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PDCCH Processing

PDCCH Processing NCHU CSE LTE - 1
NCHU CSE LTE - 1
NCHU CSE LTE - 1

PDCCH Processing

• A CRC is attached to each DCI message payload.

• The identity of the terminal (or terminals) addressed – the Radio-Network Temporary Identifier (RNTI) – is included in the CRC calculation.

•

After CRC attachment, the bits are coded with a rate- 1/3 tail-biting convolutional code and rate matched to fit the amount of resources used for PDCCH transmission.

– Tail-biting convolutional coding is similar to conventional convolutional coding with the exception that no tail bits are used.

NCHU CSE LTE - 2
NCHU CSE LTE - 2

PDCCH Processing

• The sequence of bits corresponding to all the PDCCH resource elements to be transmitted in the subframe

– including the unused resource elements, is scrambled by a cell- and subframe-specific scrambling sequence to randomize inter-cell interference, followed by QPSK modulation and mapping to resource elements.

• This structure is based on Control-Channel Elements (CCEs), which in essence is a convenient name for a set of 36 useful resource elements (nine resource-element groups).

• The number of CCEs, one, two, four, or eight, required depends on the payload size of the control information (DCI payload) and the channel-coding rate.

NCHU CSE LTE - 3
NCHU CSE LTE - 3

PDCCH Processing

• The number of CCEs depends on

– the size of the control region

– the cell bandwidth

– the number of downlink antenna ports

– the amount of resources occupied by PHICH

• The size of the control region can vary dynamically from subframe to subframe as indicated by the PCFICH.

• A specific PDCCH can be identified by the numbers of the corresponding CCEs in the control region.

NCHU CSE LTE - 4
NCHU CSE LTE - 4

PDCCH Processing

• As the number of CCEs may vary and is not signaled, the terminal has to blindly determine the number of CCEs used for the PDCCH it is addressed upon.

• The sequence of CCEs should match the amount of resources available in a given subframe - the number of CCEs varies according to the value transmitted on the PCFICH

NCHU CSE LTE - 5
NCHU CSE LTE - 5

Blind Decoding of PDCCHs

• Each PDCCH supports multiple formats and the format used is a priori unknown to the terminal.

– The terminal needs to blindly detect the format of the PDCCHs.

• In each subframe, the terminals will attempt to decode all the PDCCHs that can be formed from the CCEs in each of its search spaces.

NCHU CSE LTE - 6
NCHU CSE LTE - 6

Blind Decoding of PDCCHs

• It is required to have mechanisms to limit the CCE aggregations that the terminal is supposed to monitor.

From a scheduling point of view: these restrictions in the allowed CCE aggregations are undesirable as they may influence the scheduling flexibility and require additional processing at the transmitter side.CCE aggregations that the terminal is supposed to monitor. From a terminal-complexity point of view: the

From a terminal-complexity point of view: the terminal to monitor all possible CCE aggregations, also for the larger cell bandwidths, is not attractive.they may influence the scheduling flexibility and require additional processing at the transmitter side. NCHU CSE

NCHU CSE LTE - 7
NCHU CSE LTE - 7

Blind Decoding of PDCCHs

• To impose as few restrictions as possible on the scheduler while at the same time limit the maximum number of blind decoding attempts in the terminal.

• LTE defines search spaces, which describe the set

of CCEs the terminal is supposed to monitor for scheduling assignments/ grants relating to a certain component carrier.

• A search space is a set of candidate control channels formed by CCEs on a given aggregation level, which the terminal is supposed to attempt to decode.

– For multiple aggregation levels, corresponding to one, two, four, and eight CCEs, a terminal has multiple search spaces.

NCHU CSE LTE - 8
NCHU CSE LTE - 8

Blind Decoding of PDCCHs

• The terminals will attempt to decode all the PDCCHs that can be formed from the CCEs in each of its search spaces.

NCHU CSE LTE - 9
NCHU CSE LTE - 9

Example

1. Terminal A in cannot be addressed on a PDCCH starting at CCE number 20, whereas terminal B can.

2. If terminal A is using CCEs 16–23, terminal B cannot be addressed on aggregation level 4 as all CCEs in its level-4 search space are blocked by the use for the other terminals.

