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Works Cited "The Civil War and Emancipation." Judgment Day Part IV. Pbs.org, n.d. Web. 7 Apr.

2013. This source describes the background to the Civil War. Abraham Lincoln was elected in 1860, which enraged the Confederates. This led to the secession of many Confederate states. As a result, they elected Jefferson Davis, a Mississippi Senator, as their president. In his inaugural address, Lincoln proclaimed that it was his duty to maintain the Union. This statement did not satisfy the Confederates, as they attacked Fort Sumter, which started the war. Although this is secondary treatment, it provides great information and is a reputable source. Civil War Turning Point. Prod. History Topics. Perf. Bruce Levine, Ira Berlin, James Horton, Spencer Crew, and Edna Greene Medford. History Channel, 2012. Historians Bruce Levine, Ira Berlin, James Horton, Spencer Crew, and Edna Greene Medford provide insight on the Civil War. Bruce Levine states that the Emancipation Proclamation is the turning point of the Civil War. It freed all the slaves of the South that were still in rebellion, allowing the blacks to be a part of the Union Army. This helped hugely, as more than 200,000 blacks joined the army. These historians provide accurate information, as there is no reason to distort. "Compensated Emancipation." Mr. Lincoln and Freedom. The Lincoln Institute, n.d. Web. 28 Apr. 2013. This source was Lincoln's step to try to abolish slavery. He had a concept of compensated emancipation, where he would pay states to free their slaves. He proposed compensated emancipation in different ways to different states, including the Border States. The majority of the Border States declined the offer as Lincoln was disappointed in their response. This provides useful information as there is no reason to distort.

"Economics of the Civil War." History Central. History Central.com, n.d. Web. 28 Apr. 2013. During the Civil War era, the southern economy and the northern economy were very different. This source, from historycentral.com, describes that the southern economy was based on huge plantations for farming and planting cash crops. As a result, this type of economy depended on using many slaves. The northern had an economy that was based on manufacturing and industry, which was not totally based on slavery. This provides useful information, as there is no reason to distort. The Emancipation Proclamation. Dir. History Topics. Perf. Edna Greene Medford. History Channel, 2012. Issued after the Union victory at Antietam, the Emancipation Proclamation had both moral and strategic implications for the ongoing Civil War. Doris Kearns Goodwin, a Pulitzer prize winning biographer, offers her perspective on the Emancipation Proclamation. She explains that Lincoln accepted input from his Secretary of State Seward in deciding when to issue the Emancipation Proclamation. Seward suggested that Lincoln wait until the Union secured a victory in the Civil War so the Act wouldn't seem like an act of desperation. After the Battle of Antietam, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation in September 1862. Although this is a secondary source, it provides great information. "The Emancipation Proclamation." Historynet.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Mar. 2013. This article is from historynet.com, the online arm of the Weider History Group. Weider History Group offers a portfolio of 11 magazines covering world and American history, and also covers a broad range of history on their history.net site. This article gives a broad overview of the Emancipation Proclamation, which declared that all slaves in the areas still under rebellion should be "forever free." Abraham Lincoln made sure to issue this proclamation

at just the right time in the war as it had a positive effect on the Union. Under the Emancipation Proclamation, Confederate slaves were allowed to join the Union army. This helped greatly, as the number of soldiers increased greatly. This source provides great insight and is very accurate. "Emancipation Proclamation Was Also Foreign Policy." Steve Jones, n.d. Web. 28 Apr. 2013. This source discussed the role that England played in the Civil War. England would have supported the Confederacy, but couldn't support them if the War was about slavery. Lincoln used that to his advantage, to help get England support the Union. This provides accurate information as there is little reason to distort. Foner, Eric. "The Emancipation Proclamation at 150: Abraham Lincoln's Turning-point." The Guardian. Guardian News and Media, 17 Sept. 2012. Web. 24 Mar. 2013. This article was written on the 150th anniversary of the Emancipation Proclamation. In this source, historian Eric Foner provides his insight on the Emancipation Proclamation and the Civil War. Foner states that "the Emancipation Proclamation is one of the crucial turning points of the American Civil War." Although it is not a primary source, there is little reason to distort this information. Guelzo, Allen C. Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation: The End of Slavery in America. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2004. Print. Prizewinning Lincoln scholar Allen C. Guelzo presents a complete analysis of Lincoln's greatest paper. In an attempt to destroy slavery forever in America, Lincoln issues the Emancipation Proclamation. Following this Proclamation, a new amendment to the Constitution was added which finally ended slavery. Using letters, documents and Civil War era newspapers, Guelzo tells the story of judges, slaves, and soldiers who stood in favor and against Lincoln's Proclamation.

