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Anirudhan

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III SEMESTER B.E/B.TECH
(COMMON TO ALL BRANCHES)

MA 2211 TRANSFORMS AND PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

QUESTION BANK

UNIT-I FOURIER SERIES

PART A
1. Define Dirichlets condition (or) State the condition for f(x) to have
Fourier Series expansion .
SOL : (i) f(x) is periodic, single valued and finite.
(ii) f(x) has a finite number of discontinuities in any one period
(iii) f(x) has a finite number of maxima and minima.
(iv) f(x) and f(x) are piecewise continuous.

2. State whether y = tan x can be expanded as a Fourier Series. If so how?
If not why?
SOL : tan x cannot be expanded as a Fourier series. Since tan x not
satisfied Dirichlets Conditions. (tan x has infinite number of infinite
discontinuities)

3. Find the sum of the Fourier Series for f(x) = x 0<x<1
= 2 1<x<2 at x = 1.
SOL : f(x) at x=1 is a discontinuous point in the middle.
f(x) at x = 1 =
2
) 1 ( ) 1 ( + + f f

f(1-) = lim f(1 h ) = lim 1 h = 1
h0 h0
f(1+) = lim f(1 + h ) = lim 2 = 2
h0 h0

f(x) at x = 1 (1 + 2) / 2 = 3 / 2 = 1.5

4. Write a
0,
a
n
in the expansion of x + x
3
as a Fourier Series in (- , )
SOL : Let f(x) = x + x
3

f (-x) = (-x) + (-x)
3

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2

= - x x
3

= - ( x+x
3
)
= - f(x)
f(x) is an odd function.
Hence a
0
= 0

a
n
= 0

5. If f(x) = x
2
+ x is expressed as a Fourier series in the interval ( -2, 2) to
which value this series converges at x = 2.
SOL : x = 2 is a point of discontinuity in the extremum
f(x) = [f(-2) + f(2)] / 2
= {[(-2)
2
+ (-2)] + [2
2
+ 2]} / 2
= {[4-2] + [4 +2] } / 2
= 8 /2
= 4
f(x) = 4
at x = 2

6. State Parsevals Identity for full range expansion of f(x) as Fourier Series
in (0,2l)
SOL : Let f(x) be a periodic function with period 2l defined in the
interval ( 0, 2l ) then

) (
2
1
4
)] ( [
2
1
2
1
2
2
0
2
0
2
n
n
n
l
b a
a
dx x f
l
+ + =

}

=

7. If the Fourier Series corresponding to f(x) =x in the interval (0, 2 ) is
) sin cos (
2
1
0
nx b nx a
a
n
n
n
+ +

=
without finding the values of a
0,
a
n
, b
n

find the value of ) (
2
2
1
2
2
0
n
n
n b a
a
+ +

=

SOL : By Parsevals Theorem
dx x f b a
a
n
n
n
}

=
= + +
2
0
2 2
1
2
2
0
)} ( [
1
) (
2 t

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3
= dx x
}
H 2
0
2
1
t

=
H
(

2
0
3
3
1 x
t

=
2
3
8
t

8. Define Root Mean Square value (or) RMS value
SOL : The root mean square value of f(x) over the interval (a,b) is
dedfined as
R.M.S. =
a b
dx x f
b
a

}
2
)] ( [

9. Find the constant term in the Fourier series corresponding to f (x) = cos
2
x
expressed in the interval (- , ).
SOL: Given f(x) = cos
2
x =
2
2 cos 1 x +

W.K.T f(x) =
2
0
a
+ nx b nx a
n
n
n
n
sin cos
1 1

=

=
+
To find a
0
= xdx
}

t
t
t
2
cos
1

= dx
x
}
+
t
t
0
2
2 cos 1 2

=
t
t
0
2
2 sin 1
(

+
x
x
=
t
1
[( + 0) (0+0)]
= 1.

10. If f(x) = x
2
+x is expressed as a Fourier series in the interval (-2,2) to
which value this series converges at x = 2.
SOL: x = 2 is a point of discontinuity in the extremum.

