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# ME 101202 - Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

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Nandha Engineering College, Erode - 52
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Question Bank (Two Marks Questions and Answers)
Year / Sem: II / III

UNIT- I BASIC CONCEPTS AND PROPERTIES

1. Define fluids.
Fluid may be defined as a substance which is capable of flowing. It has no definite shape of its
own, but confirms to the shape of the containing vessel.

2. Classify the different types of fluids.
i) Ideal and real fluids ii) Newtonian and Non-Newtonian fluids

3. What are the properties of ideal fluid?
Ideal fluids have following properties
i) It is incompressible ii) It has zero viscosity
iii) Shear force is zero

4. What are the properties of real fluid? (or) What is a real fluid?
The fluid which is having the following properties is known as real fluids.
i) It is compressible ii) They are viscous in nature
iii) Some resistance is always offered by the fluid when it is in motion
iv) Shear force exists always in such fluids.

5. Why are some fluids classified as Newtonian fluids? Give examples.
In Newtonian fluids, a linear relationship exists between the magnitude of shear stress and
resulting rate of deformation.
Example: Water, Kerosene

6. What are Non-Newtonian fluids?
In Non-Newtonian fluids, there is a non-linear between the magnitude of shear stress and
resulting rate of deformation.

7. Define density and specific weight.
Density is defined as mass per unit volume i.e., mass of the fluid contained in unit volume. It is
also called mass density.
Density,
V
m
volume
mass
= = kg/m
3

Specific weight is defined as weight possessed per unit volume. It is varies from place to place
because of change in acceleration due to gravity.
Specific weight,
V
W
volume
weight
w = = N/m
3

8. Define Specific volume and Specific Gravity.
Specific volume is defined as volume of fluid occupied by unit mass (m
3
/kg)
Specific volume,
m
V
mass
Volume
v = = m
3
/kg
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Specific gravity is defined as the ratio of specific weight of fluid to the specific weight of
standard fluid.
Specific gravity,
liquid standard of weight Specific
liquid of weight Specific
S=

9. Define Surface tension and Capillarity.
Surface tension is due to the force of cohesion between the liquid particles at the free surface.
Capillary is a phenomenon of rise or fall of liquid surface relative to the adjacent general level
of liquid.

10. Define Viscosity.
It is defined as the property of a liquid due to which it offers resistance to the movement of one
layer of liquid over another adjacent layer. (N-s/m
2
or kg/m-s)

11. Define kinematic viscosity.
It is defined as the ratio of dynamic viscosity to mass density.
i.e.,

= m/sec

12. Define dynamic viscosity.
The dynamic viscosity is defined as the shear stress required to produce unit rate of shear
deformation.

13. Define Relative or Specific viscosity.
It is the ratio of dynamic viscosity of fluid to dynamic viscosity of water at 20C.
Relative of Specific viscosity,
C 20 at water of viscosity Dynamic
fluid given of viscosity Dynamic

0
=

14. What is the effect of temperature on viscosity of water and that of air?
When the temperature of water increases, the viscosity will decrease but it will increase with
increase in temperature of air.

15. Define the term absolute temperature.
The temperature measured from the absolute zero temperature is called as absolute
temperature.

16. Define Compressibility.
It is the property by virtue of which fluids undergoes a change in volume under the action of
external pressure.

17. Define Newtons law of Viscosity.
According to Newtons law of viscosity the shear force F acting between two layers of fluid is
proportional to the difference in their velocities du and area A of the plate and inversely
proportional to the distance between them.

18. What is cohesion and adhesion in fluids?
Cohesion is due to the force of attraction between the molecules of the same liquid. The inner
molecular attraction holds the liquid molecules together are known as cohesion.
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Adhesion is due to the force of attraction between the molecules of two different liquids or
between the molecules of the liquid and molecules of the solid boundary surface. This property
enables a liquid to stick over another body.

19. What is surface tension?
Surface tension is due to the force of cohesion between the liquid particles at the free surface.

20. Write the equation of surface tension of liquid jet, liquid droplet and soap bubble.

Surface tension in liquid droplet,
4
pd

d
4
p = =
Surface tension in Soap Bubble,
8
pd

d
8
p = =
Surface tension in liquid jet,
2
pd

d
2
p = =

21. Define capillarity.
Capillarity is a phenomenon of rise or fall of liquid surface relative to the adjacent general
level of liquid. This phenomenon is due to the combined effect of cohesion and adhesion of
liquid particles. The rise of liquid level is known as capillary rise where as the fall of liquid is
known as capillary depression.

22. What are the parameters depends on magnitude of capillary?
The magnitude of capillary is depends upon
i) Diameter of the tube
ii) Specific weight of liquid
iii) Surface tension of liquid

23. Explain the effect of property of capillarity.
This phenomenon is due to the combined effect of cohesion and adhesion of liquid particle. So,
the surface will act around the circumference of the tube.

24. Define the term fluid statics.
Fluid statics is the study of a fluid at rest; the concept includes the situation where the fluids
are either actually at rest or undergo uniform acceleration in a container or rotate as a solid
mass.

25. How can we define vacuum pressure?
The pressure below the atmospheric pressure is called as vacuum pressure.

26. State Pascal law?
The intensity of pressure at any point in a static fluid is equal in all directions
P
x
= P
y
=P
z

27. State momentum of momentum equation?
It states that the resulting torque acting on a rotating fluid is equal to the rate of change of
moment of momentum

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28. What is momentum equation
It is based on the law of conservation of momentum or on the momentum principle It states
that, the net force acting on a fluid mass is equal to the change in momentum of flow per unit
time in that direction.
29 Give the Eulers equation of motion?
0 dv v dz g
p
d
p
= + +
|
|
.
|

\
|

30 What are the assumptions made in deriving Bernouillies equation?
a. The fluid is ideal
c. The flow is incompressible.
d. The flow is irrotational.