– each terminal in the system has a terminal-specific search space at each aggregation level.

3. The terminal-specific search spaces partially overlap between the two terminals in this subframe (CCEs 24–31 on aggregation level 8) but, as the terminal- specific search space varies between subframes, the overlap in the next subframe is most likely different.

NCHU CSE LTE - 10
NCHU CSE LTE - 10

Blind Decoding of PDCCHs

• LTE has also defined common search spaces.

– all terminals in the cell monitor the CCEs for control information.

It is primarily transmission of various system messages, it can be used to schedule individual terminals as well.in the cell monitor the CCEs for control information . Also, it can be used to

Also, it can be used to resolve situations where scheduling of one terminal is blocked due to lack of available resources in the terminal-specific search space.transmission of various system messages, it can be used to schedule individual terminals as well. NCHU

NCHU CSE LTE - 11
NCHU CSE LTE - 11

Blind Decoding of PDCCHs

• The common search spaces are only defined for aggregation levels of four and eight CCEs and only for the smallest DCI formats, 0/1A/3/3A and 1C. (Table 10-4)

– Without support for DCI formats with spatial multiplexing in the common search space.

•

As the main function of the common search space is to handle scheduling of system information intended for multiple terminals, and such information must be receivable by all terminals in the cell.

– scheduling is used the common search space.

NCHU CSE LTE - 12
NCHU CSE LTE - 12

Blind Decoding of PDCCHs

• The downlink DCI formats to decode in the terminal- specific search space depend on the transmission mode configured for the terminal.

• The DCI monitoring is described for the case of a single component carrier.

for the terminal. • The DCI monitoring is described for the case of a single component
NCHU CSE LTE - 13
NCHU CSE LTE - 13

Blind Decoding of PDCCHs

• For multiple component carriers, the above procedures are applied in principle to each of the activated downlink component carriers. (Ch 12)

There is one UE-specific search space per aggregation level and per (activated) component carrier upon which PDSCH can be received (or PUSCH transmitted), although there are some carrier-aggregation-specific modifications.each of the activated downlink component carriers. (Ch 12) UE-specific search space per aggregation level and

UE-specific search space per aggregation level and component carrier used for the PDSCH/PUSCH.be received (or PUSCH transmitted), although there are some carrier-aggregation-specific modifications. NCHU CSE LTE - 14

NCHU CSE LTE - 14
NCHU CSE LTE - 14

Blind Decoding of PDCCHs

• Where PDSCH/PUSCH transmissions on component carrier 1 are scheduled using PDCCHs transmitted on component carrier 1.

• For component carrier 2, a carrier indicator is assumed in the UE-specific search space as component carrier 2 is cross-carrier scheduled from PDCCHs transmitted on component carrier 1.

space as component carrier 2 is cross-carrier scheduled from PDCCHs transmitted on component carrier 1. NCHU
NCHU CSE LTE - 15
NCHU CSE LTE - 15

Blind Decoding of PDCCHs

• For component carriers 3 and 4, the terminal will handle the two search spaces independently, assuming (in this example) a carrier indicator for component carrier 4 but not for component carrier 3.

•

If the UE-specific and common search spaces relating to different component carriers happen to overlap for some aggregation level when cross- carrier scheduling is configured, the terminal only needs to monitor the common search space.

NCHU CSE LTE - 16
NCHU CSE LTE - 16

Physical Hybrid ARQ Indicator Channel (PHICH)

• The PHICH is used to transmit the hybrid-ARQ acknowledgements in response to UL-SCH transmission.

•

The hybrid-ARQ acknowledgement (one single bit of information per transport block) is repeated three times, followed by BPSK modulation on either the I or the Q branch and spreading with a length-four orthogonal sequence.

NCHU CSE LTE - 17
NCHU CSE LTE - 17

PHICH

• Multiple PHICHs mapped to the same set of resource elements constitute a PHICH group,

– where PHICHs within the same PHICH group are separated through different orthogonal sequences.