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[f(x)]
x = 2
=
2
) 2 ( ) 2 ( f f +

=
2
] 2 2 [ )] 2 ( ) 2 [(
2 2
+ + +

=
2
] 2 4 [ ] 2 4 [ + +

=
2
8
= 4.
11. Expand f(x) = x in 0 < x < 1 as a Fourier series.
SOL: Let f(x) =
(

+
(

+

=

=
l
x n
b
l
x n
a
a
n
n
n
n
t t
sin cos
2
1 1
0

a
0
=
}
l
dx x f
l
2
0
) (
1

a
n
= dx
l
x n
x f
l
l
} (

2
0
cos ) (
1 t

b
n
= dx
l
x n
x f
l
l
(

}
t
sin ) (
1
2
0

Here 2l = 1, l =
2
1
.
a
0
=
}
|
.
|

\
|
1
0
2
1
1
xdx = 2
1
0
2
2
(

x
= 2
(

0
2
1
= 1
a
n
= dx
x n
x
}
(
(
(
(

|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
1
0
2
1
cos
2
1
1 t

= 2
}
1
0
2 cos xdx n x t
= 2 ( )
1
0
2 2
4
2 cos
1
2
2 sin
(

|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|
t
t
t
t
n
x n
n
x n
x
= 2
(

|
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
+
2 2 2 2
4
1
0
4
1
0
t t n n

= 0
b
n
= dx
x n
x
}
(
(
(
(

|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
1
0
2
1
sin
2
1
1 t

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b
n
= 2
1
0
2 2
4
2 sin
2
2 cos
(

+
|
.
|

\
|
t
t
t
t
n
x n
n
x n
x
b
n
= -
t n
1

f(x) =
2
1
+ 0 +

=
|
.
|

\
|
1
1
n
nt
sin
(
(
(
(

2
1
x nt

f(x) = x n
n
n
t
t
2 sin
1 1
2
1
1

=
.

12. Expand f(x) = 1 in a sine series in 0 < x < t .
SOL : The sine series of f(x) in (0, t ) is given by
f (x) = nx b
n
n
sin
1

=

where b
n
=
}
t
t
0
sin
2
nxdx
= - | |
t
t
0
cos
2
nx
n

= 0 if n is even
=
t n
4
if n is odd
f(x) = nx
n
odd n
sin
4

=
t

=
t
4

( )
( )

1
1 2
1 2 sin
n
n
x n
.

PART-B

1. a) Expand f (x) =e
ax
in aFourier series in (0, 2t ).
b) Find the sine series for f (x) =x in 0<x< , t
2. Explain f (x) = xsinx as a Fourier series in (- t t, )
3. Obtain the Fourier series upto first term for the following.
X: 0 1 2 3 4 5
F(x): 9 18 24 28 26 20

4. Find the half range sine series for the function f(x) =x-x
2
, 0<x<1.
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5. Find the half range sine series for f(x) =xcosx in (0,t ).
6. Find the sine series of f(x) =x in 0<x<1
=2-x in 1<x<2

UNIT II FOURIER TRANSFORM

PART A

1. State Fourier integral theorem
SOL : If f(x) is piecewise continuously differentiable and absolutely
integrable in ( ) , , then

f(x) =
} }

H
dtds e t f
t x is ) (
) (
2
1

or equivalently

f(x) =
} }

H
0
) ( cos ) (
1
dtd x t t f
This is known as Fourier integral Theorem or Fourier integral formula

2. Define Fourier Transform Pair
SOL : F{f(x)} = F(s) = dx e x f
isx
}

H
) (
2
1

F
1
{F(s)} = f(x) = ds e s F
isx
}

H
) (
2
1

3. Define Fourier sine Transform and its inversion formula
SOL : The Fourier Sine Transform of f(x) is defined as

}

H
= =
0
sin ) (
2
) ( )] ( [ sxdx x f s F x f F
s S

The inversion formula is
}

H
=
0
sin ) (
2
) ( sxds s F x f
s

4. Define Fourier Cosine Transform and its inversion formula
SOL : The Fourier Cosine Transform of f(x) is defined as

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}

H
= =
0
cos ) (
2
) ( )] ( [ sxdx x f s F x f F
c c

The inversion formula is
}

H
=
0
cos ) (
2
) ( sxds s F x f
c

5. State the Convolution theorem for Fourier Transform.
SOL : If F(s) and G(s) are the Fourier transform of f(x) and g(x)
respectively. Then the Fourier transform of the convolution of f(x) and g(x)
is the product of their Fourier transform.
) ( ) ( )] ( * ) ( [ S G S F x g x f F =