31 State Bernouillies Theorem as applicable to fluid flow.
It states that an ideal incompressible fluid when the flow is steady and continuous, the sum of
pressure energy, kinetic energy and potential energy is constant along the streamline
( )
Constant z
g 2
v
w
p
2
= + +
|
.
|

\
|

32 What is Bernouillies equation for real fluid?
( ) ( )
1 2
2
2 2
1
2
1 1
h z
g 2
v
g p
p
z
g 2
v
g p
p
+ + +
|
|
.
|

\
|
= + +
|
|
.
|

\
|

Where, h
l
- loss of energy, (p/pg) - Pressure energy, (v
2
/2g) - Kinetic energy and
z - Datum energy

33 State the application of Bernouillies equation? Or Name the three flow measuring
instruments.
It has the application on the following measuring devices.
a. Orifice meter. b.Venturimeter. c.Pitot tube

34 What are the assumptions made on Bernoullis equation?
a. The liquid is ideal and incompressible
b. The flow is steady and continuous
c. The velocity is uniform over the cross section and is equal to mean velocity
d. The only forces acting on the fluids are the gravity force and the pressure force
e. All the frictional forces are negligible

35 Write down the limitations of Bernoullis equation.
a. Velocity of flow across the cross section is assumed to be constant whereas it is not so
in actual practice. The velocity of liquid particle is maximum at the center of the pipe
and gradually decreases towards the wall of the pipe due to pipe friction
b. The equation has been derived under the assumption that no external force, except the
gravity force, is acting on the liquid. But in actual practice the force such as pipe
friction is acting on the liquid
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c. No loss of energy is assumed. But during turbulent flow, kinetic energy is converted
into heat energy. Some energy is lost due to shear force in viscous flow. All these
losses are considered.

36 Why large reduction of diameters from inlet throat is not allowed in venturimeter?
Due to large reduction in diameters, the cavitation will occur. It will amaze and corrode the
pipe. So, large reduction of diameters is not allowed.

37 Co-efficient of discharge of venturimeter is always greater than orifice meter, why?
Loss of energy due to sudden enlargement is higher than loss of energy due to gradual
contraction. So the coefficient of discharge is greater than orifice meter.

38 Write down the expression for discharge through a venturimeter explaining each term in it.
h g 2 x
a a
a x a
x C Q
2
2
2
1
2 1
d

=
a
1
- Area of inlet section pipe, a
2
- Area of outlet section pipe, h - Manometric head difference,
and g - Acceleration due to gravity

39 Why pressure difference is not measured between throat and exit?
In exit portion of the venturimeter the flow separation takes place. So the pressure difference is
measured between inlet and throat

40 What is venturimeter and explain its basic principles?
A venturimeter is a device, which is used for measuring the rate of flow of fluid through pipes.
The basic principle of venturimeter is that by reducing the cross sectional area along the pipe, a
pressure difference is created from the pressure we can calculate the discharge through the
pipe.

41 What are the various parts in venturimeter?
a. Inlet section followed by convergent portion b. Throat part
c.Divergent cone followed by outlet section

42 Why convergent portion is smaller than divergent portion?
This is because of avoiding flow separation and consequent energy loss in that portion. But
flow separation is occurring in divergent portion and therefore it is not used for flow
measurement

43 What is cavitation in venturimeter and give its effects?
Due to reduction in area the velocity of fluids increased and pressure decreased. When pressure
comes below that of vapour pressure of the flowing fluid then the liquid will be vapourized.
This phenomenon is called cavitation.
Effects: Cavitation will very damage the pipe walls and also corrodes the pipes

44 What are the advantages of venturimeter?
a. Loss of head is small and hence high C
d
value and it may approach unity under
favorable condition
b. No wear and tear c. Less likelihood of becoming clogged with sediment
d. Well-established characteristics
e. Suitable for large flow of water, process fluids, wastes gases and suspended solids

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45 What are the disadvantages of venturimeter?
a. Long laying length b. More space requirement
c. Quit expense in installation and replacement
d. Possibility of cavitation

46 What is orifice meter and explain its basic principles?
The orifice meter also a device used for measuring the discharge through pipes. The basic
principle of orifice meter is that by reducing the cross sectional area of the pipe, a pressure
difference is created from the pressure difference. We can calculate the discharge through the
pipes.

47 What are the advantages of orifice meter?
a. Low initial cost
b. Ease of installation and replacement
c. Requires less space as compared with venturimeter
d. Can be used in wide range of pipe sizes (0.01 m to 1.5 m)

48 What are the disadvantages of orifice meter?
b. Co-efficient of discharge has a low value
c. Susceptible to in accuracies resulting from erosion, corrosion and scaling

UNIT-II FLOW THROUGH CIRCULAR CONDUITS

49 Define fluid kinematics.
Fluid kinematics is a science which deals with the geometry of motion in terms of
displacement, velocity and acceleration and their distribution in space without considering any
force or energy involved. Thus kinematics involves only the description of the motion of fluids
in terms of space-time relationship.