Sequence index

 

Orthogonal sequence

 
 

seq

Normal cyclic prefix

Extended cyclic prefix

n

PHICH

 

N

PHICH

= 4

N

PHICH

= 2

SF

SF

 

0

[+1 +1 +1 +1]

 

[+1 +1]

 

1

[+1 1 +1 1]

 

[+1 1]

 

2

[+1 +1 1 1]

[+ j + j]

 

3

[+1 1 1 +1]

[+ j j]

 

4

[+ j + j + j + j]

 

-

 

5

[+ j j + j j]

 

-

 

6

[+ j + j j j]

 

-

 

7

[+ j j j + j]

 

-

NCHU CSE LTE - 18
NCHU CSE LTE - 18

PHICH

PHICH duration in MBSFN and non-MBSFN subframes

 

Non-MBSFN subframes

MBSFN subframes On a carrier supporting both PDSCH and PMCH

PHICH duration

Subframes 1 and 6 in case of frame structure type 2

All other cases

Normal

1

1

1

Extended

2

3

2

NCHU CSE LTE - 19
NCHU CSE LTE - 19

PHICH

• After forming the composite signal representing the PHICHs in a group, cell-specific scrambling is applied and the 12 scrambled symbols are mapped to three resource-element groups. – separated by approximately one-third of the downlink cell bandwidth.

• In the first OFDM symbol in the control region, resources are first allocated to the PCFICH, the PHICHs are mapped to resource elements not used by the PCFICH

NCHU CSE LTE - 20
NCHU CSE LTE - 20

PHICH

• In LTE, each downlink subframe is normally divided into a control region, and a data region, consisting of the remaining part of the subframe.

– control region consisting of the first few OFDM symbols,

• The control region carries L1/L2 signaling necessary to control uplink and downlink data transmissions.

The control region carries L1/L2 signaling necessary to control uplink and downlink data transmissions. NCHU CSE
NCHU CSE LTE - 21
NCHU CSE LTE - 21

PCFICH

• The PCFICH indicates the size of the control region

in terms of the number of OFDM symbols – that is,

indirectly where in the subframe the data region starts.

• If PCFICH is incorrectly decoded,

– neither know how to process the control channels nor where

the data region starts for the corresponding subframe.

• Two bits of information (32-bit codeword), corresponds to the three control-region sizes of one, two, or three OFDM symbols.

NCHU CSE LTE - 22
NCHU CSE LTE - 22

PCFICH

• The coded bits are scrambled with a cell- and subframe-specific scrambling code to randomize inter-cell interference, QPSK modulated, and mapped to 16 resource elements.

code to randomize inter-cell interference, QPSK modulated, and mapped to 16 resource elements. NCHU CSE LTE
NCHU CSE LTE - 23
NCHU CSE LTE - 23

PCFICH

• The mapping of resource elements in the first OFDM symbol in the subframe is done in groups of four resource elements (resource-element groups) and separated in different frequencies.

• a symbol quadruplet consisting of four (QPSK) symbols is mapped.

Transmit diversity for four antenna ports is specified in terms of groups of four symbols (resource elements).

•

To avoid collisions in neighboring cells, the location of the four groups in the frequency domain depends on the physical-layer cell identity.

•
NCHU CSE LTE - 24
NCHU CSE LTE - 24
location of the four groups in the frequency domain depends on the physical-layer cell identity .

PCFICH

• In first OFDM symbol; there are two resource element groups per resource block, as every third resource element is reserved for reference signals (or non-used resource elements corresponding to reference symbols on the other antenna port).

signals (or non-used resource elements corresponding to reference symbols on the other antenna port). NCHU CSE
NCHU CSE LTE - 25
NCHU CSE LTE - 25

PCFICH

• In second OFDM symbol; (if part of the control region) there are two or three resource-element groups depending on the number of antenna ports configured.

• In third OFDM symbol (if part of the control region) there are always three resource-element groups per resource block.

(if part of the control region) there are always three resource-element groups per resource block. NCHU
NCHU CSE LTE - 26
NCHU CSE LTE - 26

PCFICH

• The four resource-element groups are separated by one-fourth of the downlink cell bandwidth in the frequency domain, with the starting position given by physical-layer cell identity.