6. Define Self Reciprocal
SOL : If a transformation of a function f(x) is equal to f(s) then the function
f(x) is called self reciprocal.
7. Find the Fourier Sine transform of 1/x
SOL : We know that

}

H
= =
0
sin ) (
2
) ( )] ( [ sxdx x f s F x f F
s S

=
}

H
=
0
sin
1 2
]
1
[ sxdx
x x
F
S

Let sx = u x 0 u 0
s dx = du x u

}

H
=
0
sin
2
s
d s u
u
u

}

H
=
0
sin 2
u
u
u
d

=
2
2 H
H
=
2
H
.
}

0
sin
u
u
u
d =
2
H

8. Find Fourier Cosine transform of e
x
.
SOL : We know that
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}

H
=
0
cos ) (
2
)] ( [ sxdx x f x f F
c

}

H
=
0
cos
2
] [ sxdx e e F
x x
c

=
(

+ H
2
1
1 2
s

2 2
0
cos
b a
a
bxdx e
ax
+
=
}

9.Find Fourier Sine transform of e
-3x
.
SOL: We know that

}

H
=
0
sin ) (
2
)] ( [ sxdx x f x f F
S

}

H
=
0
3 3
sin
2
] [ sxdx e e F
x x
S

=
9
2
2
+ H s
s
.
2 2
0
sin
b a
b
bxdx e
ax
+
=
}

10. Find Fourier Cosine transform of xe
ax
.
SOL : we know that

)] ( [ )] ( [ x f F
ds
d
x f F
s C
=

] [ ] [
ax
s
ax
C
e F
ds
d
xe F

=

=
(

H
}

0
sin
2
sxdx e
ds
d
ax

=
(

+ H
2 2
2
a s
s
ds
d

=
( )
2
2 2
2 2
2
a s
s a
+

H

11. Find Fourier Sine transform of xe
ax
.
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SOL : we know that

)] ( [ )] ( [ x f F
ds
d
x f F
c s
=

] [ ] [
ax
c
ax
s
e F
ds
d
xe F

=

=-
(

H
}

0
cos
2
sxdx e
ds
d
ax

=-
(

+ H
2 2
2
a s
a
ds
d

=
( )
2
2 2
2 2
a s
as
+
H

12. Show that f(x) = 1, 0 < x < cannot be represted by a Fourier integral.
SOL : dx x f
}

0
) ( =
}
1
0
dx = | |

0
x = and this value tends to as x.
i.e., dx x f
}

0
) ( is not convergent.
Hence f(x) = 1 cannot be represented by a Fourier integral.

PART B

1. Using Fourier integral of f(x) = x x for x < 1
0 x for x > 1
evaluate

Sin Cos

0

2. Find the Fourier transform of f(x) where
1 - x for x < 1
f(x)
0 for x > 1

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Hence deduce that
2
Sin t dt = t / 2
t

3. Find the Fourier Sine transform of Sinx , 0 < x < t
f(x) = 0 t < x <

4. Find the Fourier cosine transform of e
-4x
. Deduce that

Cos 2x dx = (t /8) e
-8
and x Sin 2x dx =
x
2
+ 16 x
2
+ 16
(t /2) e
-8

5. State and prove convolution theorem for Fourier transform.

6. Find the Fourier transform of e
-

a x
if a > 0. Deduce that

1 dx = (t / 4a
3
) if a > 0
0 (x
2
+ a
2
)
2

7. Find the Fourier Cosine transform of x e
x 2 / 2

8. Derive the parsevals identity for Fourier transforms.

UNIT III BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEMS
UNIT III
APPLICATION OF PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

2 MARKS QUESTIONS
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1. Classify the partial differential equation xy
y
u
x
u
y x
u
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
=
c c
c
2