50 What stream lines?
A streamline is an imaginary line drawn through a flowing fluid in such a way that the tangent
at any point on it indicates the velocity at the point

51 Name the different forces present in fluid flow.
a. Inertia force b.Viscous force c.Surface tension force d.Gravity force

52 Classify the different types of fluid flow.
The fluid flow can be classified in several ways:
a. Steat flow and unsteady flow
b. Uniform and non-uniform flow
c. One-dimensional, two-dimensional and three-dimensional flows
d. Rotational and irrational flow
e. Laminar and turbulent flow
f. Compressible and incompressible flow

53 When in a fluid considered steady? Give an example for steady flow
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In steady flow, various characteristics of following fluids such as velocity, pressure, density,
temperature etc at a point do not change with time. So it is called steady flow
Example
a. Flow of water in a pipeline due to a centrifugal pump run at uniform speed
b. Liquid efflux from a vessel in which constant level is maintained

54 When is the flow regarded as unsteady? Give an example for unsteady flow.
The various characteristics of following fluids such as velocity, pressure, density, and
temperature etc of a point change with respect to time.
0
t
p
; 0
t
v
=
c
c
=
c
c

Example
a. Liquid falling under gravity out of an opening in the bottom of a vessel
b. Liquid flow in the suction and pressure pipes of a reciprocating pump
c. Wave movements in a sea

55 Define uniform and non-uniform flow.
Uniform flow: It is a flow in which the velocity at any given instant does not change both in
magnitude and direction with respect to space. Mathematically 0
v
=
c
c
s

Non-uniform flow: The velocity of flow of fluid changes from one point to another point at any
instant. Mathematically 0
v
=
c
c
s

56 What are one, two and three-dimensional flows?
One-dimensional flow: In this type, various characteristics are function of time and one space
co-ordinate only
Two-dimensional flow: In this type of flow, various characteristics are function of time and
two space (rectangular) co-ordinates only
Three-dimensional flow: In this type of flow, various characteristics are function of time and
three space co-ordinates system

57 Distinguish between rotation and circularity in fluid flow.
A rotational flow exists when the fluid particles rotate about their mass centers while moving
along a streamline
Circulation is defined as the flow along a closed curve. Mathematically, the circulation is
defined as the line integral of the tangential velocity about a closed curve.

58 Explain the terms rotational and irrotaional flow. Give examples.
A rotational flow exists when the fluid particles rotate about their mass centres, while moving
along a streamline.
Example:
i. Liquid in a rotating tank where the velocity varies directly with a distance from centre.
ii. Flow near the solid boundaries
An irrotaional flow exists when the fluid particles do not rotate about their mass centres while
moving along a streamline
Example:
i. A vortex or whirlpool, which develops above a drain in the bottom of a stationary tank
ii. Flow above a drain hole of a washbasin.
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59 What is laminar and turbulent flow?
A laminar flow is one in which the fluid particles move in layer with one layer of fluid sliding
A turbulent flow is one in which the fluid particles move in an entirely haphazard or erratic
manner

60 Mention the general characteristics of laminar flow.
a. There is a shear stress between fluid layers
b. No slip at the boundary
c. The flow is rotational
d. There is a continuous dissipation of energy due to viscous shear

61 What is compressible and incompressible flow?
A flow is said to be compressible if the density changes from point to point due to pressure and
temperature. Mathematically constant
A flow is said to be incompressible if the density is constant in flow field

62 What are streamline and path lines?
A streamline is an imaginary line drawn through a flowing fluid in such a way that the tangent
at any point on it indicates the velocity at that point
A path line is a line that is traced by a single fluid particle as it moves over a period of time.
Path line shows the direction of velocity of the same fluid particles at successive instants of
time

63 Explain the various characteristics of streamline.
a. Streamlines do not cross to each other
b. There cannot be any movement of fluid mass across the streamlines
c. For steady flow the streamline pattern remains the same at different times
d. Streamline spacing varies inversely as the velocity
e. The series of streamlines represent the flow pattern at an instant

64 What is stream tube?
A stream tube is tube imagined to be formed by a group of neighboring streamlines passing
through a small closed curve, which may or may not be circulate

65 What is streak line? Give examples.
The streak line is a line that is traced by fluid particles passing through a fixed point in a flow
field. It gives an instantaneous picture of the position of the fluid particles that have passed
through a fixed point. Example:
a. The path traced by a smoke coming out of a man when smoking
b. The path of the smoke coming out of the chimney

66 State and explain the basic principles of continuity equation.
It states that the mass of fluid flowing through the pipe at all cross section remains constant

67 Define stream function.
The stream function is defined as a scalar function of space and time, such that its partial
derivative with respect to any direction gives the velocity component at right angles to this
direction
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68 Write the condition to satisfy the irrotational flow
0
y

2
2
2
2
=
c
c
+
c
c

69 Mention the few properties of stream function.
a. If stream function exists, it is possible case of fluid flow
b. If stream function satisfies Laplace equation it is possible case of an irrotational flow
70 Define potential function
The potential function or velocity potential function is defined as a scalar function of space and
time such that its negative direction with respect to any direction gives the velocity of fluid in
that direction

71 Mention the few properties of potential function.
a. If velocity potential exists, the slow should be irrotational
b. The velocity potential satisfies, the Laplace equation, it represents the possible steady
incompressible irrotational flow

72 Define fluid dynamics.
The study of fluid motion considering the forces which cause acceleration and forces which
resist acceleration is known as fluid dynamics

73 What is meant by equation of motion?
The dynamic behavior of fluid motion is governed by a cup of equations, known as equations
of motion

74 What is Hagen poiseuilles formula?
2 f
2 1
d g
L U 32
h
g
P P
= =

## Hagen poiseuille formula

Where
P
1
-P
2
U Average velocity
Coefficient of viscosity
D Diameter of pipe
L Length of pipe

75 What are the factors influencing the frictional loss in pipe flow?
Frictional resistance for the turbulent flow is
i) Proportional to v
n
where v varies from 1.5 to 2.0.
ii) Proportional to the density of fluid.
iii) Proportional to the area of surface in contact.
iv) Independent of pressure.
v) Depend on the nature of the surface in contact.