– 16 QPSK symbols are used for the transmission of four resource-element groups

cell identity. – 16 QPSK symbols are used for the transmission of four resource-element groups NCHU
NCHU CSE LTE - 27
NCHU CSE LTE - 27

Common Control Physical Channel (CCPCH)

Common Control Physical Channel (CCPCH) • CCPCH carries cell-wide control information . • Like the PDCCH,

• CCPCH carries cell-wide control information.

• Like the PDCCH, robustness rather than maximum data rate is the chief consideration.

•

QPSK is therefore the only available modulation format.

• CCPCH is transmitted as close to the center frequency as possible. CCPCH is transmitted exclusively on the 72 active subcarriers (=6 PRBs) centered on the DC subcarrier.

• Control information is mapped to resource elements (k, l) where k refers to the OFDM symbol (0 5/6) within the slot and l refers to the subcarrier.

(k, l) where k refers to the OFDM symbol (0 5/6) within the slot and l
NCHU CSE LTE - 28
NCHU CSE LTE - 28

Downlink L1/L2 Control Signaling

• Downlink control signaling supports the transmission of downlink and uplink transport channels.

– the corresponding information partly originates from the physical layer (Layer 1) and partly from Layer 2 MAC.

• Downlink L1/L2 control signaling consists of downlink scheduling assignments, including

– information required for the terminal to be able to properly receive,

– demodulate,

– decode the DL-SCH on a component carrier, uplink scheduling grants informing the terminal about the resources

– transport format to use for uplink (UL-SCH) transmission

– hybrid-ARQ acknowledgements in response to UL-SCH transmissions.

NCHU CSE LTE - 29
NCHU CSE LTE - 29

Downlink L1/L2 Control Signaling

• The downlink L1/L2 control signaling is transmitted within the first part of each subframe.

is transmitted within the first part of each subframe . • Each subframe can be divided

Each subframe can be divided into a control region

followed by a data region, where the control region

corresponds to the part of the subframe in which the L1/L2control signaling is transmitted.

NCHU CSE LTE - 30
NCHU CSE LTE - 30

Downlink L1/L2 Control Signaling

• The control signaling can be dynamically adjusted radio resources to match the instantaneous traffic situation.

– For example, a small number of users being scheduled in a subframe, the required amount of control signaling is small and a larger part of the subframe can be used for data transmission.

• The downlink L1/L2 control signaling consists of four different physical-channel types:

• PCFICH, informing the terminal about the size of the control region (one, two, or three OFDM symbols).

– There is one and only one PCFICH on each component carrier or, equivalently, in each cell.

NCHU CSE LTE - 31
NCHU CSE LTE - 31

Downlink L1/L2 Control Signaling

• PDCCH carries signal downlink scheduling assignments and uplink scheduling grants.

– Each PDCCH carries signaling for a single terminal, but can also be used to address a group of terminals.

– Multiple PDCCHs can exist in each cell.

• PHICH, used to signal hybrid-ARQ acknowledgements in response to uplink UL-SCH transmissions.

– Multiple PHICHs can exist in each cell.

• R-PDCCH (Relay Physical Downlink Control Channel), used

for relaying.

– the R-PDCCH is not transmitted in the control region.

NCHU CSE LTE - 32
NCHU CSE LTE - 32

Downlink Scheduling Assignment

• Downlink scheduling assignments are valid for the same subframe in which they are transmitted.

• The scheduling assignments use one of the DCI formats 1, 1A, 1B, 1C, 1D, 2, 2A, 2B, or 2C and the DCI formats used depend on the transmission mode configured

NCHU CSE LTE - 33
NCHU CSE LTE - 33

Uplink

• The principle advantage of SC-FDMA over conventional OFDM is a lower PAPR (by approximately 2 dB) than would otherwise be possible using OFDM.

• Data is mapped onto a signal constellation that can be QPSK, 16QAM, or 64QAM depending on channel quality.

is mapped onto a signal constellation that can be QPSK, 16QAM, or 64QAM depending on channel
NCHU CSE LTE - 34
NCHU CSE LTE - 34

Uplink Physical Channels

Physical Uplink Shared Channel (PUSCH)

– Resources for the PUSCH are allocated on a sub-frame basis by the UL scheduler.