Solution: B = 1, A = 0, C = 0 0 1 4
2
> = AC B
Hyperbolic type.
2. In the wave equation for? stant c does What ,
2
2
2
2
2
2
x
y
c
t
y
c
c
=
c
c

length unit per mass
Tension
m
T
c

2
= =

3. What are the possible solutions of the one dimensional wave equation?
1. ) )( ( ) , (
4 3 2 1
c x c c x c t x y + + =
2. ) sin cos )( sin cos ( ) , (
8 7 6 5
pct c pct c px c px c t x y + + =
3. ) )( ( ) , (
12 11 10 9
pct pct px px
e c e c e c e c t x y

+ + =

4. In a heat equation
2
2
2
x
u
t
u
c
c
=
c
c
o What does
2
o stand for?
cp
k
=
2
o where k: Thermal conductivity
c: Specific heat and
p density
2
o is called the diffusivity of the material.

5. State any two laws which are assumed to derive one dimensional heat equation.

i. The amount of heat required to produce a given temperature change in
a body is proportional to the mass of the body and to the temperature
change.
ii. The rate at which heat flows across any area is proportional to the area
and the temperature gradient normal to the area.

6. State Fourier law of heat conduction.
The rate at which heat flows across an area A at a distance x from one end
of a bar is given by Q = KA |
.
|

\
|
c
c
x
u
, Where K : Thermal conductivity,
|
.
|

\
|
c
c
x
u

7. Write down the three possible solutions of ODHE and state the suitable solution.

1.
3 2 1
) ( ) , ( c c x c t x u + =
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2.
i p px px
e c e c e c t x u
2 2
6 5 4
) ( ) , (
o
+ =

3.
i p
e c px c px c t x u
2 2
9 8 7
) sin cos ( ) , (
o
+ =
Suitable solution:
i p
e px B px A t x u
2 2
) sin cos ( ) , (
o
+ =

8. An insulated rod of length 60 cm has its ends A and B maintained at 20 C and 80 C
respectively. Find the steady state solution of the rod.
l
a b
a x u
|
.
|

\
|
+ = ) (
A = 20 C , B = 80 C l =60
Therefore u(x) = 20 + x for 0 < x < l

9. Write down the three possible solution of Laplace equation 0 = +
yy xx
u u
1. ) sin cos )( ( ) , (
4 3 2 1
py c py c e c e c t x u
px px
+ + =

2. ) )( sin cos ( ) , (
8 7 6 5
py py
e c e c px c px c t x u + + =

3. ) )( ( ) , (
12 11 10 9
c y c c x c t x u + + =

10. Write the boundary condition for the problem: A rectangular plate is bounded by the
lines x = 0 ,y=0,x=a and y=b. Its surfaces are insulated. The temperature along x=0
and y=0 are kept at 0 C and the other at 100 C.
The boundary conditions are
i) b y o u s s = y 0 for 0 ) , (
ii) a x u s s = x 0 for 0 ) 0 , (
iii) b y a u < < = y 0 for 100 ) , (
iv) a b x u < < = x 0 for 100 ) , (

PART-B
1. A rectangular plate with insulated surfaces is 10 cm wide and so long
compared to its width that it may be considered infinite in length with out
introducing an appreciable error. If the temperature along one short edge y =
0 is T(x,0) = 4(10x x
2
) for 0<x<10 while the long edges as well as the
other short edge are kept at 0c, find the steady state temperature .

2. A rectangular plate is bounded by the lines x = 0 ,x = a, y = 0, y= b. Its
surfaces are insulated and the temperature along two adjacent edges are kept
at 100c,while the temperature along the other two edges are 0c. Find the
steady state temperature at any point of the plate.

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3. A string is tightly stretched and its ends are fastened at two points x = o and
x = l. The mid point of the string is displaced transversely through a small
distance b and the string is released from rest in that position. Find an
expression for the transverse displacement of the string at any time during
the subsequent motion.

4. A rod of length l has its ends A and B are kept at 0c and 100c until steady
state condition prevail. If the temperature at B is suddenly reduced to 0c and
kept so while that of A is maintained, find the temperature u(x,t) at a
distance x from A and at time t.
5. A bar 10 cm long with insulated sides, has its ends A and B kept at 20 c and
30c respectively until steady state condition prevail. T he temperature at A
is then suddenly raised to 50 c and at the same instant that at B is lowered to
10 c. Find the subsequent temperature at any point of the bar at any time.