76 What is the expression for head loss due to friction in Darcy formula?
d g 2
V L f 4
h
2
f
=
Where f - Coefficient of friction in pipe
L - Length of the pipe
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D - Diameter of pipe, and V - Velocity of the fluid

77 Where the Darcy weishbach and Chezys formulas are used?
Darcy weishbach equation is generally used for the flow through pipes
Chezys formula is generally used for the flow through open channels

78 What do you understand by the terms a) major energy losses, b) minor energy losses
Major energy losses - This loss due to friction and it is calculated by Darcy weishbach formula
and chezys formula.
Minor energy losses - This is due to
i. Sudden expansion in pipe.
ii. Sudden contraction in pipe.
iii. Bend in pipe.
iv. Due to obstruction in pipe.

79 What are the losses experienced by a fluid when it is passing through a pipe?
a. Loss of energy due to sudden enlargement
b. Loss of head due to sudden contraction
c. Loss of energy at the exit from the pipe
d. Loss of energy due to gradual contraction or enlargement
e. Loss of energy due to an obstruction in pipe
f. Loss of energy at the entrance to a pipe
g. Loss of energy in bends
h. Loss of energy in various pipe fittings

80 Give an expression for loss of head due to sudden enlargement of the pipe.
g 2
) V (V
h
2
2 1
e

=
Where
h
e
- Loss of head due to sudden enlargement of pipe.
V
1
- Velocity of flow at section 1-1
V
2
- Velocity of flow at section 2-2

81 What are eddies and vena contracta in pipe minor losses?
Due to sudden contraction, the streamline coverage to a minimum cross section is called vena
contracta
In between vena-contracta and wall of the pipe a lot of eddies are formed. These eddies cause a
considerable dissipation of energy.

82 Give an expression for loss of head due to sudden contraction.
g 2
V 0.5
h
2
c
=
Where, hc - Loss of head due to sudden contraction & V - Velocity at outlet of pipe

83 Give an expression for loss of head at the entrance of the pipe.
g 2
V 0.5
h
2
i
=
Where, h
i
- Loss of head at entrance of pipe & V - Velocity of liquid at inlet and outlet of the
pipe
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84 Write the formula for loss of energy due to gradual enlargement and also bend in pipe.
Loss of energy due to gradual enlargement
g 2
V V
k h
2
2
2
1
L

=
k Co-efficient which depends on angle of convergence
Loss of head due to bend in pipe
g 2
V K
h
2
b
=

85 Define the terms a) Hydraulic gradient line [HGL] and b) Total Energy line [TEL]
Hydraulic gradient line: Defined as the line which gives the sum of pressure head and datum
head of a flowing fluid in apipe with respect the reference line.
Total energy line: Defined as the line which gives the sum of pressure head, datum head and
kinetic head of a flowing fluid in a pipe with respect to some reference line.

86 What is syphon? Where it is used?
Syphon is along bend pipe which is used to transfer liquid from a reservoir at a higher
elevation to another reservoir at a lower level.
Uses of syphon:
i. To carry water from one reservoir to another reservoir separated by a hill ridge.
ii. To empty a channel not provided with any outlet sluice.

87 What are the basic educations to solve the problems in flow through branched pipes?
i. Continuity equation.
ii. Bernoullis formula.
iii. Darcy weisbach equation.

88 What is Dupuits equation ?
5 5
3
3
5
2
2
5
1
1
d
L
d
L
d
L
d
L
= + +
Where
L
1
, d
1
- Length and diameter of the pipe 1
L
2
, d
2
- Length and diameter of the pipe 2
L
3
, d
3
- Length and diameter of the pipe 3

89 What are the types of fluid flow?
ii) Uniform & Non-uniform flow
iii) One dimensional, two-dimensional & three-dimensional flows
iv) Rotational & Irrotational flow

90 When in a fluid considered steady?
In steady flow, various characteristics of following fluids such as velocity, pressure, density,
temperature etc at a point do not change with time. So it is called steady flow.

91 Define co-efficient of friction.
It is the ratio of actual discharge to theoretical discharge of the pipe
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92 What is co-efficient of velocity?
It is the ratio of actual velocity of fluid to theoretical velocity.
the
act
v
V
V
C =
93 Define co-efficient of contraction
It is the ratio of area at vena contraction area to orifice area of the pipe
Orifice at Area
n contractio at vena Area
n contractio of t Coefficein =

94 How pressure can be measured in pitot tube?
The velocity of flow can be determined by measuring the increase in pressure energy at this
point

95 How the term dimensional analysis can be defined?
Dimensional analysis is a mathematical tool or technique to study dimensions of several
problems

96 Write down the Navier-Stokes equation.
The equation of motion without considering force due to turbulence and considering the
gravity, pressure and viscosity forces are known as Navier-Stokes equation.
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
z v
z
p
z
g z
y v
y
p
y
g y
x v
x
p
x
g x
F F F F
F F F F
F F F F
+ + =
+ + =
+ + =
Where F
g
- Gravity force, F
p
- Pressure force & F
v
- Viscous force

97 What are energy lines and hydraulic gradient lines?
Energy line: If different sections of the pipe total energy is plotted to scale and joined by a line,
the line is called energy grade line
section of the pipe in the direction of the fluid flow due to loss of energy. If pressure heads at
the different sections of the pipe are joined by a straight line. This line is called hydraulic

98 What is hydraulic mean depth or hydraulic radius?
Hydraulic radius is the ratio of cross sectional area to perimeter of that section.
P
A
m =

99 What is pipe?
Pipe is a closed conduit, which is used for carrying fluids under pressure

100What are pipes in series?
It is defined as the pipes of different diameters and lengths are connected with one another to
form a single pipeline

101What is equivalent pipe?
A compound pipe consisting of several pipes of varying diameters and length may be replaced
by a pipe of uniform diameter, which is known as equivalent pipe

102What do you mean by flow through parallel pipes?
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When a main pipeline divides into two or more parallel pipes, which again join together to
form a single pipe and continue as a main line. These pipes are said to be pipes in parllel