– Subcarriers are allocated in multiples of 12 (PRBs) and may be hopped from sub-frame to sub-frame.

– The PUSCH may employ QPSK, 16QAM or 64QAM modulation.

– CRC insertion: 24 bit CRC

Physical Uplink Control Channel (PUCCH)

– It is never transmitted simultaneously with PUSCH data.

– For frame structure type 2, the PUCCH is not transmitted in the UpPTS field.

– PUCCH conveys control information including channel quality indication (CQI), ACK/NACK, HARQ and uplink scheduling requests (SR). The PUCCH transmission is frequency hopped at the slot boundary

NCHU CSE LTE - 35
NCHU CSE LTE - 35

PUSCH

• The baseband signal representing the physical uplink shared channel is defined in terms of the following steps:

– scrambling

– modulation of scrambled bits to generate complex-valued symbols

– transform precoding to generate complex-valued symbols

– mapping of complex-valued symbols to resource elements

– generation of complex-valued time-domain SC-FDMA signal for each antenna port

Scrambling

Scrambling
Scrambling
Scrambling
time-domain SC-FDMA signal for each antenna port Scrambling Modulation mapper Transform precoder Resource

Modulation

mapper

Modulation mapper
Modulation mapper

Transform

precoder

Transform precoder
Transform precoder
port Scrambling Modulation mapper Transform precoder Resource element mapper SC-FDMA signal gen. NCHU CSE
port Scrambling Modulation mapper Transform precoder Resource element mapper SC-FDMA signal gen. NCHU CSE

Resource

element mapper

Resource element mapper
Resource element mapper
Modulation mapper Transform precoder Resource element mapper SC-FDMA signal gen. NCHU CSE LTE - 37

SC-FDMA

signal gen.

SC-FDMA signal gen.
SC-FDMA signal gen.
Modulation mapper Transform precoder Resource element mapper SC-FDMA signal gen. NCHU CSE LTE - 37
Modulation mapper Transform precoder Resource element mapper SC-FDMA signal gen. NCHU CSE LTE - 37
NCHU CSE LTE - 37
NCHU CSE LTE - 37

PUCCH

• The physical uplink control channel supports multiple formats.

• Formats 2a and 2b are supported for normal cyclic prefix only.

PUCCH

Modulation

Number of bits per

format

scheme

subframe,

M

bit

1

N/A

N/A

1a

BPSK

1

1b

QPSK

2

2

QPSK

20

2a

QPSK+BPSK

21

2b

QPSK+QPSK

22

NCHU CSE LTE - 38
NCHU CSE LTE - 38

Uplink Physical Signals

• Uplink physical signals are used within the PHY and do not convey information from higher layers.

• Two types of UL physical signals are defined:

Demodulation reference signal, associated with

transmission of PUSCH or PUCCH

signal , associated with transmission of PUSCH or PUCCH – Sounding reference signal , not associated

Sounding reference signal, not associated with

transmission of PUSCH or PUCCH

NCHU CSE LTE - 39
NCHU CSE LTE - 39

Uplink Reference Signals

• The demodulation signal facilitates coherent demodulation.

• It is transmitted in the fourth SC-FDMA symbol of the slot and is the same size as the assigned resource.

• There is also a sounding reference signal used to facilitate frequency dependent scheduling.

• Both variants of the UL reference signal are based on Zadhoff-Chu sequences.

NCHU CSE LTE - 40
NCHU CSE LTE - 40

Downlink Channel Coding

• Different coding algorithms are employed for the DL physical channels.

• The PDSCH uses up to 64-QAM modulation. Rate 1/3 turbo coding has been selected for the PDSCH.

For the common control channel (CCPCH ), modulation is restricted to QPSK . CCPCH), modulation is restricted to QPSK.

• For control channels, coverage is the paramount requirement.

• Convolutional coding has been selected for use with the CCPCH, though a final determination regarding code rate has not yet been made.

