a three-dimensional effect. Some users of older (around pre-2000) LCD monitors complain of migraines and eyestrain problems due to flicker from fluorescent backlights fed at 50 or 60 Hz. This does not happen with most modern displays which feed backlights with high-frequency current. LCD screens occasionally suffer from image persistence, which is similar to screen burn on CRT and plasma displays. This is becoming less of a problem as technology advances, with newer LCD panels using various methods to reduce the problem. Sometimes the panel can be restored to normal by displaying an all-white pattern for extended periods of time. Some light guns do not work with this type of display since they do not have flexible lighting dynamics that CRTs have. However, the field emission display will be a potential replacement for LCD flat-panel displays since they emulate CRTs in some technological ways. Some panels are incapable of displaying low resolution screen modes (such as 320x200). However, this is due to the circuitry that drives the LCD rather than the LCD itself. Consumer LCD monitors are more fragile than their CRT counterparts, with the screen especially vulnerable. However, lighter weight makes falling less dangerous, and some displays may be protected with glass shields.

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8051 micro controller


The 8051 The 8051 developed and launched in the early 80`s, is one of the most popular micro controller in use today. It has a reasonably large amount of built in ROM and RAM. In addition it has the ability to access external memory. The generic term `8x51` is used to define the device. The value of x defining the kind of ROM, i.e. x=0, indicates none, x=3, indicates mask ROM, x=7, indicates EPROM and x=9 indicates EEPROM or Flash. A note on ROM The early 8051, namely the 8031 was designed without any ROM. This device could run only with external memory connected to it. Subsequent developments lead to the development of the PROM or the programmable ROM. This type had the disadvantage of being highly unreliable. The next in line, was the EPROM or Erasable Programmable ROM. These devices used ultraviolet light erasable memory cells. Thus a program could be loaded, tested and erased using ultra violet rays. A new program could then be loaded again. An improved EPROM was the EEPROM or the electrically erasable PROM. This does not require ultra violet rays, and memory can be cleared using circuits within the chip itself. Finally there is the FLASH, which is an improvement over the EEPROM. While the terms EEPROM and flash are sometimes used interchangeably, the difference lies in the fact that flash erases the complete memory at one stroke, and not act on the individual cells. This results in reducing the time for erasure.

Different microcontrollers in market.


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PIC One of the famous microcontrollers used in the industries. It is based on RISC Architecture which makes the microcontroller process faster than other microcontroller.

INTEL These are the first to manufacture microcontrollers. These are not as sophisticated other microcontrollers but still the easiest one to learn. ATMEL Atmels AVR microcontrollers are one of the most powerful in the embedded industry. This is the only microcontroller having 1kb of ram even the entry stage. But it is unfortunate that in India we are unable to find this kind of microcontroller.

Intel 8051
Intel 8051 is CISC architecture which is easy to program in assembly language and also has a good support for High level languages. The memory of the microcontroller can be extended up to 64k. This microcontroller is one of the easiest microcontrollers to learn. The 8051 microcontroller is in the field for more than 20 years. There are lots of books and study materials are readily available for 8051.

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Derivatives
The best thing done by Intel is to give the designs of the 8051 microcontroller to everyone. So it is not the fact that Intel is the only manufacture for the 8051 there more than 20 manufactures, with each of minimum 20 models. Literally there are hundreds of models of 8051 microcontroller available in market to choose. Some of the major manufactures of 8051 are Atmel Philips Philips The Philipss 8051 derivatives has more number of features than in any microcontroller. The costs of the Philips microcontrollers are higher than the Atmels which makes us to choose Atmel more often than Philips Dallas Dallas has made many revolutions in the semiconductor market. Dallass 8051 derivative is the fastest one in the market. It works 3 times as fast as a 8051 can process. But we are unable to get more in India. Atmel These people were the one to master the flash devices. They are the cheapest microcontroller available in the market. Atmels even introduced a 20pin variant of 8051 named 2051. The Atmels 8051 derivatives can be got in India less than 70 rupees. There are lots of cheap programmers available in India for Atmel. So it is always good for students to stick with 8051 when you learn a new microcontroller.

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Architecture
Architecture is must to learn because before learning new machine it is necessary to learn the capabilities of the machine. This is some thing like before learning about the car you cannot become a good driver. The architecture of the 8051 is given below.

The 8051 doesnt have any special feature than other microcontroller. The only feature is that it is easy to learn. Architecture makes us to know about the hardware features of the microcontroller. The features of the 8051 are 4K Bytes of Flash Memory 128 x 8-Bit Internal RAM Fully Static Operation: 1 MHz to 24 MHz 32 Programmable I/O Lines Two 16-Bit Timer/Counters Six Interrupt Sources (5 Vectored) Programmable Serial Channel 32

Low Power Idle and Power Down Modes

The 8051 has a 8-Bit CPU that means it is able to process 8 bit of data at a time. 8051 has 235 instructions. Some of the important registers and their functions are

Lets now move on to a practical example. We shall work on a simple practical application and using the example as a base, shall explore the various features of the 8051 microcontroller. Consider an electric circuit as follows,

The positive side (+ve) of the battery is connected to one side of a switch. The other side of the switch is connected to a bulb or LED (Light Emitting Diode). The bulb is then connected to a resistor, and the other end of the resistor is connected to the negative (-ve) side of the battery. When the switch is closed or switched on the bulb glows. When the switch is open or switched off the bulb goes off If you are instructed to put the switch on and off every 30 seconds, how would you do it? Obviously you would keep looking at your watch and every time the second hand crosses 30 seconds you would keep turning the switch on and off. Imagine if you had to do this action consistently for a full day. Do you think
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you would be able to do it? Now if you had to do this for a month, a year?? No way, you would say! The next step would be, then to make it automatic. This is where we use the Microcontroller. But if the action has to take place every 30 seconds, how will the microcontroller keep track of time? Execution time Look at the following instruction, clr p1.0 This is an assembly language instruction. It means we are instructing the microcontroller to put a value of zero in bit zero of port one. This instruction is equivalent to telling the microcontroller to switch on the bulb. The instruction then to instruct the microcontroller to switch off the bulb is, Set p1.0 This instructs the microcontroller to put a value of one in bit zero of port one. Dont worry about what bit zero and port one means. We shall learn it in more detail as we proceed. There are a set of well defined instructions, which are used while communicating with the microcontroller. Each of these instructions requires a standard number of cycles to execute. The cycle could be one or more in number.

How is this time then calculated?


The speed with which a microcontroller executes instructions is determined by what is known as the crystal speed. A crystal is a component connected externally to the microcontroller. The crystal has different values, and some of the used values are 6MHZ, 10MHZ, and 11.059 MHz etc.
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Thus a 10MHZ crystal would pulse at the rate of 10,000,000 times per second.