103Define displacement thickness.
It is defined as the distance measured perpendicular to the boundary by which the mainstream
is displaced to on account of formation of boundary layer

104 Define momentum thickness.
It is defined as the distance, measured perpendicular to the boundary, by which the boundary
should be displaced to compensate for reduction in momentum of the flowing fluid on account
of boundary layer formation

105 Define energy thickness.
It is defined as the distance measured perpendicular to the boundary, by which the boundary
should be displaced to compensate for reduction of kinetic energy of the flowing fluid on
account of boundary layer formation

106Define drag and lift.
The component of the total force in the direction of flow of fluid is known as drag
The component of the total force in the direction perpendicular to the direction of flow is
known as lift

UNIT III DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS

1. State the methods of dimensional analysis.
a. Rayleighs method
b. Buckinghams theorem

2. State Buckinghams theorem
It states that if there are n variables in a dimensionally homogeneous equation and if these
variables contain m fundamental dimensions (M, L, T), then they are grouped into (n-m),
dimensionless independent-terms.

3. State the limitations of dimensional analysis.
a. Dimensional analysis does not give any due regarding the selection of variables.
b. The complete information is not provided by dimensional analysis.
c. The values of coefficient and the nature of function can be obtained only by
experiments or from mathematical analysis.

4. Define Similitude
Similitude is defined as the complete similarity between the model and prototype.

5. State Froudes model law
Only Gravitational force is more predominant force. The law states The Froudes number is
same for both model and prototype.

6. Give the dimensions of the following physical quantities.
(a) Pressure (b) Surface Tension (c) Dynamic viscosity
(d) Kinematic viscosity

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(a) Pressure ML
-1
T
2
(b) Surface Tension ML
-1
T
2

(c) Dynamic viscosity ML
-1
T
-1
(d) Kinematic viscosity L
2
T
-1

7. State the Fourier law of dimensional homogeneity
The law of Fourier principle of dimensional homogeneity states an equation which expresses
a physical phenomenon of fluid flow should be algebraically correct and dimensionally
homogenous

8. What is dimensionally homogenous equation? Give examples.
Dimensionally homogenous equations means, the dimensions of the terms of left hand side
should be same as the dimensions of the terms on right hand side

9. What are the uses of dimensional homogeneity?
a. To check the dimensional homogeneity of the given equation
b. To determine the dimension of a physical variable
c. To convert units from one system to another through dimensional homogeneity
d. It is a step towards dimensional analysis

10. What are the points to be remembered while deriving expressions using dimensional analysis?
a. First the variables controlling the phenomenon should be identified and expressed in
terms of primary dimensions
b. Any mathematical equation should be dimensionally homogenous
c. In typical cases, a suitable mathematical model is constructed to simplify the problem
with suitable assumptions

11. How equations are derived in Raleighs method?
The expression is determined for a variable depending upon maximum three or four variables
only. If the number of independent variables becomes more than four, it is very difficult to find
the expression for the dependent variables. So, a functional relationship between variables is
expressed in exponential form of equations.

12. Describe briefly the selection of repeating variables in Buckingham Theorem.
There is no separate rule for selecting repeating variables. But the number of repeating
variables is equal to the fundamental dimensions of the problem. Generally, , v, l or , v, D
are chosen as repeating variables. It means, one refers to fluid property () one refers to flow
property (v) and the other one refers to geometric property (l or D). In addition to this, the
following points should be kept in mind while selecting repeating variables.
1. No one variable should be dimensionless.
2. The selected two repeating variables should not have the same dimensions.
3. The selected repeating variables should be independent as far as possible.

13. Define weber number.
It is the ratio of the square root of the inertia force to the surface tension force.

V L
L
V L
force Tension Surface
force Inertia
W
2 2 2
e
= = =

14. Define Reynolds number.
It is defined as the ratio of the inertia force to the viscous force of a flowing fluid. Denoted by
R
e.

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V L
(or)

V L
force Viscous
force Inertia
R
e
= = ; ( / = = Kinematic viscosity)

15. Define Mach number
It is defined as the square root of the inertia force of a flowing fluid to the elastic force

k
V
L k
V L
force Elastic
force Inertia

2
2
2 2
= = =

16. Mention the applications of model testing?
a. Civil engineering structures such as dams, weirs, canals etc
b. Design of harbour, ships and submarines
c. Aero planes, rockets and machines, missiles

17. What are the advantages of model testing?
a. The model tests are quite economical and convenient and operation of a model may be
changed several times if necessary, without of increasing much expenditure
b. With the use of models the performance of hydraulic structure/hydraulic machines can
c. Model testing can be used to detect and rectify the defects of an existing structure,
which is not functioning properly

18. What are the similarities between model and prototype?
a. Geometric similarity b. Kinematic similarity
c. Dynamic similarity

19. What is meant by Kinematic similarity?
Kinematic similarity is the similarity of motion. It corresponds to the points in the mode and in
the prototype.

20. In fluid flow, what does dynamic similarity mean? What are the non-dimensional numbers
associated with dynamic similarity?
It is the similarity of forces. The flows in the model and prototype are of dynamic similar.
Dimensional numbers are weight, force, dynamic viscosity, surface tension, capillarity etc

21. Mention the significance of Reynolds model law
a. Motion of air planes.
b. Flow of incompressible fluid in closed pipes.
c. Motion of submarines, and
d. Flow around structures and other bodies immersed fully in moving fluids.

22. Write down the scale ratio for discharge, energy and momentum
Discharge, Q
r
- L
r
5/2
Energy, E
r
- L
r
4
Momentum, M
r
- L
r
7/2

23. State the Euler model law and give its significance
Only pressure for is more predominant force in addition to the inertia force. According to this
law, the Euler number is same for both prototype and model.
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The Euler number itself is sufficient centerion in the following phenomena:
1. Where the gravity and surface tension forces are fully absent and the turbulence is fully
developed with negligible viscous force.
2. It is applied in cavitation phenomena

24. Mention the types of models
i) Undistorted models. ii) Distorted models

25. What is meant by undistorted models?
The model which is geometrically similar to its prototype is known as undistorted models. In
such models the conditions of similitude are fully satisfied.