+ + + + + + + + + + + + + +

Unit IV

PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

PART A

1. Form the p.d.e by eliminating the arbitrary constants a and b from
by ax z + = .
Soln: Given by ax z + = ..(1)
Diff. partially w.r.t. x we get a
x
z
=
c
c
i.e., a p =
Diff. partially w.r.t. y we get b
y
z
=
c
c
i.e., b q =
Substituting in (1) we get qy px z + = .

2. Form the p.d.e by eliminating the arbitrary constants a and b from
) )( (
2 2 2 2
b y a x z + + = .
Soln: Given ) )( (
2 2 2 2
b y a x z + + = (1)
Diff. partially w.r.t. x we get ) )( 2 (
2 2
b y x
x
z
p + =
c
c
= ) (
2
2 2
b y
x
p
+ = ..(2)
Diff. partially w.r.t. y we get ) )( 2 (
2 2
a x y
y
z
q + =
c
c
= ) (
2
2 2
a x
y
q
+ = ..(3)
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Substituting (2) and (3) in (1) we get the required p.d.e.
xy
pq
x
p
y
q
z
4 2 2
= = 1.e., pq xyz = 4 .

3. Form the p.d.e by eliminating the arbitrary funtion from ) (
2 2
y x f z + =
Soln: Given ) (
2 2
y x f z + =
) 2 )( ( '
2 2
x y x f
x
z
p + =
c
c
= , ) 2 )( ( '
2 2
y y x f
y
z
q + =
c
c
=
y
x
q
p
2
2
= 0 = qx py .

4. Form the p.d.e by eliminating the arbitrary funtion from
0 ) , ( = + + z y x y x |
Soln. w.k.t if 0 ) , ( = v u | then ) (v u | =
) ( z y x y x + + = | .(1)
Diff. partially w.r.t. x we get
) 0 1 )( ( ' 1
x
z
z y x
c
c
+ + + + = | ) ( '
1
1
z y x
p
+ + =
+
| (2)
Diff. partially w.r.t. y we get
) 1 0 )( ( ' 1 0
y
z
z y x
c
c
+ + + + = | ) ( '
1
1
z y x
q
+ + =
+

| (3)

From (2) and (3), we get 0 2 = + + q p .

5. Solve 1 = + q p
Soln. Given 1 = + q p
This is of the form 0 ) , ( = q p F . Hence the complete integral is c by ax z + + =
Where 1 = + b a
2
) 1 ( a b = . Therefore the complete solution is
c y a ax z + + =
2
) 1 ( (1)
Diff. partially w.r.t. c we get 0=1. There is no singular integral. Taking ) (a f c =
where f is arbitrary.
) ( ) 1 (
2
a f y a ax z + + = (2)
Diff. P.w.r.t. a we get ) ( '
2
1
) 1 ( 2 0 a f y
a
a x +
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ = .(3)
Eliminating a between (2) and (3) we get the general solution.

6. Find the complete integral of
2 2
q p qy px z + + + =
Soln. Given
2 2
q p qy px z + + + = (1)
This equation of the form ) , ( q p f qy px z + + = [Clairauts type]
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Therefore the complete integral is
2 2
b a by ax z + + + = .

7. Find the complete integral of px q 2 = .
Soln. Given px q 2 =
This equation of the form 0 ) , , ( = q p x f
Let a q = . Then
x
a
p
2
= .
x
a
dz + =
2

Integrating on both sides we get, b ay x
a
z + + = log
2

8. Solve y x q p = +
Soln: Given y x q p = +
) ( q y x p + =
This equation is of the form ) , ( ) , ( q y p x f | =
a q y x p = + = ) ( say
x a p + = and a y q =
But qdy pdx dz + = dy a y dx x a dz ) ( ) ( + + =
Integrating on both sides we get,
b ay
y x
ax z + + =
2 2
2 2
.(1)
Diff.(1) P.w.r.t. b we get ) (a b | = .(2)
) (
2 2
2 2
a ay
y x
ax z | + + = (3)
Diff(3) P.w.r.t. a we get
) ( ' 0 a y x | + = .(4)
Eliminating (3) and (4) we the general solution.