The time is calculated using the formula No of cycles per second = Crystal frequency in HZ / 12. For a 10MHZ crystal the number of cycles would be, 10,000,000/12=833333.33333 cycles. This means that in one second, the microcontroller would execute 833333.33333 cycles. Therefore for one cycle, what would be the time? Try it out. The instruction clr p1.0 would use one cycle to execute. Similarly, the instruction setb p1.0 also uses one cycle. So go ahead and calculate what would be the number of cycles required to be executed to get a time of 30 seconds! Getting back to our bulb example, all we would need to do is to instruct the microcontroller to carry out some instructions equivalent to a period of 30 seconds, like counting from zero upwards, then switch on the bulb, carry out instructions equivalent to 30 seconds and switch off the bulb. Just put the whole thing in a loop, and you have a never ending on-off sequence.

Let us now have a look at the features of the 8051 core, keeping the above example as a reference, 1. 8-bit CPU.( Consisting of the A and B registers) Most of the transactions within the microcontroller are carried out through the A register, also known as the Accumulator. In addition all arithmetic functions are carried out generally in the A register. There is another register known as the B register, which is used exclusively for
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multiplication and division. Thus an 8-bit notation would indicate that the maximum value that can be input into these registers is 11111111. Puzzled? The value is not decimal 111, 11,111! It represents a binary number, having an equivalent value of FF in Hexadecimal and a value of 255 in decimal. We shall read in more detail on the different numbering systems namely the Binary and Hexadecimal system in our next module. 2. 4K on-chip ROM Once you have written out the instructions for the microcontroller, where do you put these instructions? Obviously you would like these instructions to be safe, and not get deleted or changed during execution. Hence you would load it into the ROM The size of the program you write is bound to vary depending on the application, and the number of lines. The 8051 microcontroller gives you space to load up to 4K of program size into the internal ROM. 4K, thats all? Well just wait. You would be surprised at the amount of stuff you can load in this 4K of space. Of course you could always extend the space by connecting to 64K of external ROM if required. 3. 128 bytes on-chip RAM This is the space provided for executing the program in terms of moving data, storing data etc. 4. 32 I/O lines. (Four- 8 bit ports, labeled P0, P1, P2, P3) In our bulb example, we used the notation p1.0. This means bit zero of port one. One bit controls one bulb. Thus port one would have 8 bits. There are a total of four ports named p0,
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p1, p2, p3, giving a total of 32 lines. These lines can be used both as input or output. 5. Two 16 bit timers / counters. A microcontroller normally executes one instruction at a time. However certain applications would require that some event has to be tracked independent of the main program. The manufacturers have provided a solution, by providing two timers. These timers execute in the background independent of the main program. Once the required time has been reached, (remember the time calculations described above?), they can trigger a branch in the main program. These timers can also be used as counters, so that they can count the number of events, and on reaching the required count, can cause a branch in the main program. 6. Full Duplex serial data receiver / transmitter. The 8051 microcontroller is capable of communicating with external devices like the PC etc. Here data is sent in the form of bytes, at predefined speeds, also known as baud rates. The transmission is serial, in the sense, one bit at a time 7. 5- interrupt sources with two priority levels (Two external and three internal) During the discussion on the timers, we had indicated that the timers can trigger a branch in the main program. However, what would we do in case we would like the microcontroller to take the branch, and then return back to the main program, without having to constantly check whether the required time / count has been reached? This is where the interrupts come into play. These can be set to either the timers, or to some external events. Whenever the background program has reached the required criteria in terms of time or count or an external event, the branch is taken, and on completion of the branch, the control returns to
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the main program. Priority levels indicate which interrupt is more important, and needs to be executed first in case two interrupts occur at the same time. 8. On-chip clock oscillator. This represents the oscillator circuits within the microcontroller. Thus the hardware is reduced to just simply connecting an external crystal, to achieve the required pulsing rate.

PIN FUNCTION OF IC 89C51.


1

Supply pin of this ic is pin no 40. Normally we apply a 5 volt regulated dc


power supply to this pin. For this purpose either we use step down transformer power supply or we use 9 volt battery with 7805 regulator. Ground pin of this ic is pin no 20. Pin no 20 is normally connected to the ground pin ( normally negative point of the power supply. XTAL is connected to the pin no 18 and pin no 19 of this ic. The quartz crystal oscillator connected to XTAL1 and XTAL2 PIN. These pins also needs two capacitors of 30 pf value. One side of each capacitor is connected to crystal and other pis is connected to the ground point. Normally we connect a 12 MHz or 11.0592 MHz crystal with this ic.. But we use crystal upto 20 MHz to this pins RESET PIN.. Pin no 9 is the reset pin of this ic.. It is an active high pin. On applying a high pulse to this pin, the micro controller will reset and terminate all activities. This is often referred to as a power on reset. The high pulse must be high for a minimum of 2 machine cycles before it is allowed to go low.

2 3

5.

PORT0 Port 0 occupies a total of 8 pins. Pin no 32 to pin no 39. It can be


used for input or output. We connect all the pins of the port 0 with the pullup resistor (10 k ohm) externally. This is due to fact that port 0 is an open drain mode. It is just like a open collector transistor.

6.

PORT1. ALL the ports in micrcontroller is 8 bit wide pin no 1 to pin no 8


because it is a 8 bit controller. All the main register and sfr all is mainly 8 bit wide. Port 1 is also occupies a 8 pins. But there is no need of pull up resistor in this port. Upon reset port 1 act as a input port. Upon reset all the ports act as a input port

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7.

PORT2. port 2 also have a 8 pins. It can be used as a input or output. There is no need of any pull up resistor to this pin. PORT 3. Port3 occupies a totoal 8 pins from pin no 10 to pin no 17. It can
be used as input or output. Port 3 does not require any pull up resistor. The same as port 1 and port2. Port 3 is configured as an output port on reset. Port 3 has the additional function of providing some important signals such as interrupts. Port 3 also use for serial communication.

ALE

ALE is an output pin and is active high. When connecting an 8031 to external memory, port 0 provides both address and data. In other words, the 8031 multiplexes address and data through port 0 to save pins. The ALE pin is used for demultiplexing the address and data by connecting to the ic 74ls373 chip.

PSEN. PSEN stands for program store eneable. In an 8031 based system in which an
external rom holds the program code, this pin is connected to the OE pin of the rom.

