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NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD

Office of Research andEngineering a^ *

Washington, D.C. 20594

February 19, 2002

Flight Path Study - United Airlines Flight 93

A. SUBJECT AIRCRAFT

Location:

Shanksville, PA

Date:

September 11, 2001

Time:

10:03 AM Eastern Daylight Time

Flight:

United Airlines Flight 93

Aircraft:

Boeing 757-200, registration: N591UA

NTSB#:

DCA01MA065

B. GROUP

N/A

C. SUMMARY

This document provides a brief description of the flight path of the aircraft based on information obtained from various sources of recorded radar of the subject aircraft both before and after the hijacking events. Information from the Flight Data Recorder (FDR) recovered on scene is also used to develop the description. Flight paths are overlaid onto maps of the area, and time histories of altitude data are presented

United Airlines Flight 93 - Flight Profile

The following profile of United Airlines Flight 93 is based on data from the flight data recorder (FDR) recovered from the crash site, as well as radar data obtained from the Federal Aviation Administration's Air Route Traffic Control Centers and the U.S. Air Force 84th Radar Evaluation Squadron.

Figure 1 shows the flight path of the aircraft from take off at Newark, NJ to the crash site near Johnstown, PA. Figure 2 shows the aircraft's altitude profile for the 1 hour and 21 minute duration of the flight.

United flight 93 departed Newark, NJ at 8:42 am (point A in Figures 1 and 2) and reached its assigned cruising altitude of 35,000 feet at about 9:02 am (B). The flight appears normal until a brief descent of about 600 feet starting at 9:28 (C). The words "get out of here" and sounds of a struggle were recorded on the air traffic control radio at FAA's Cleveland Center facility at this time. The Cockpit Voice Recorder (CVR) onboard the airplane began providing sounds from the cockpit at approximately 9:32. At 9:34 (D) the airplane starts to climb from 35,000 feet, and shortly thereafter begins a left turn to a Southeast heading of 120° with the autopilot in heading select mode. The airplane maintained a maximum altitude of 41,000 feet for about 2 minutes and then started descending at about 9:39 (E), with the autopilot in vertical speed mode and at a descent rate of 4,000 feet/minute. Radar stations stopped receiving transponder returns from UAL93 at approximately 9:41.

There was a brief interruption in the descent at 9:46 (F) as the airplane climbed from 19,000 feet to 20,500 feet before resuming its descent, but at a slower rate (1,300 feet/minute). At about 9:57 the airplane started a left turn to the east. At 9:59 (G) the airplane was at 5,000 feet when about 2 minutes of rapid, full left and right control wheel inputs resulted in multiple 30 degree rolls to the left and right. From approximately 10:00 to 10:02 there were four distinct control column inputs that caused the airplane to pitch nose-up (climb) and nose-down (dive) aggressively. During this time the airplane climbed to about 10,000 feet while turning to the right. The airplane then pitched nose-down and rolled to the right in response to flight control inputs, and impacted the ground at about 490 knots (563 mph) in a 40 degree nose-down, inverted attitude. The time of impact was

10:03:11.

Ritter Chief, Vehicle Performance Division NTSB

T

Figure 1. UA-93 Radar Ground Track

A - UAL 93 takes off from Newark, NJ at 0842 EOT.

B - UAL 93 levels off at assigned altitude of 35,000 ft.

O

o

O

01

•S'o

C - 600 foot deviation from assigned altitude (assumed takeover point.)

D - Starts climb to 41,000 feet, then turns towards Southeast.

E -A t max altitude of 41,000 feet; xponder returns cease 2 m in. later.

F - Brief interruption in descent.

G - Rapid control wheel inputs; aircraft starts climbing.

H -Aircraft noses down and starts rapid descent.

I - Aircraft aircraft impacts the ground inverted and at high speed.

Q LJ 010:03:11 AM

I

Figure 2. UA-93 Altitude Profile

 

45000

40000 -

25000 -

_

Q>

3

20000 -

A - UAL 93 takes off from Newark, NJ at 0842 EOT.

B - UAL 93 levels off at assigned altitude of 35,000 ft.

C - 600 foot deviation from assigned altitude (assumed takeover point.)

D -Starts climb to 41,000 feet, then turns towards Southeast.

E - At max altitude of 41,000 feet; xponder returns cease 2 min. later.

F - Brief interruption in descent.

G - Rapid control wheel inputs; aircraft starts climbing.

H -Aircraft noses down and starts rapid descent.

I - Aircraft aircraft Impacts the ground inverted and at high speed.

08:30:00

08:40:00

08:50:00

09:00:00

09:10:00

09:20:00

09:30:00

09:40:00

09:50:00

Eastern Daylight Time, HH:MM:SS (= UTC - 4 Hours)

4

10:00:00

10:

8:41:49 LC

United ninety three wind three three zero at seven runway four left cleared

8:41:53 UAL-93

for takeoff. [EWR 1235-1247 LC] cleared takeoff four left United ninety three. [EWR 1235-1247 LC]

8:42:07 LC

United ninety three. [EWR 1235-1247 LC]

8:42:41 LC

United ninety three contact departure. [EWR 1235-1247 LC]

8:42:43 UAL-93

going to departure United ninety three good day. [EWR 1235-1247 LC]

8:43:00 UAL-93

United ninety three fourteen hundred for twenty five hundred. [N90 1238-

1256 Newark Dept.] 8:43:04 E155 United ninety three New York departure good morning radar contact climb and maintain eight thousand and turn left heading three three zero vector