NCHU CSE LTE - 43
NCHU CSE LTE - 43

Channel Coding and Interleaving

• Channel coding scheme for transport blocks

– Turbo Coding with a coding rate of R=1/3, – Two 8-state constituent encoders and – A contention-free quadratic permutation polynomial (QPP) turbo code internal interleaver.

• Maximum information block size of 6144 bits

• Error detection is supported by the use of 24- bit CRC

NCHU CSE LTE - 44
NCHU CSE LTE - 44

Channel Coding

Channel Coding Usage of channel coding scheme and coding rate for TrCHs TrCH DL-SCH PCH MCH

Usage of channel coding scheme and coding rate for TrCHs

TrCH

DL-SCH

PCH

MCH

Coding scheme

Coding rate

UL-SCH

Turbo coding

1/3

BCH

Tail biting

convolutional

coding

1/3

Turbo coding 1/3 BCH Tail biting convolutional coding 1/3 Usage of channel coding scheme and coding

Usage of channel coding scheme and coding rate for control information

Control Information

Coding scheme

Coding rate

 

Tail biting

 

DCI

convolutional

1/3

coding

CFI

Block code

1/16

HI

Repetition code

1/3

 

Block code

variable

Tail biting

 

UCI

convolutional

1/3

coding

NCHU CSE LTE - 45
NCHU CSE LTE - 45

Channel Coding

• Channel coding for DL-SCH (as well as for PCH and MCH) is based on Turbo coding.

• The encoding consists of two rate-1/2, eight-state constituent encoders, implying an overall code rate of 1/3, in combination with QPP-based interleaving.

code rate of 1/3, in combination with QPP-based interleaving. QPP : Quadrature Permutation Polynomial. NCHU CSE

QPP : Quadrature Permutation Polynomial.

NCHU CSE LTE - 46
NCHU CSE LTE - 46

Channel Coding

• The QPP interleaver provides a mapping from the input (non- interleaved) bits to the output (interleaved) bits according to the function:

to the output (interleaved) bits according to the function: – i is the index of the

– i is the index of the bit at the output of the interleaver,

– c(i) is the index of the same bit at the input of the interleaver,

– K is the code-block/interleaver size.

• The values of the parameters f 1 and f 2 depend on the code-block size K.

• The range of code-block sizes is from a minimum of 40 bits to a maximum of 6144 bits, together with the associated values for the parameters f 1 and f 2 .

NCHU CSE LTE - 47
NCHU CSE LTE - 47

Downlink Physical-Layer Processing (10)

• LTE downlink, there are four different types of transport channels defined,

– the Downlink Shared Channel (DL-SCH),

– the Multicast Channel (MCH),

– the Paging Channel (PCH),

– the Broadcast Channel (BCH).

• DL-SCH is mapping to the resource elements of the OFDM time–frequency grid.

• DL-SCH is used for transmission user data and dedicated control information, as well as part of the downlink system information.

• The DL-SCH physical-layer processing is to a large extent applicable also to MCH and PCH transport channels, although with some additional constraints.

NCHU CSE LTE - 48
NCHU CSE LTE - 48

Processing Steps

• Within each Transmission Time Interval (TTI), corresponding to one subframe of length 1 ms, up to two transport blocks of dynamic size are delivered to the physical layer and transmitted over the radio interface for each component carrier.

NCHU CSE LTE - 49
NCHU CSE LTE - 49

Processing Steps

• In the case of no spatial multiplexing there is at most a single transport block in a TTI.

• In the case of spatial multiplexing, with transmission on multiple layers in parallel to the same terminal, there are two transport blocks within a TTI.

• CRC Insertion Per Transport Block

– a 24-bit CRC is calculated for and appended to each transport block.

NCHU CSE LTE - 50
NCHU CSE LTE - 50

Code-Block Segmentation and Per-Code- Block CRC Insertion

• The LTE Turbo-coder internal interleaver is only defined a maximum block size of 6144 bits.

– If the transport block, including the transport-block CRC, exceeds this maximum code-block size, code-block segmentation, is applied before the Turbo coding.

•

Code-block segmentation implies that the transport block is segmented into smaller code blocks.