EA. EA. In 89c51 8751 or any other family member of the ateml 89c51 series all come
with on-chip rom to store programs, in such cases the EA pin is connected to the Vcc. For family member 8031 and 8032 is which there is no on chip rom, code is stored in external memory and this is fetched by 8031. In that case EA pin must be connected to GND pin to indicate that the code is stored externally.

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SPECIAL FUNCTION REGISTER ( SFR) ADDRESSES. ACC B PSW SP DPTR DPL DPH P0 P1 P2 P3 TMOD TCON TH0 TLO TH1 TL1 SCON SBUF PCON ACCUMULATOR B REGISTER PROGRAM STATUS WORD STACK POINTER DATA POINTER 2 BYTES LOW BYTE OF DPTR HIGH BYTE OF DPTR PORT0 PORT1 PORT2 PORT3 TIMER/COUNTER MODE CONTROL TIMER COUNTER CONTROL TIMER 0 HIGH BYTE TIMER 0 LOW BYTE TIMER 1 HIGH BYTE TIMER 1 LOW BYTE SERIAL CONTROL SERIAL DATA BUFFER POWER CONTROL 82H 83H 80H 90H 0A0H 0B0H 89H 88H 8CH 8AH 8DH 8BH 98H 99H 87H 0E0H 0F0H 0D0H 81H

INSTRUCTIONS 40

SINGLE BIT INSTRUCTIONS.


SETB BIT CLR BIT CPL BIT JB BIT,TARGET JNB BIT, TARGET JBC BIT,TARGET SET THE BIT =1 CLEAR THE BIT =0 COMPLIMENT THE BIT 0 =1, 1=0 JUMP TO TARGET IF BIT =1 JUMP TO TARGET IF BIT =0 JUMP TO TARGET IF BIT =1 &THEN CLEAR THE BIT

MOV INSTRUCTIONS
MOV instruction simply copy the data from one location to another location

MOV D,S
Copy the data from(S) source to D(destination) MOV R0,A MOV R1,A MOV A,R3 ; Copy contents of A into Register R0 ; Copy contents of A into register R1 ; copy contents of Register R3 into Accnmulator.

DIRECT LOADING THROUGH MOV MOV A,#23H MOV R0,#12h MOV R5,#0F9H ; Direct load the value of 23h in A ; direct load the value of 12h in R0 ; Load the F9 value in the Register R5

ADD INSTRUCTIONS. 41

ADD instructions adds the source byte to the accumulator ( A) and place the result in the Accumulator.

MOV A, #25H
ADD A,#42H ADDA,R3 ; BY this instructions we add the value 42h in Accumulator ( 42H+ 25H) ;By this instructions we move the data from register r3 to accumulator and then add the contents of the register into accumulator .

SUBROUTINE CALL FUNCTION.

ACALL,TARGET ADDRESS
By this instructions we call subroutines with a target address within 2k bytes from the current program counter. LCALL, TARGET ADDRESS. ACALL is a limit for the 2 k byte program counter, but for upto 64k byte we use LCALL instructions.. Note that LCALL is a 3 byte instructions. ACALL is a two byte instructions. AJMP TARGET ADDRESS. This is for absolute jump AJMP stand for absolute jump. It transfers program execution to the target address unconditionally. The target address for this instruction must be withib 2 k byte of program memory. LJMP is also for absoltute jump. It tranfer program execution to the target addres unconditionally. This is a 3 byte instructions LJMP jump to any address within 64 k byte location.

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INSTRUCTIONS RELATED TO THE CARRY JC TARGET


JUMP TO THE TARGET IF CY FLAG =1

JNC TARGET
JUMP TO THE TARGET ADDRESS IF CY FLAG IS = 0

INSTRUCTIONS RELASTED TO JUMP WITH ACCUMULATOR

JZ TARGET
JUMP TO TARGET IF A = 0

JNZ TARGET JUMP IF ACCUMULATOR IS NOT ZERO This instructions jumps if registe A has a value other than zero

INSTRUCTIONS RELATED TO THE ROTATE

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RL A

ROTATE LEFT THE ACCUMULATOR BY this instructions we rotate the bits of A left. The bits rotated out of A are rotated back into A at the opposite end

RR A

By this instruction we rotate the contents of the accumulator from right to left from LSB to MSB

RRC A

This is same as RR A but difference is that the bit rotated out of register first enter in to carry and then enter into MSB

RLC A

ROTATE A LEFT THROUGH CARRY Same as above but but shift the data from MSB to carry and carry to LSB

RET

This is return from subroutine. This instructions is used to return from a subroutine previously entered by instructions LCALL and ACALL.

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RET1

THIS is used at the end of an interrupt service routine. We use this instructions after intruupt routine, PUSH. This copies the indicated byte onto the stack and increments SP by . This instructions supports only direct addressing mode. POP. POP FROM STACK. This copies the byte pointed to be SP to the location whose direct address is indicated, and decrements SP by 1. Notice that this instructions supports only direct addressing mode.

DPTR INSTRUCTIONS. MOV DPTR,#16 BIT VALUE LOAD DATA POINTER This instructions load the 16 bit dptr register with a 16 bit immediate value
MOV C A,@A+DPTR

This instructions moves a byte of data located in program ROM into register A. This allows us to put strings of data, such as look up table elements.

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MOVC A,@A+PC

This instructions moves a byte of data located in the program area to A. the address of the desired byte of data is formed by adding the program counter ( PC) register to the original value of the accumulator.

INC BYTE

This instructions add 1 to the register or memory location specified by the operand. INC A INC Rn INC DIRECT
DEC BYTE

This instructions subtracts 1 from the byte operand. Note that CY is unchanged DEC A DEC Rn DEC DIRECT

ARITHMATIC INSTRUCTIONS.
ANL dest-byte, source-byte

This perform a logical AND operation This performs a logical AND on the operands, bit by bit, storing the result in the destination. Notice that both the source and destination values are byte size only

46

`
DIV AB

This instructions divides a byte accumulator by the byte in register B. It is assumed that both register A and B contain an unsigned byte. After the division the quotient will be in register A and the remainder in register B.