26. Define the term scale effect
It is impossible to product the exact behaviour of the prototype by model testing alone. The
two models of same prototype behaviour with different. Solve ratios will not be same. So
discrepancy between models and prototype will always occur. It is known as scale effect.

27. Obtain scale ratio of discharge for distorted models.
( ) ( ) | |2
3
V r H r r
L x L Q ratio, scale Discharge =

UNIT-IV ROTODYNAMIC MACHINES

1. Define fluid machines.
The device in which the fluid is in continuous motion and imparts energy conversion is known
as fluid machines.

2. Define hydraulic machines / turbine.
Hydraulic machines which convert the energy of flowing water into mechanical energy

3. What is hydroelectric power?
The turbine converts hydraulic energy into mechanical energy. This mechanical energy is
converted into electrical energy. So conversion of energy from hydraulic to electric is called
hydroelectric power.

4. What is the basis of classification of turbines?
a) According to the action of the water flowing
b) According to the main direction of flow of water
c) According to head and quantity of water required
d) According to the specific speed

5. Classify the different types of turbine
a) Action of the water flowing
i. Impulse turbine ii. Reaction turbine

b) Main direction of water flow
i. Tangential flow turbine ii. Radial flow turbine
iii. Axial flow turbine iv. Mixed flow turbine
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d) Specific speed basis
i. Low specific speed ii.Medium specific speed
iii. High specific speed

Medium head turbine Modern Francis turbine

7. Write the Eulers equation for turbo machines.
The force exerted by the water in the direction of motion is given by
) V (V V a F
w2 w1 1
+ =
Hence the momentum of the water or impulse = F x u = u ) V (V V a
w2 w1 1
+

8. What are the components of energy transfer in turbo machines?
a) Whirl velocity b) Flow velocity c) Relative velocity

9. Define degree of reaction.
The ratio between the kinetic energy change in the moving blade to the kinetic energy in the
stage. Or it is the ratio between increase in relative kinetic energy in moving blade to the stage
work output.
Degree of reaction,
outpu work Stage
blade moving in energy kinetic relative in Increase
R =

10. What is impulse turbine? Give example.
In impulse turbine all potential energy converted into kinetic energy. From these the turbine
will develop high kinetic energy power. This turbine is called impulse turbine. Example: Pelton
turbine

11. What is reaction turbine? Give example.
In a reaction turbine, the runner utilizes both potential and kinetic energies. Here portion of
potential energy is converted into kinetic energy before entering into the turbine. Example:
Francis and Kaplan turbine.

12. Differentiate the impulse and reaction turbine.

S.No. Impulse turbine Reaction turbine
1
All the potential energy is converted into
kinetic energy by nozzle before entering
to turbine runner
Only a portion of the fluid energy is
transferred into kinetic energy before
the fluid enters the turbine
2 Flow regulation is possible without loss Flow regulation is possible with loss
3
Blades are only in action when they are
i.e. infront of nozzle
Blades are in action at all the time
4
Water may be allowed to enter a part or
whole of the wheel circumference
Water is admitted over the wheel
circumference
5 Wheel does not run full and air has free Water completely fills the vane
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the turbine
6 Unit is installed above the tailrace
Unit is kept entirely submerged in
water below tailrace
7
Flow is regulated by means of a needle
valve fitted into the nozzle
Flow is regulated by means of a
guide-vane assembly

13. What is tangential flow turbine?
The water flows along the tangent to the path of rotation of the runner.
Example: Pelton wheel

14. What is radial flow turbine?
In the turbine, water flows along the radial direction and mainly in the plane normal to the axis
of the rotation as is passes through the runner. It may be either inward radial flow type or
15. What is axial flow turbine?
In axial flow turbine water flows parallel to the axis of the turbine shaft.
Example: Kaplan turbine, propeller turbine

16. What is mixed flow turbine?
In mixed flow water enters the blades radially and comes out axially, parallel to the turbine
shaft. Example: Modern Francis turbine.

17. Differentiate the inward flow reaction turbine and outward flow reaction turbine.
S.No. Inward flow reaction turbine Outward flow reaction turbine
1
Water enters at the outer periphery,
flows inward and towards the centre of
the turbine and discharges at the outer
periphery
Water enters at the outer periphery
flows outward and discharges at the
outer periphery
2 The discharge does not increase The discharge increases
3 Easy and effective speed control Very difficult to speed control
4
Good for medium and high heads and
suitable for large outputs and units
Good for medium or low heads
5 Commonly used for power projects Practically obsolete

18. Differentiate the Francis and Kaplan turbine.
S.No. Francis turbine Kaplan turbine
1
Correct disposition of the guide and
moving vanes is obtained at full load
only
Correct disposition of the guide and
moving vanes is obtained at any load
2
System may have one or two
servomotors depending on the size of the
unit
Two servomotors respective of the
size of the unit always do governing
3
Since only the guide vanes are controlled
high efficiency is obtained
Both guide and runner vanes high
efficiency is obtained even at partial
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4
Servomotors are kept outside the turbine
shaft
Both servomotors are kept inside the
hollow shaft of the turbine runner

19. What are the main parts of pelton wheel?
a) Penstock b) Spear and nozzle
c) Runner and buckets d) Break nozzle
e) Outer casing f) Governing mechanism

20. What is penstock in pelton wheel?
Penstock is a large sized pipe, which conveys water from the high level reservoir to the turbine.
steel. In order to control the water flow penstocks have different control valves at different
sections.