9. Solve 0 ] ' ' ' [
3 2 2 3
= + z D D D DD D
Soln. The auxiliary equation is 0 1
2 3
= + m m m
0 ) 1 )( 1 (
2
= + m m 1 = m , i m =
General Solution is
) ( ) ( ) (
3 2 1
ix y ix y x y z + + + + = | | |

10. Find the particular integral of ) 2 cos( ] ' 2 ' 3 [
2 2
y x z D DD D + = +
Soln. Given ) 2 cos( ] ' 2 ' 3 [
2 2
y x z D DD D + = +
) 2 cos(
' 2 ' 3
1
. .
2 2
y x
D DD D
I P +
+
=
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16
) 2 cos(
) 4 ( 2 ) 2 ( 3 1
1
...... y x +
+
=

) 2 cos(
8 6 1
1
..... y x +
+
=
) 2 cos(
3
1
..... y x +

= .
1. Solve p(1-q
2
)=q(1-z)
2. Solve (D
2
-DD
1
-2D
2
) z=2x+3y+e
3x+4y

3. Solve z
2
=p
2
+q
2
+1
4. Find the general integral of x(y
2
+z)p+y(x
2
+z)q=z(x
2
-y
2
)
5. Solve p=2qx
6. Solve z
2
=xypq
7. Find the PDE by eliminating f from
(a) f(xy+z
2
,x+y+z)=0
(b) z=xy+f(x
2
+y
2
+z
2
)
(c)z= x
2
f(y)+y
2
g(x)

UNIT-V

Z TRANSFORMS

UNIT V

Z TRANSFORM AND DIFFERNCE EQUATIONS

PART A

1. Prove that Z[a
n
] =
a z
z

if a z > .
Solution:
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17

a z
z
z
a z
z
a
z
a
z
a
z
a
z a a Z
n
n
n
n
n n

=
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
+
|
.
|

\
|
+ + =
|
.
|

\
|
=
=

1
1
2
0
0
1
..... 1
] [

2. Prove that Z(n)=
( )
2
1 z
z

Solution:

( )
2
2
2
2
3 2
0
0
1
1 1
1
1
1
.....
1
3
1
2 1
1
.....
3 2 1
0
] [

=
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|
+ + + =
+ + + =
|
.
|

\
|
=
=

z
z
z
z
z
z z
z z z
z z z
z
n
z n n Z
n
n
n
n

3. Find Z[(-1)
n
]
Solution:
We know that Z[a
n
] =
a z
z

Z[(-1)
n
] =
1 ) 1 ( +
=
z
z
z
z

4. Find Z
(

+ ) 1 (
1
n n

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18
Solution:

1
log ) 1 (
1
log
1
log
1
1 1
) 1 (
1
1
1 1
) 1 (
1
1 1
1 0
) ( ) 1 ( 1
1 ) 1 (
1

=
|
.
|

\
|
+

|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
=
+

= =
= =
+ + =
+
+ =
+
z
z
z
z
z
z
z
z
n
Z
n
Z
n n
Z
n n n n
B get we n put
A get we n put
n B n A
n
B
n
A
n n

5. Find Z[a
n
n]
Solution:
We know that Z[a
n
f(n)]=F[Z/a]

| |
2
2
/
2
/
) (
) 1 (
] [ ] [
a z
az
a
a z
a
z
z
z
n Z n a Z
a z z
a z z
n

=
|
.
|

\
|
=
(

=
=

6. Find Z[e
t
sin2t]
Solution:

( )
1 2 cos 2
2 sin
1 2 cos 2
2 sin
] 2 [sin ] 2 sin [
)] ( [ )] ( [
2 2
2
+
=
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
=
=

T ze e z
T ze
T z z
T z
t Z t e Z
t f Z t f e Z
T T
T
ze z
ze z
t
ze z
at
T
T
aT

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19

7. Prove that Z[f(n+1)]=zF(z)-zf(0)
Solution:

) 0 ( ) (
) 0 ( ) (
1 ) (
) 1 (
) 1 ( )] 1 ( [
0
1
0
) 1 (
0
zf z zF
f z m f z
n m where z m f z
z n f z
z n f n f Z
m
m
m
m
n
n
n
n
=
(