TMOD ( TIMER MODE ) REGISTER

Both timer is the 89c51 share the one register TMOD. 4 LSB bit for the timer 0 and 4 MSB for the timer 1. In each case lower 2 bits set the mode of the timer Upper two bits set the operations. GATE: Gating control when set. Timer/counter is enabled only while the INTX pin is high and the TRx control pin is set. When cleared, the timer is enabled whenever the TRx control bit is set C/T : Timer or counter selected cleared for timer operation ( input from internal system clock) M1 M0 Mode bit 1 Mode bit 0

M1

M0

MODE

OPERATING MODE

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0 0 1 1

0 1 0 1

0 1 2 3

13 BIT TIMER/MODE 16 BIT TIMER MODE 8 BIT AUTO RELOAD SPLIT TIMER MODE

PSW ( PROGRAM STATUS WORD)

CY AC F0 RS1 RS0 0V -P

PSW.7 PSW.6 PSW.5 PSW.4 PSW.3 PSW.2 PSW.1 PSW.0

CARRY FLAG AUXILIARY CARRY AVAILABLE FOR THE USER FRO GENERAL PURPOSE REGISTER BANK SELECTOR BIT 1 REGISTER BANK SELECTOR BIT 0 OVERFLOW FLAG USER DEFINABLE BIT PARITY FLAG SET/CLEARED BY HARDWARE

PCON REGISATER ( NON BIT ADDRESSABLE)

If the SMOD = 0 ( DEFAULT ON RESET) 48

TH1

CRYSTAL FREQUENCY 256---- ____________________ 384 X BAUD RATE

If the SMOD IS = 1 CRYSTAL FREQUENCY


TH1 = 256--------------------------------------

192 X BAUD RATE There are two ways to increase the baud rate of data transfer in the 8051 1. 2. To use a higher frequency crystal To change a bit in the PCON register

PCON register is an 8 bit register . Of the 8 bits, some are unused, and some are used for the power control capability of the 8051. the bit which is used for the serial communication is D7, the SMOD bit. When the 8051 is powered up, D7 ( SMOD BIT) OF PCON register is zero. We can set it to high by software and thereby double the baud rate

BAUD RATE COMPARISION FOR SMOD = 0 AND SMOD =1


TH1 ( DECIMAL) -3 -6 -12 -24 XTAL = 11.0592 MHZ HEX FD FA F4 E8 SMOD =0 9600 4800 2400 1200 SMOD =1 19200 9600 4800 2400

IE ( INTERRUPT ENABLE REGISTOR)

49

EA

IE.7

Disable all interrupts if EA = 0, no interrupts is acknowledged If EA is 1, each interrupt source is individually enabled or disbaled By sending or clearing its enable bit. NOT implemented enables or disables timer 2 overflag in 89c52 only Enables or disables all serial interrupt Enables or Disables timer 1 overflow interrupt Enables or disables external interrupt Enables or Disbales timer 0 interrupt. Enables or Disables external interrupt 0

IE.6 ET2 ES ET1 EX1 ET0 EX0 IE.5 IE.4 IE.3 IE.2 IE.1 IE.0

INTERRUPT PRIORITY REGISTER

If the bit is 0, the corresponding interrupt has a lower priority and if the bit is 1 the corresponding interrupt has a higher priority

IP.7 IP.6 PT2 IP.5

NOT IMPLEMENTED, RESERVED FOR FUTURE USE. NOT IMPLEMENTED, RESERVED FOR FUTURE USE DEFINE THE TIMER 2 INTERRUPT PRIORITY LELVEL

50

PS PT1 PX1 PT0 PX0

IP.4 IP.3 IP.2 IP.1 IP.0

DEFINES THE SERIAL PORT INTERRUPT PRIORITY LEVEL DEFINES THE TIMER 1 INTERRUPT PRIORITY LEVEL DEFINES EXTERNAL INTERRUPT 1 PRIORITY LEVEL DEFINES THE TIMER 0 INTERRUPT PRIORITY LEVEL DEFINES THE EXTERNAL INTERRUPT 0 PRIORITY LEVEL

SCON: SERIAL PORT CONTROL REGISTER , BIT ADDRESSABLE


SCON

SM0 SM1 SM2 REN TB8

: : : : :

SCON.7 Serial Port mode specifier SCON.6 Serial Port mode specifier SCON.5 SCON.4 Set/cleared by the software to Enable/disable reception SCON.3 The 9th bit that will be transmitted in modes 2 and 3, Set/cleared By software 51

RB8

SCON.2 In modes 2 &3, is the 9th data bit that was received. In mode 1, If SM2 = 0, RB8 is the stop bit that was received. In mode 0 RB8 is not used SCON.1 Transmit interrupt flag. Set by hardware at the end of the 8th bit Time in mode 0, or at the beginning of the stop bit in the other Modes. Must be cleared by software SCON.0 Receive interrupt flag. Set by hardware at the end of the 8th bit Time in mode 0, or halfway through the stop bit time in the other Modes. Must be cleared by the software.

T1

R1

TCON

TIMER COUNTER CONTROL REGISTER

This is a bit addressable TF1 TR1 TF0 TR0 IE1 ITI TCON.7 TCON.6 TCON.5 TCON.4 TCON.3 TCON.2 Timer 1 overflow flag. Set by hardware when the Timer/Counter 1 Overflows. Cleared by hardware as processor Timer 1 run control bit. Set/cleared by software to turn Timer Counter 1 On/off Timer 0 overflow flag. Set by hardware when the timer/counter 0 Overflows. Cleared by hardware as processor Timer 0 run control bit. Set/cleared by software to turn timer Counter 0 on/off. External interrupt 1 edge flag Interrupt 1 type control bit 52

IE0 IT0 -

TCON.1 TCON.0

External interrupt 0 edge Interrupt 0 type control bit.

8051 Instruction Set


Description Add register to Accumulator (ACC). Size 1 2 . . . 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 Cycles 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1

Arithmetic Operations
Mnemonic ADD A,Rn

ADD A,direct Add direct byte to ACC. ADD A,@Ri Add indirect RAM to ACC ADD A,#data Add immediate data to ACC ADDC A,Rn Add register to ACC with carry ADDC A,direct ADDC A,@Ri ADDC A,#data SUBB A,Rn Add direct byte to ACC with carry. Add indirect RAM to ACC with carry. Add immediate data to ACC with carry.

Subtract register from ACC with borrow.

SUBB A,direct

Subtract direct byte from ACC with borrow 2 1

SUBB A,@Ri Subtract indirect RAM from ACC with borrow. SUBB A,#data INC A INC Rn INC direct INC @Ri DEC A

Subtract immediate data from ACC with borrow. Increment ACC. Increment register. Increment direct byte. Increment indirect RAM. Decrement ACC. 53 1 1 2 1 1

DEC Rn DEC direct DEC @Ri INC DPTR MUL AB DIV AB DA A

Decrement register. Decrement direct byte. Decrement indirect RAM. Increment data pointer.

1 2 1

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 4

Multiply A and B Result: A <- low byte, B <- high byte. Divide A by B Result: A <- whole part, B <- remainder. Decimal adjust ACC. 1

Logical Operations Mnemonic ANL A,Rn Description AND Register to ACC. Size Cycles 1 2 1 1 2 2 3 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 2 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1

ANL A,direct AND direct byte to ACC. ANL A,@Ri AND indirect RAM to ACC. ANL A,#data AND immediate data to ACC. ANL direct,A AND ACC to direct byte. ANL direct,#data ORL A,Rn AND immediate data to direct byte.