21. What is the function of spear and nozzle?
The nozzle is used to convert whole hydraulic energy into kinetic energy. Thus the nozzle
delivers high speed jet. To regulate the water flow through the nozzle and to obtain a good jet
of water spear or nozzle is arranged.

22. What is function of outer casing?
A casing is made of cast iron or fabricated steel plate. It is used to prevent the splacing of water
and discharge of water to tailstock. It is also act as a safeguard against accidents.

23. What is break nozzle and mention its function?
If the spear nozzle set was closed the runner will revolve long time due to inertia. To stop the
runner in a short time a small nozzle provided which directs a jet of water on the backside of
the buckets.

24. What is the function of governing mechanism in pelton wheel?
Governing mechanism is used to regulate the water flow to the turbine at constant level so that
the speed of the turbine kept constant. This automatically regulates the quantity of water
flowing through the runner in accordance with any variation of load.

Gross Head: The gross head is the difference between the water level at the reservoir and the
level at the tailstock.

26. Define water and bucket power.
Water power: The power supplied by water jet
Bucket power: The power developed by the bucket wheel

27. Define hydraulic efficiency.
It is defined as the ratio of power developed by the runner to the power supplied by the water
jet.
jet water by the supplied Power
runner by the developed Power

h
=

28. Define mechanical efficiency.
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It is defined as the ratio of power available at the turbine shaft to the power developed by the
turbine runner.
power Water
power Shaft
runner turbine by the developed Power
shaft turbine the available Power

m
= =

29. Define volumetric efficiency.
It is defined as the volume of water actually striking the buckets to the total water supplied by
the jet.
Q
q - Q
Q
Q

a
v
= = ;
v
lies between 0.97 to 0.99

30. Define overall efficiency.
It is defined as the ratio of power available at the turbine shaft to the power available from the
water jet.
H Q w
P
power Water
power Shaft

o
= =

31. What is scroll or spiral casing?
The water from the penstock enters the scroll casing which completely surrounds by the
runner. The cross sectional area of the scroll casing decreases along the flow of direction, area
is maximum at inlet and nearly zero at exit.

32. What is speed rings or stay ring?
The speed rings consists of an upper and lower ring held together by series of fixed vanes
called stay vanes. The number of stay vanes is usually taken as half to direct the water from the
scroll casing to the guide vanes and also it resists the load imposed upon it.

33. What is the function of guide vanes or wicket gates in Francis turbine?
The guide vanes direct the water on to the runner at appropriate angles as per design. Also it is
used to regulate the quantity of water supplied to the runner the guide vanes are airfoil shaped
and they may be made of cast steel, stainless steel or plate steel.

34. What are draft tube and its function?
After passing through the runner, the water is discharged to the tailrace through a gradually
expanding tube called draft tube.
The pressure at the exit of the runner of a reaction turbine is generally less than atmospheric
pressure. By passing reduced through draft tube, the outer velocity of water is reduced and gain
in useful pressure head is activated to increase the output of turbine.

35. What are the main components in Kaplan turbine?
The Kaplan turbine consists of the following main components
a) Scroll casing b) Stay ring
c) Guide vanes d)Draft tube e) Runner

36. What are the significant of unit quantities and specific quantities?
a) To predict the behavior of a turbine working under different conditions
b) Make comparison between the performances of turbine of same types of different sizes
c) Compare the performance
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37. Define unit speed (N
u
) of turbine.
Unit speed is defines as the speed of turbine when working under a unit head.
H
N
N
u
=

38. Define unit discharge.
It is the theoretical discharge of a turbine when working under unit head

H
Q
Q discharge, Unit
u
=

39. Define unit power.
It is the theoretical power of a turbine when working under unit head
2
3
u
H
P
P power, Unit =

40. Define the specific speed of a turbine.
Specific speed is the speed of a geometrically similar turbine, which will develop unit power

41. Give the range of specific speed values for Kaplan turbine and pelton wheel.
a) Range of speed for Kaplan turbine = 257 to 858
b) Range of specific speed for pelton wheel = 10 to 30-single jet
= 17 to 50-two jets
= 24 to 70-with four jets

42. What is meant by surge tank?
A surge tank is small reservoir or tank in which the water level rises or falls to reduce

43. What are the purposes of providing surge tank?
a) When sudden closure of valve, sudden reduction of flow in the penstock will occur. To
avoid this reduction of rate of flow, surge tanks are provided in the upstream of the
pipeline
b) To reduce the rapid velocity fluctuation in pipeline during starts and shut down of a
turbine

44. What are the different types of surge tanks?
a) Simple surge tank b) Incline surge tank
c) Differential surge tank

45. A turbine develops 5 MW under a head of 20 m at 125 rpm. What is the specific speed?

Given: P = 5 MW, H = 20 m; N = 125 rpm Solution:
4 5 s
H
P N
N = = 208.98 (Ans)

46. What is draft tube? In which type of turbine it is mostly used?
The tube which increases the outlet velocity of turbines is known as draft tube. So, head is
saved by fitting draft tube.
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47. Write the function of draft tube in turbine outlet.
a) It allows the turbine to set above tail-water level without loss of head for doing
inspection and maintenance.
b) It regains the major portion of the kinetic energy delivered from the runner by diffuse
action.

UNIT-V POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS

1. What is meant by Pump?
A pump is device which converts mechanical energy into hydraulic energy.

2. State the important classification of centrifugal pump.
According to number of stages
i) Single stage pump ii. Multi-stage pump

3. Mention main components of Centrifugal pump.
i. Impeller ii. Casing
iii.Suction pipe, strainer & Foot valve iv. Delivery pipe & Delivery valve

4. What are the purposes of providing casing on the centrifugal pump?
i) To guide water to and from the impeller, and
ii) To partially convert the kinetic energy into pressure energy

5. What are the various types of casing?
i. Volute casing ii. Vortex casing

6. Where the suction pipe is placed? For what?
It is provided with a strainer at its lower en so as to prevent the entry of solid particles, debris
etc into the pump.