– matching the set of code-block sizes supported by the Turbo coder.

– the specification includes the possibility to insert “dummy” filler bits at the head of the first code block.

NCHU CSE LTE - 51
NCHU CSE LTE - 51

Code-Block Segmentation and Per-Code- Block CRC Insertion

• Transport block implies that an CRC is calculated for and appended to rear.

– CRC is small for the transport block.

• The code block also adds additional error-detection capabilities (using CRC) and thus further reduces the risk for undetected errors in the code block.

NCHU CSE LTE - 52
NCHU CSE LTE - 52

Localized and Distributed Resource Mapping

• In some cases downlink channel-dependent scheduling is not suitable to use or is not practically possible:

– For low-rate services such as voice and the feedback signaling may lead to extensive relative overhead.

– At high, it may be difficult to track the instantaneous channel conditions to the accuracy required for channel-dependent scheduling to be efficient.

•

LTE allows for such distributed resource-block allocation by resource allocation types 0 and 1

NCHU CSE LTE - 53
NCHU CSE LTE - 53

Distributed Resource-Block Allocation

• Drawbacks:

– For types 0 and 1, the minimum size of the allocated resource can be as large as four resource-block pairs and

may thus not be suitable when resource allocations of smaller sizes are needed.

– Both these resource-allocation methods are associated with a relatively large PDCCH payload.

• Resource-allocation type 2 always allows for the allocation of a single resource-block pair and is also

associated with a relatively small PDCCH payload size.

– Only allows for the allocation of resource blocks that are contiguous in the frequency domain.

NCHU CSE LTE - 54
NCHU CSE LTE - 54

Virtual Resource Block (VRB)

• A Virtual Resource Block (VRB) has used in distributed resource-block allocation

– In resource-allocation type 2 and in a single resource block pair.

• The key to distributed transmission then lies in the mapping from VRB pairs to Physical Resource Block (PRB) pairs – that is, to the actual physical resource used for transmission.

• Two types of VRBs:

1. Localized VRBs : there is a direct mapping from VRB pairs to PRB pairs

• Two types of VRBs: 1. Localized VRBs : there is a direct mapping from VRB
• Two types of VRBs: 1. Localized VRBs : there is a direct mapping from VRB
• Two types of VRBs: 1. Localized VRBs : there is a direct mapping from VRB
NCHU CSE LTE - 55
NCHU CSE LTE - 55

Distributed VRBs

2. Distributed VRBs :

• Consecutive VRBs are not mapped to PRBs that are consecutive in the frequency domain; – This provides frequency diversity between consecutive VRB pairs.

• Even a single VRB pair is distributed in the frequency domain.

A. The spreading in the frequency domain is done by means of a block-based “interleaver” operating on resource-block pairs.

NCHU CSE LTE - 56
NCHU CSE LTE - 56

Distributed VRBs

B. A split of each resource-block pair such that the two resource blocks of the resource-block pair are transmitted with a certain frequency gap in between.

– This also provides frequency diversity for a single VRB pair. This step can be seen as the introduction of frequency hopping on a slot basis.

• Whether the VRBs are localized or distributed is indicated on the associated PDCCH in type 2 resource allocation.

– dynamically switch between distributed and localized transmission and also mix distributed and localized transmission for different terminals within the same subframe.

NCHU CSE LTE - 57
NCHU CSE LTE - 57

Distributed VRBs

• The exact size of the frequency gap depends on the

overall downlink cell bandwidth according to Table

10.1.

– Based on two criteria:

1. The gap should be of the order of half the downlink cell bandwidth in order to provide good frequency diversity also in a single VRB pair. 2. The gap should be a multiple of P 2 , where P is the size of a resource-block group and used for resource allocation types 0 and 1.

1.This constraint is to ensure a smooth coexistence in the same subframe between distributed transmission as described above and transmissions based on downlink allocation types 0 and 1.

NCHU CSE LTE - 58
NCHU CSE LTE - 58

Distributed VRBs

Distributed VRBs NCHU CSE LTE - 59
Distributed VRBs NCHU CSE LTE - 59
NCHU CSE LTE - 59
NCHU CSE LTE - 59