OR Register to ACC.

ORL A,direct OR direct byte to ACC. ORL A,@Ri OR indirect RAM to ACC. ORL A,#data OR immediate data to ACC. ORL direct,A OR ACC to direct byte. ORL direct,#data 2 XRL A,Rn OR immediate data to direct byte.

Exclusive OR Register to ACC. 54

XRL A,direct Exclusive OR direct byte to ACC. XRL A,@Ri Exclusive OR indirect RAM to ACC. XRL A,#data Exclusive OR immediate data to ACC. XRL direct,A Exclusive OR ACC to direct byte. XRL direct,#data CLR A CPL A RL A RLC A RR A RRC A SWAP A XOR immediate data to direct byte. Clear ACC (set all bits to zero). Compliment ACC. Rotate ACC left. Rotate ACC left through carry. Rotate ACC right. Rotate ACC right through carry. Swap nibbles within ACC. 1

2 1 2 2 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Data Transfer Mnemonic MOV A,Rn MOV A,direct 2 1 MOV A,@Ri MOV A,#data MOV Rn,A MOV Rn,direct MOV Rn,#data Description Move register to ACC. Move direct byte to ACC. Move indirect RAM to ACC. Move immediate data to ACC. Move ACC to register. Move direct byte to register. Move immediate data to register. 1 2 1 2 2 1 1 1 2 1 Size 1 Cycles 1

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MOV direct,A MOV direct,Rn MOV direct,direct MOV direct,@Ri MOV direct,#data MOV @Ri,A MOV @Ri,direct MOV @Ri,#data

Move ACC to direct byte. Move register to direct byte. Move direct byte to direct byte. Move indirect RAM to direct byte. Move immediate data to direct byte. Move ACC to indirect RAM. Move direct byte to indirect RAM. Move immediate data to indirect RAM.

2 2 3 2 3 1 2 2

1 2 2 2 2 1 2 1 2

MOV DPTR,#data16 Move immediate 16 bit data to data pointer register. 3 MOVC A,@A+DPTR 1 2 MOVC A,@A+PC MOVX A,@Ri MOVX A,@DPTR MOVX @Ri,A MOVX @DPTR,A PUSH direct POP direct XCH A,Rn XCH A,direct XCH A,@Ri XCHD A,@Ri

Move code byte relative to DPTR to ACC (16 bit address). Move code byte relative to PC to ACC (16 bit address).1 Move external RAM to ACC (8 bit address). 1 Move external RAM to ACC (16 bit address). 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1

Move ACC to external RAM (8 bit address). 1 Move ACC to external RAM (16 bit address). Push direct byte onto stack. Pop direct byte from stack. Exchange register with ACC. Exchange direct byte with ACC. Exchange indirect RAM with ACC. Exchange low order nibble of indirect RAM with low order nibble of ACC 1 2 2 1 2 1 1

Boolean Variable Manipulation

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Mnemonic CLR C CLR bit SETB C SETB CPL C CPL bit ANL C,bit ANL C,/bit ORL C,bit ORL C,/bit MOV C,bit MOV bit,C JC rel JNC rel JB bit,rel JNB bit,rel JBC bit,rel

Description Clear carry flag. Clear direct bit. Set carry flag. bitSet direct bit Compliment carry flag. Compliment direct bit. AND direct bit to carry flag. AND compliment of direct bit to carry. OR direct bit to carry flag. OR compliment of direct bit to carry. Move direct bit to carry flag. Move carry to direct bit. Jump if carry is set. Jump if carry is not set. Jump if direct bit is set. Jump if direct bit is not set. Jump if direct bit is set & clear bit.

Size 1 2

Cycles 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2

Program Branching
Mnemonic ACALL LCALL Description addr11 addr16 Absolute subroutine call. Long subroutine call. Size 2 3 Cycles 2 2

57

RET RETI

Return from subroutine. Return from interrupt.

1 1 2 3 2 1 2 2

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

AJMP addr11 Absolute jump. LJMP addr16 Long jump. SJMP rel Short jump (relative address). Jump indirect relative to the DPTR.

JMP @A+DPTR JZ rel JNZ rel CJNE A,direct,rel CJNE A,#data,rel CJNE Rn,#data,rel

Jump relative if ACC is zero. Jump relative if ACC is not zero.

Compare direct byte to ACC and jump if not equal. 3 Compare immediate byte to ACC and jump if not equal.3

Compare immediate byte to register and jump if not equal.32

CJNE @Ri,#data,rel Compare immediate byte to indirect and jump if not equal.32 DJNZ Rn,rel Decrement register and jump if not zero. DJNZ direct,rel Decrement direct byte and jump if not zero. 2 3 2 2

The RW line is the "Read/Write" control line. When RW is low (0), the information on

58

HOW TO PROGRAM BLANK CHIP.


8051 micro controller
The 8051 The 8051 developed and launched in the early 80`s, is one of the most popular micro controller in use today. It has a reasonably large amount of built in ROM and RAM. In addition it has the ability to access external memory. The generic term `8x51` is used to define the device. The value of x defining the kind of ROM, i.e. x=0, indicates none, x=3, indicates mask ROM, x=7, indicates EPROM and x=9 indicates EEPROM or Flash.

Different micro controllers in market.


PIC One of the famous microcontrollers used in the industries. It is based on RISC Architecture which makes the microcontroller process faster than other microcontroller.

INTEL These are the first to manufacture microcontrollers. These are not as sophisticated other microcontrollers but still the easiest one to learn. ATMEL Atmels AVR microcontrollers are one of the most powerful in the embedded industry. This is the only microcontroller having 1kb of ram even the entry stage. But it is unfortunate that in India we are unable to find this kind of microcontroller.

59

Intel 8051 Intel 8051 is CISC architecture which is easy to program in assembly language and also has a good support for High level languages. The memory of the microcontroller can be extended up to 64k. This microcontroller is one of the easiest microcontrollers to learn. The 8051 microcontroller is in the field for more than 20 years. There are lots of books and study materials are readily available for 8051.

First of all we select and open the assembler and wrote a program code in the file. After wrote a software we assemble the software by using internal assembler of the 8051 editor. If there is no error then assembler assemble the software abd 0 error is show the output window.