7. What is meant by Priming?
The delivery valve is closed and the suction pipe, casing and portion of the delivery pipe upto
delivery valve are completely filled with the liquid so that no air pocket is left. This is called as
priming.

It is the head against which a centrifugal pump works.

9. Write down the formula for manometric efficiency.
impeller by the imparted Power
pump the of Output
liquid o impeller t by impartes Head

mano
= =

10. Define volumetric efficiency.
It is defines as the ratio of quantity of liquid discharged per second from the pump to the
quantity passing per second through the impeller.

11. Write down the relationship between overall efficiency, manometric efficiency, volumetric
efficiency and mechanical efficiency.
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mech v mano o
x x =

12. Define Mechanical efficiency.
It is defined as the ratio of the power actually delivered by the impeller to the power supplied
to the shaft.
shaft at the Power
impeller at the Power

mech
=

13. Define overall efficiency.
It is the ratio of power output of the pump to the power input to the pump.
pump the of input Power
pump the of output Power

o
=

14. What are backward curved vanes?
When the outlet tip of blade curves in a direction opposite to that of motion, then it is called
backward curved vanes

The liquid leaves the vane with relative velocity in a radial direction.

16. What are forward curved vanes?
When the outlet tip of blade curves in the direction of motion, then it is called forward curved
vanes

17. Write down the formula for specific speed of a pump.
5/4
m
3/4
m
s
H
P N

H
Q N
N = =

18. Define speed ratio, flow ratio.
Speed ratio: It is the ratio of peripheral speed at outlet (u
2
) to the theoretical velocity of jet
m
).

m
2
u
2gH
u
K = K
u
varies from 0.95 to 1.25
Flow ratio: It is the ratio of the velocity of flow at exit (V
f2
) to the theoretical velocity of jet
m
).

m
f2
f
2gH
V
K = K
f
varies from 0.1 to 0.25

19. How can we obtain a high head in a pump network?
A number of impellers are mounted on the same shaft in series to obtain a high head.
H n x H
total
=

20. What will be the effect of arranging the pumps in parallel?
A number of pumps are arranged in parallel for obtaining high discharge.
ME 101202 - Fluid Mechanics and Machinery
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Q n x Q
total
=

21. What are the characteristics curves?
i) Main characteristics curves
ii) Operating characteristics curves
iii) Constant efficiency or Muschel curves
iv) Constant head and constant discharge curves.

22. What is the principle of reciprocating pumps? And state its displacement type.
It operates on a principle of actual displacement of liquid by a piston or plunger, which
reciprocates in a closely fitting cylinder.

23. State the main classification of reciprocating pump.
According to the liquid being in contact with piston or plunger.
According to the number of cylinders provided.

24. Mention main components of Reciprocating pump.
i) Piton or Plunger ii) Suction and delivery pipe
iii) Crank and Connecting rod

25. What is the main difference between single acting and double acting reciprocating pump?
In single acting reciprocating pump, the liquids acts on one side of the piston only whereas in
double acting reciprocating pump, the liquid acts on both sides of the piston.

26. Write down the formula for discharge, work done and power required for double acting pump.
60
N L A 2
Q Discharge, =
) h (h
60
N L A w 2
W Workdone,
d s D
+ =
) h (h
60
N L A w 2
P pump, the drive to required Power
d s
+ =

27. Define Slip of reciprocating pump. When does the negative slip does occur?
The difference between the theoretical discharge and actual discharge is called slip of the
pump.
act th
Q - Q Slip =
100 x ) C - (1 100 x
Q
Q
- 1 100 x
Q
Q - Q
Slip Percentage
d
th
act
th
act th
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
= =
But in sometimes actual discharge may be higher than theoretical discharge, in such a case
coefficient of discharge is greater than unity and the slip will be negative called as negative
slip.
It is possible when the delivery pipe is shorter than the suction pipe with higher running speed.

28. What is indicator diagram?
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Indicator diagram is nothing but a graph plotted between the pressure head in the cylinder and
the distance traveled by the piston from inner dead center for one complete revolution of the
crank.

29. Write down the formula for work done by the pump in an indicator diagram.
Work done = K x Area of indicator diagram
pump acting single for diagram indicator of Area x
60
N A w
=
pump acting double for diagram indicator of Area x
60
N A w 2
=

It is the vertical height of the centre line of the pump shaft above the liquid surface in the sump
from which the liquid is being raised.

31. Write down the formula for saving in work by fitting air vessels.
100 x
W
W - W
saved Work
1
2 1
=
32. What is meant by Cavitations?
It is defined phenomenon of formation of vapor bubbles of a flowing liquid in a region where
the pressure of the liquid falls below its vapor pressure and the sudden collapsing of theses
vapor bubbles in a region of high pressure.

33. What is the effect of cavitations in pumps?
Breakdown of the machine itself due to severe pitting and erosion of blade surface

34. How can we identify the cavitation in pumps?
i) Sudden drop in efficiency ii) Head falls suddenly
iii) More power requirement iv) Noise and vibration
v) Pitting and erosion of surface

35. State any precautions against cavitations.
i) The pressure should not be allowed to fall below its vapour pressure
ii) Special material coatings can be given to the surfaces where the cavitation occurs

36. What are rotary pumps? Give various types.
Rotary pumps resemble like a centrifugal pumps in appearance. But the working method
differs. Uniform discharge and positive displacement can be obtained by using these rotary
pumps; it has the combined advantages of both centrifugal and reciprocating pumps.
The various types are: External and Internal gear pump, Lobe pump and Vane pump.