Hay, John. "Personal Letter." Letter to Mary Jay. 20 July 1862. MS. N.p. This letter was written by John Hay, Assistant Secretary to Abraham Lincoln. to Mary Jay, a family friend.This is a primary source which shows what Lincoln was thinking in the summer of 1862. In his letter, Hay writes that Lincoln, "will not conserve slavery much longer." This letter foreshadows the coming Emancipation Proclamation. Lincoln, Abraham. "Featured Document: The Emancipation Proclamation." Featured Document: The Emancipation Proclamation. N.p., 1 Jan. 1863. Web. 03 Mar. 2013. The Emancipation Proclamtion was issued by President Abraham Lincoln on January 1, 1863. The Proclamation states that all slaves in the South fighting against the North should be free. Even though it didn't abolish slavery throughout the whole country, it led to the thirteenth amendment that ended slavery. It is a landmark primary source which changed the course of history of the United States with regard to slavery and freedom for all its citizens. Lincoln, Abraham. "Lincoln's Inaugural Address." Lincoln's First Inaugural Address. 4 Mar. 1861. Address. On March 4, 1861, Lincoln issued his Inaugural Address, after he was elected President. In his Inaugural Address, he declared that it was his duty to maintain the Union. By maintaining the Union he reassured the Southern States that he would not abolish slavery. This is primary source which provides great information. Lincoln, Abraham. "Lincoln's Position on Slavery." Letter to Albert G. Hodges. 4 Apr. 1864. MS. N.p. In this primary source, Abraham Lincoln wrote to Albert G. Hodges, editor of the Frankfort, KY Commonwealth, about his position on slavery. This letter was a follow-up to an interview with Lincoln by three Kentuckians, Governor Thomas Bramlette, former Senator Archibald Dixon, and Hodges. The letter was written in April

1864, a little over a year after the Emancipation Proclamation was issued. Lincoln states that he believes slavery is wrong, but until 1863 he could not find a constitutional way to try to abolish it. During the Civil War, it became evident to Lincoln that the Emancipation Proclamation could help save the Union, especially since it added over 100,000 soldiers to the Union side. This is a primary source and is very accurate, as it is written in Lincoln's own words. Lovell, Mansfield. "Personal Letter." Letter to Joseph Lovell. 30 Oct. 1862. MS. N.p. In this letter to his son, Confederate General Mansfield Lovell shows that he thinks the Emancipation Proclamation will help the South and hurt the North. This letter is interesting as it illustrates a common view of the Confederacy regarding the Emancipation Proclamation, a view which turned out not to be correct. This is a primary source, so there is no reason to distort this information "Slavery In The Civil War Era." Civilwarhome.com. History, n.d. Web. 10 May 2013. This source, provided by civilwarhome.com, provides detail on slavery in America. It explains how slavery has changed in America during the Civil War Era. Many slaves were used in the South, because there were huge plantations for them to work. Not as many slaves were used north because their economy did not rely on using slaves. Although it is secondary treatment, it provides great information and is a great source. Striner, Richard. " Hurrah for Old Abe." Opinionator Hurrah for Old Abe Comments. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 Mar. 2013. This New York Times editorial was written by American History professor Richard Striner on the one-hundred-and-fiftieth anniversary of the signing of the Emancipation Proclamation. Over 150 years ago, Americans went to war with

themselves. Striner's editorial revisits that difficult period in American history. Although it is a secondary source, it is very accurate and there is little reason to distort. Texas. Texas Declaration of Secession. 1 Mar. 1845. Texas. In 1845, The Republic of Texas was annexed to be a part of the United States. Later, Texas then become part of the Confederate States, which allowed slavery. Their thoughts on black slaves were described that,"the African race had no agency in their establishment." This is a primary source, as there is no reason to distort any information. Topics, History. "American Civil War." History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 24 Mar. 2013. This online article from history.com gives good background on the Civil War. The American Civil War, fought between 1861-1865, was the costliest war fought on American soil. In this war, 620,000 of 2.4 million soldiers were killed, and millions more were injured. The election of the anti-slavery Republican Abraham Lincoln as President in 1860 caused seven southern states to secede from the Union to form the Confederate States of America. The Confederates eventually surrendered in 1865, after losing many battles. This article gives good background on the time frame in which Lincoln issued his Emancipation Proclamation. This website is produced by the very reputable History Channel. It is a secondary source and there is no reason to distort. Topics, History. "Emancipation Proclamation." History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 03 Mar. 2013. History.com's website provides great detail on the Emancipation Proclamation and the Civil War. This article clearly points out what happened during the Civil War. Abraham Lincoln despised slavery, as he tried to abolish it by issuing the Emancipation Proclamation, where slaves would be forever free. The slaves that were freed joined the Union and helped them fight against the Confederates. The Union won

the war, but states that were in rebellion still had slavery. A new amendment was passed, abolishing slavery. While this is a secondary source, it is well established and provides an exceptional amount of detail. There is no reason to suspect information is being distorted. Weber, Jennifer L. "Lincolns Critics: The Copperheads." Journal of the Abraham Lincoln Association 32.1 (2011): n. pag. Web. 10 May 2013. <http://quod.lib.umich.edu/j/jala/2629860.0032.105/--lincoln-s-critics-thecopperheads?rgn=main;view=fulltext>. Jennifer Weber provides great detail on the people in the North during the Civil War. Northern Democrats who favored slavery and opposed the Civil War were called Copperheads, named after the poisonous snakes. The Copperhead movement attracted Southerners who had settled north of the Ohio River, the poor, and merchants who had lost profitable southern trade. This is a scholarly journal article and provides great information.