60

now assembler generate a ASM file and HEX file. This hex file is useful for us to program the blank chip. Now we transfer the hex code into the blank chip with the help of serial programmer kit. In the programmer we insert a blank chip 0f 89s51 series . these chips are multi time programmable chip. This programming kit is seperatally available in the market and we transfer the hex code into blank chip with the help of the serial programmer kit

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NOTES ON LCD

LCD DETAIL . Frequently, an 8051 program must interact with the outside world using input and output devices that communicate directly with a human being. One of the most common devices attached to an 8051 is an LCD display. Some of the most common LCDs connected to the 8051 are 16x2 and 20x2 displays. This means 16 characters per line by 2 lines and 20 characters per line by 2 lines, respectively.

65

HD44780U, which refers to the controller chip which receives data from an external source (in this case, the 8051) and communicates directly with the LCD. 44780 BACKGROUND AN EXAMPLE HARDWARE CONFIGURATION

DB0 EQU P1.0 DB1 EQU P1.1 DB2 EQU P1.2 DB3 EQU P1.3 DB4 EQU P1.4 DB5 EQU P1.5 DB6 EQU P1.6 DB7 EQU P1.7 EN EQU P3.7 RS EQU P3.6 RW EQU P3.5 DATA EQU P1 Having established the above equates, we may now refer to our I/O lines by their 44780 name. For example, to set the RW line high (1), we can execute the following insutrction: SETB RW HANDLING THE EN CONTROL LINE with the following instruction: SETB EN And once we've finished setting up our instruction with the other control lines and data bus lines, we'll always bring this line back low: CLR EN

66

Programming Tip: The LCD interprets and executes our command at the instant the EN line is brought low. If you never bring EN low, your instruction will never be executed. Additionally, when you bring EN low and the LCD executes your instruction, it requires a certain amount of time to execute the command. The time it requires to execute an instruction depends on the instruction and the speed of the crystal which is attached to the 44780's oscillator input.

CHECKING THE BUSY STATUS OF THE LCD As previously mentioned, it takes a certain amount of time for each instruction to be executed by the LCD. The delay varies depending on the frequency of the we will use this code every time we send an instruction to WAIT_LCD: SETB EN ;Start LCD command CLR RS ;It's a command SETB RW ;It's a read command MOV DATA,#0FFh ;Set all pins to FF initially MOV A,DATA ;Read the return value JB ACC.7,WAIT_LCD ;If bit 7 high, LCD still busy CLR EN ;Finish the command CLR RW ;Turn off RW for future commands RET Thus, our standard practice will be to send an instruction to the LCD and then call our WAIT_LCD routine to wait until the instruction is completely executed by the LCD. This will assure that our program gives the LCD the time it needs to execute instructions and also makes our program compatible with any LCD, regardless of how fast or slow it is. Programming Tip: The above routine does the job of waiting for the LCD, but were it to be used in a real application a very definite improvement would need to be made: as written, if the LCD never becomes "not busy" the program will 67

effectively "hang," waiting for DB7 to go low. If this never happens, the program will freeze. Of course, this should never happen and won't happen when the hardware is working properly. But in a real application it would be wise to put some kind of time limit on the delay--for example, a maximum of 256 attempts to wait for the busy signal to go low. This would guarantee that even if the LCD hardware fails, the program would not lock up.

INITIALIZING THE LCD SETB EN CLR RS MOV DATA,#38h CLR EN LCALL WAIT_LCD Programming Tip: The LCD command 38h is really the sum of a number of option bits. The instruction itself is the instruction 20h ("Function set"). However, to this we add the values 10h to indicate an 8-bit data bus plus 08h to indicate that the display is a two-line display. We've now sent the first byte of the initialization sequence. The second byte of the initialization sequence is the instruction 0Eh. Thus we must repeat the initialization code from above, but now with the instruction. Thus the next code segment is: SETB EN CLR RS MOV DATA,#0Eh CLR EN LCALL WAIT_LCD

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Programming Tip: The command 0Eh is really the instruction 08h plus 04h to turn the LCD on. To that an additional 02h is added in order to turn the cursor on. The last byte we need to send is used to configure additional operational parameters of the LCD. We must send the value 06h. SETB EN CLR RS MOV DATA,#06h CLR EN LCALL WAIT_LCD Programming Tip: The command 06h is really the instruction 04h plus 02h to configure the LCD such that every time we send it a character, the cursor position automatically moves to the right. So, in all, our initialization code is as follows: INIT_LCD: SETB EN CLR RS MOV DATA,#38h CLR EN LCALL WAIT_LCD SETB EN CLR RS MOV DATA,#0Eh CLR EN LCALL WAIT_LCD SETB EN CLR RS MOV DATA,#06h CLR EN LCALL WAIT_LCD RET

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Having executed this code the LCD will be fully initialized and ready for us to send display data to it. CLEARING THE DISPLAY When the LCD is first initialized, the screen should automatically be cleared by the 447e, it's a good idea to make it a subroutine: CLEAR_LCD: SETB EN CLR RS MOV DATA,#01h CLR EN LCALL WAIT_LCD RET How that we've written a "Clear Screen" routine, we may clear the LCD at any time by simply executing an LCALL CLEAR_LCD. Programming Tip: Executing the "Clear Screen" instruction on the LCD also positions the cursor in the upper left-hand corner as we would expect. WRITING TEXT TO THE LCD Now we get to the real meat of what we're trying to do: All this effort is really so we can display text on the LCD. Really, we're pretty much done. Once again, writing text to the LCD is something we'll almost certainly want to do over and over--so let's make it a subroutine. WRITE_TEXT: SETB EN SETB RS MOV DATA,A CLR EN

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LCALL WAIT_LCD RET The WRITE_TEXT routine that we just wrote will send the character in the accumulator to the LCD which will, in turn, display it. Thus to display text on the LCD all we need to do is load the accumulator with the byte to display and make a call to this routine. Pretty easy, huh? A "HELLO WORLD" PROGRAM Now that we have LCALL INIT_LCD LCALL CLEAR_LCD MOV A,#'H' LCALL WRITE_TEXT MOV A,#'E' LCALL WRITE_TEXT MOV A,#'L' LCALL WRITE_TEXT MOV A,#'L' LCALL WRITE_TEXT MOV A,#'O' LCALL WRITE_TEXT MOV A,#' ' LCALL WRITE_TEXT MOV A,#'W' LCALL WRITE_TEXT MOV A,#'O' LCALL WRITE_TEXT MOV A,#'R' LCALL WRITE_TEXT MOV A,#'L' 71

LCALL WRITE_TEXT MOV A,#'D' LCALL WRITE_TEXT The above "Hello World" program should, when executed, initialize the LCD, clear the LCD screen, and display "Hello World" in the upper left-hand corner of the display. CURSOR POSITIONING The