=
+ = =
+ =
+ = +

=
+

8. Find )] ( [ k n Z o
Solution:

k
n
n
z
k n Z
k n f or
k n f or
k n
z k n k n Z
1
)] ( [
0
1
) (
) ( )] ( [
0
=

=
=
=
=

o
o
o o

9. Find )] 2 ( 2 [ n Z
n
o
Solution:

z
z
z
n Z n Z
z z
z z
n
4
2
1
1
)] 2 ( [ )] 2 ( 2 [
2
2 /
2
2 /
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
=

o o

10. If Z(f(n))=F(z), then f(0)= ) ( lim z F
z

Solution:
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20

) 0 ( ) ( lim
.....
) 2 ( ) 1 (
) 0 ( lim )) ( ( lim
.....
) 2 ( ) 1 (
) 0 (
) ( )] ( [
2
2
0
f z F
z
f
z
f
f n f Z
z
f
z
f
f
z n f n f Z
z
z z
n
n
=
(

+ + + =
+ + + =
=

11. Define convolution of sequences.
Solution:
The convolution of two sequences {x(n)} and {y(n)} is defined as
(i) {x(n) * y(n)} =

=

K
K n g K f ) ( ) ( if the sequences are non-causal.
(ii) {x(n) * y(n)} =

=

n
K
K n g K f
0
) ( ) ( if the sequences are causal.
The convolution of two function f(t) and g(t) is defined as
(i) f(t) * g(t)= T K n g KT f
n
K

=

0
) ( ) ( , where T is the sampling period.

12. Find
(

) 3 ( ) 2 (
2
3
1
z z
z
Z by convolution theorem.
Solution:

+ =
+ =
- + =
(

-
(

=
(

=
(

n
m
m m n
n
m
m n m
n n
m
m
n
z
z
Z
z
z
Z
z
z
z
z
Z
z z
z
Z
0
0
1
2
2
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
3 2 ) 1 ( 3
3 2 ) 1 (
3 2 ) 1 (
) 3 ( ) 2 (
3 ) 2 ( ) 3 ( ) 2 (

13. Find the Z transform of na
n
u(n)
Solution:
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21

| |
| |
| |
2 1
1
2 1 1
1
1 1
1
1
1
1
1
1
) 1 (
) 1 (
) ( 1 ) 1 (
1
) (

=
=
=
=
(

=
az
az
az az
a az z
az
dz
d
z
a z
z
dz
d
z n u a Z
n

14. Define Unit step sequence.
Solution:
The unit step sequence u(n) is defined as

<
>
=
0 0
0 1
) (
n for
n for
n u

15. Find Z[cos (t+T)]
Solution:

1 cos 2
) 1 cos (
1 cos 2
cos
1 cos 2
cos 2 cos
1 cos 2
) cos (
1 cos 2
) cos (
0 cos ] [cos )) (cos(
) 0 ( )] ( [
) 0 ( ) ( ) ( (
2
2
2
2
2 3 2 3
2
2
2
+

=
+

=
+
+
=

+

=

+

=
= +
=
= +
T z z
T z z
T z z
z T z
T z z
z T z z T z z
z
T z z
T z z
z
T z z
T z z
z
z t zZ T t Z
zf t f Z z
zf z zF T t f Z

PART B

1. Find Z
-1
4Z
2
2Z

Z
3
5Z
2
+8Z 4

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22

2. Find Z
-1
Z by using residue theorem.
( z 1) ( z 2)

3. Use residue theorem find Z
-1
Z
2

Z
2
+ 4

4. Solve by Z transform y
n + 2
+ y
n
= 3 , given that y
0
= y
1
= 0
5. Solve the difference equation x (n+2) 6x(n+1) +8x(n) = 4
n
,
x(0) = 0 , x(1) = 1 by Z transform.
6. Solve U(x+2) 4U(x) = 9x
2
, given that U(0) = 0 , U(1) = 0 by Z
transforms.
7. Solve y
n+2
5y
n+1
+ 6y
n
= 6
n
, y
0
= 1 , y
1
= 0
8. Solve by Z transforms y
n+2
+ y
n
= n 2
n

+ + + + + + + + + + + +