Thus, the SETB EN CLR RS MOV DATA,#0C4h CLR EN LCALL WAIT_LCD The above code will position the cursor on line 2, character 10. To display "Hello" in the upper left-hand corner with the word "World" on the second line at character position 10 just requires us to insert the above code into our existing "Hello World" program. This results in the following: LCALL INIT_LCD LCALL CLEAR_LCD MOV A,#'H' LCALL WRITE_TEXT MOV A,#'E' LCALL WRITE_TEXT MOV A,#'L' LCALL WRITE_TEXT 72

MOV A,#'L' LCALL WRITE_TEXT MOV A,#'O' LCALL WRITE_TEXT SETB EN CLR RS MOV DATA,#0C4h CLR EN LCALL WAIT_LCD MOV A,#'W' LCALL WRITE_TEXT MOV A,#'O' LCALL WRITE_TEXT MOV A,#'R' LCALL WRITE_TEXT MOV A,#'L' LCALL WRITE_TEXT MOV A,#'D' LCALL WRITE_TEXT

PIN WISE DETAIL OF LCD 1. 2. 3 4. 5. Vss Vcc Vee RS R/W GROUND +5VOLT SUPPLY POWER SUPPLY TO CONTROL CONTRAST RS = 0 TO SELECT COMMAND REGISTER RS = 1 TO SELECT DATA REGISTER R/W = 0 FOR WRITE R/W = 1 FOR READ 73

6 7 8 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15 ,16

E DB0 DB1 DB2 DB3 DB4 DB5 DB6 DB7

ENABLE

FOR BACK LIGHT DISPLAY

LCD COMMAND CODES.


1. 2. 4 5 6. 7. 8. A C E CLEAR DISPLAY SCREEN RETURN HOME DECREMENT CURSOR ( SHIFT CURSOR TO LEFT) SHIFT DISPLAY RIGHT. INCREMENT CURSOR ( SHIFT CURSOR TO RIGHT) SHIFT DISPLAY LEFT DISPLAY OFF, CURSOR OFF DISPLAY OFF CURSOR ON DISPLAY ON CURSOR OFF DISPLAY ON CURSOR BLINKING 74

F. 10. 14. 18. 1C 80 C0 38

DISPLAY ON CURSOR BLINKING. SHIFT CURSOR POSITION TO LEFT SHIFT CURSOR POSITION TO RIGHT SHIFT THE ENTIRE DISPLAY TO THE LEFT SHIFT THE ENTIRE DISPLAY TO THE RIGHT FORCE CURSOR TO BEGINNING OF IST LINE FORCE CURSOR TO BEGINNING OF 2ND LINE 2 LINES AND 5 X 7 MATRIX

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Program code of the project. $include (reg51.INC) LCD_DATA lcd_en lcd_rw lcd_rs flag flag0 flag1 bit bit bit equ equ equ equ P2.7 P2.6 P2.5 20h flag.0 flag.1 22h 23h 24h 25h P0

pulse_cont0_lo equ pulse_cont0_hi equ pulse_cont1_lo equ pulse_cont1_hi equ cont

org 0000h ljmp main

org 0003h ljmp reti


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INTE_0

org 000bh

reti org 0013h

reti org 001bh reti org 0023h reti da a mov mov cjne mov mov inte0_end: mov mov a,pulse_cont0_lo 1ah,a
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pulse_cont0_hi,a a,pulse_cont0_hi a,#10h,inte0_end pulse_cont0_lo,#00h pulse_cont0_hi,#00h

mov

1bh,#0d

lcall DELAY_RM LCALL write mov mov mov a,pulse_cont0_hi 1ah,a 1bh,#1d

lcall DELAY_RM LCALL write setb pop pop reti TIMER_0: push push clr mov mov mov add psw acc tr0 tl0,#0b2h th0,#06Ch a,cont a,#01h
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ex0 acc psw

mov cjne mov clr

cont,a a,#20d,TIMER_NXT cont,#0d flag1 da a

mov mov addc

pulse_cont1_lo,a a,pulse_cont1_hi a,#0d da a

mov mov cjne mov mov inte1_end: mov mov mov

pulse_cont1_hi,a a,pulse_cont1_hi a,#10h,inte1_end pulse_cont1_lo,#00h pulse_cont1_hi,#00h

a,pulse_cont1_lo 1ah,a 1bh,#2d


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lcall DELAY_RM LCALL write mov mov mov a,pulse_cont1_hi 1ah,a 1bh,#3d

lcall DELAY_RM LCALL write setb pop pop reti main: mov mov mov mov mov psw,#00h sp,#070h tmod,#21h tcon,#05h scon,#50h anl mov mov ie,#00h ip,#00h
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ex1 acc psw

pcon,#7fh

mov mov mov mov mov mov mov mov mov mov mov mov clr clr clr

tl1,#0fdh th1,#0fdh tl0,#0b0h th0,#03ch p0,#0ffh p1,#0ffh p2,#0ffh p3,#0ffh pulse_cont0_lo,#00h pulse_cont0_hi,#00h pulse_cont1_lo,#00h pulse_cont1_hi,#00h lcd_rs lcd_rw lcd_en

lcall INIT_LCD lcall CLR_LCD lcall data_cheke mov dptr,#MSG0


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lcall LINE_1 mov dptr,#MSG1

lcall LINE_2 lcall delay10 mov dptr,#MSG2

lcall LINE_1 mov dptr,#MSG3

lcall LINE_2 lcall data_read_eeprom mov setb setb ie,#87h flag0 flag1 setb tr0 setb tr1 wait: jnb wait1: a,#10d lcall TRANS
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flag1,wait1

lcall DELAY mov anl ADD a,#30h lcall TRANS lcall DELAY mov anl ADD a,#30h lcall TRANS lcall DELAY mov anl ADD a,#30h a,pulse_cont0_lo a,#0fh a,pulse_cont0_lo a,#0fh a,pulse_cont0_hi a,#0fh

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lcall TRANS lcall DELAY mov anl ADD a,#30h lcall TRANS lcall DELAY mov anl a,pulse_cont1_lo a,#0fh lcall TRANS lcall DELAY mov anl ADD a,#30h
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a,pulse_cont1_hi a,#0fh

a,pulse_cont1_lo a,#0fh

lcall TRANS lcall DELAY mov a,#13d lcall TRANS lcall DELAY ljmp wait display: mov LCD_DATA,#08dh

lcall COMMAND_BYTE lcall DELAY41 mov anl ADD mov a,#30h LCD_DATA,a a,pulse_cont0_hi a,#0fh

lcall DATA_BYTE
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lcall DELAY41 mov LCD_DATA,#08eh

lcall COMMAND_BYTE lcall DELAY41 mov swap anl ADD mov a,#30h LCD_DATA,a a,pulse_cont0_lo a a,#0fh

lcall DATA_BYTE lcall DELAY41 mov LCD_DATA,#08fh

lcall COMMAND_BYTE lcall DELAY41 mov anl ADD mov a,#30h LCD_DATA,a a,pulse_cont0_lo a,#0fh

lcall DATA_BYTE lcall DELAY41


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mov

LCD_DATA,#0cdh

lcall COMMAND_BYTE lcall DELAY41 mov anl ADD mov a,#30h LCD_DATA,a a,pulse_cont1_hi a,#0fh

lcall DATA_BYTE lcall DELAY41 mov LCD_DATA,#0ceh

lcall COMMAND_BYTE lcall DELAY41 mov swap anl ADD mov a,#30h LCD_DATA,a a,pulse_cont1_lo a a,#0fh

lcall DATA_BYTE lcall DELAY41 mov LCD_DATA,#0cfh


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lcall COMMAND_BYTE lcall DELAY41 mov anl ADD mov a,#30h LCD_DATA,a a,pulse_cont1_lo a,#0fh

lcall DATA_BYTE lcall DELAY41 ret

TRANS: mov sbuf,a jnb lcall ELAY_RM ret ti

LINE_1:
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mov

LCD_DATA,#080h

lcall COMMAND_BYTE lcall DELAY41 lcall WRITE_MSG ret LINE_2: mov LCD_DATA,#0c0h

lcall COMMAND_BYTE lcall DELAY41 lcall WRITE_MSG ret INIT_LCD: mov LCD_DATA,#038h

lcall COMMAND_BYTE lcall DELAY41 mov LCD_DATA,#038h

lcall COMMAND_BYTE lcall DELAY41 mov LCD_DATA,#038h

lcall COMMAND_BYTE
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lcall DELAY41 mov LCD_DATA,#038h

lcall COMMAND_BYTE lcall DELAY41 mov LCD_DATA,#008h

lcall COMMAND_BYTE lcall DELAY41 mov LCD_DATA,#00ch

lcall COMMAND_BYTE lcall DELAY41 mov LCD_DATA,#006h

lcall COMMAND_BYTE lcall DELAY41 ret CLR_LCD: mov LCD_DATA,#001h

lcall COMMAND_BYTE lcall DELAY41 ret WRITE_MSG:


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mov movc cjne ret

a,#00h a,@a+dptr a,#'$',WRITE_CONT

WRITE_CONT: mov LCD_DATA,a

lcall DATA_BYTE

ljmp

WRITE_MSG

COMMAND_BYTE: clr lcd_rs

lcall DELAY ljmp CMD10

DATA_BYTE: setb lcd_rs

lcall DELAY CMD10: clr lcd_rw

lcall DELAY
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setb

lcd_en

lcall DELAY clr lcd_en

lcall DELAY ret DELAY: mov DEL: djnz ret DELAY1: mov mov DEL1: djnz djnz ret DELAY_RM: mov mov r0,#0d r1,#5d
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r0,#10d

r0,DEL

r0,#0d r1,#0d

r0,DEL1 r1,DEL1

DEL_RM: djnz djnz ret DELAY10: mov mov mov DEL10: djnz djnz djnz ret DELAY41: mov mov DLP410: djnz djnz ret
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r0,DEL_RM r1,DEL_RM

r0,#0d r1,#0d r2,#10d

r0,DEL10 r1,DEL10 r2,DEL10

r0,#0d r1,#15d

r0,DLP410 r1,DLP410

data_cheke: mov 1bh,#4d lcall DELAY_RM lcall read mov a,19h cjne a,#0d,data_chanj ljmp data_load_eeprom data_chanj: mov 1ah,#0d mov 1bh,#0d lcall DELAY_RM LCALL write mov 1ah,#0d

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mov 1bh,#1d lcall DELAY_RM LCALL write mov 1ah,#0d mov 1bh,#2d lcall DELAY_RM LCALL write mov 1ah,#0d mov 1bh,#3d lcall DELAY_RM LCALL write mov 1ah,#0d mov 1bh,#4d
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lcall DELAY_RM LCALL write ret data_read_eeprom: mov 1bh,#0d lcall DELAY_RM lcall read mov pulse_cont0_lo,19h mov 1bh,#1d lcall DELAY_RM lcall read mov pulse_cont0_hi,19h mov 1bh,#2d lcall DELAY_RM lcall read mov pulse_cont1_lo,19h mov 1bh,#3d lcall DELAY_RM lcall read mov pulse_cont1_hi,19h
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ret ;;;;;;;;;;;;; for 24c04 ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; read: PUSH B MOV B, A ACALL START JC NOBUS MOV A, #00H ORL A, #0A0H ACALL SHOUT JC XR1 MOV A,1bh ACALL SHOUT JC XR1 MOV A, B lCALL R_CRNT lJMP XR2 XR1: lCALL STOP

NOBUS: SETB 1 XR2: MOV 19h, A


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POP B RET

START: SETB P2.0 SETB P2.1

STOP: CLR P2.0 NOP NOP NOP NOP SETB P2.1 NOP NOP NOP NOP NOP NOP SETB P2.0 RET
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SHOUT: PUSH B MOV B, #8 X42: RLC A MOV P2.0, C NOP NOP NOP SETB P2.1 NOP NOP NOP NOP NOP CLR P2.1 DJNZ B, X42 SETB P2.0 NOP NOP NOP
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NOP SETB P2.1 NOP NOP NOP NOP NOP NOP MOV C, P2.0 CLR P2.1 POP B RET SHIN: SETB P2.0 PUSH B MOV B, #8 X43: NOP NOP NOP NOP NOP
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SETB P2.1 NOP NOP NOP NOP MOV C, P2.0 RLC A CLR P2.1 DJNZ B, X43 POP B RET

ACK:

CLR P2.0

NOP SETB P2.1 NOP NOP NOP NOP NOP


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NOP CLR P2.1 RET

write: lCALL START JC XW2 MOV A, #00H ORL A, #0A0H lCALL SHOUT JC XW1 MOV A,1bh lCALL SHOUT JC XW1 MOV A,1ah lCALL SHOUT JC XW1 CLR C XW1: XW2: lCALL STOP RET

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XRC1: lCALL STOP XRC2: RET MSG0: db MSG1: db MSG2: db MSG3: db end 'Rf Based Reader $' 'By Energy Meter $' 'Mtr.1 P.C. = 000$' 'Mtr.2 P.C. = 000$'

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