8:43:12 UAL-93

8:43:48 E155

8:43:52 UAL-93

8:44:34 E155

for ELIOT. [N90 1238-1256 Newark Dept.] eight thousand heading three three zero for ELIOT United ninety three. [N90 1238-1256 Newark Dept.] United ninety three turn left heading uh two eight zero. [N90 1238-1256 Newark Dept.] left two eighty United ninety three. [N90 1238-1256 Newark Dept.] United ninety three climb and maintain one zero thousand. [N90 1238-1256 Newark Dept.]

three. [N90 1238-1256 Newark Dept.] United ninety three climb and maintain one zero thousand. [N90 1238-1256
three. [N90 1238-1256 Newark Dept.] United ninety three climb and maintain one zero thousand. [N90 1238-1256
three. [N90 1238-1256 Newark Dept.] United ninety three climb and maintain one zero thousand. [N90 1238-1256

8:44:38 UAL-93 climb and maintain one zero thousand ten thousand United ninety three. [N90 1238-1256 Newark Dept.]

8:45:10 E155

United ninety three do not exceed two five zero knots. [N90 1238-1256

8:45:13 UAL-93

Newark Dept.] not exceed two fifty United ninety three. [N90 1238-1256 Newark Dept.]

8:45:54 E155

United ninety three resume normal speed contact departure one three five

8:46:00 UAL-93

point three five. [N90 1238-1256 Newark Dept.] one three five three five normal speed good day United ninety three. [N90

8:46:18 UAL-93

1238-1256 Newark Dept.] United ninety three is with you one zero thousand, normal speed, heading

8:46:23 B43

two eighty. [N90 1238-1256 Liberty West] United ninety three departure good morning, climb maintain one four

8:46:26 UAL-93

thousand. [N90 1238-1256 Liberty West] climb maintain one four thousand United ninety three. [N90 1238-1256

8:48:03 B43

Liberty West] United ninety three right turn heading of ah three one zero. [N90 1238-1256

8:48:07 UAL-93

Liberty West] right heading three one zero United ninety three. [N90 1238-1256 Liberty

8:48:41 B43

West] United ninety three climb maintain one six thousand. [N90 1238-1256 Liberty West]

8:48:44 UAL-93

climb maintain one six thousand United ninety three.

[N90 1238-1256

8:49:31 B43

Liberty West] United ninety three climb maintain one seven thousand go direct ELIOT on course. [N90 1238-1256 Liberty West]

8:49:35

UAL-93

up to

one seven thousand direct ELIOT United ninety three. [N90 1238-

1256 Liberty West] 8:50.37 B43 United ninety three contact New York center one three two point one good

8:50:41 UAL-93

8:50:57 UAL-93

day. [N90 1238-1256 Liberty West] thirty two one good day United ninety three. [N90 1238-1256 Liberty West] and New York United ninety three with you one seven thousand. [ZNY 1245-1258 R39]

three. [N90 1238-1256 Liberty West] and New York United ninety three with you one seven thousand.

8:51:03 R39 United ninety three New York center climb and maintain flight level two eight zero. [ZNY 1245-1258 R39]

8:51:07 UAL-93

8:54:09 R39 United ninety three cleared direct DEMO. [ZNY 1245-1258 R39]

8:54:12 UAL-93

maintain two eight oh United ninety three. [ZNY 1245-1258 R39]

direct DEMO United ninety three. [ZNY 1245-1258 R39]

8:54:53 R39

United ninety three contact New York center one three three point four correction New York center one thirty two eighty seven. [ZNY1245-1258

R39]

8:54:59 UAL-93

one thirty two eighty seven good day United uh ninety three. [ZNY 1245-

1258R39]

8:55:05 UAL-93

good morning New York United ninety three with you twenty five and a half for two eight oh. [ZNY 1250-1328 R73]

8:55:09 R73

United

ninety three New York center good morning. [ZNY 1250-1328 R73]

8:57:12 R73

United ninety three climb and maintain flight level three five zero. [ZNY

8:57:16 UAL-93

1250-1328 R73] leaving two eight for three five oh United ninety three. [ZNY 1250-1328

R73]

9:22:20 UAL-93

United ninety three starting to pick up some light chop at thirty five, any ride

reports? [ZNY 1308-1328 RA73]

9:22:26 RA73

the ah first complained I've had and United ah ninety three, contact the

Cleveland center now on one three three point zero seven. 1328 RA73]

[ZNY 1308-

9:22:37 UAL-93

thrity three oh seven United ninety three.

[ZNY 1308-1328 RA73]

9:23:00 ACARS

BEWARE ANY COCKPIT INTROUSION.

. TWO AIRCRAFT IN NY, HIT

9:23:05 UAL-93

TRADE CNTER BUILDS morning Cleveland it's United ninety three with you at three five oh ah

9:23:14 FKL-R

there's some light chop here at thirty five any ride reports? [ZOB 13:01- 13:31 Franklin-R] an nojust a little light chop nothing worse than that United ninety three.

9:23:56 FKL-R

[ZOB 13:01-13:31 Franklin-R] United ninety three Cleveland one three three three seven. [ZOB 1301-

9:24:00 UAL-93

1331 Franklin-R] one three three three seven good day United ninety three. [ZOB 1301-1331

9:24:20 UAL-93

Franklin-R] good morning Cleveland United ninety three is with you at three five oh

9:25:06 UAL-93

intermittent light chop. [ZOB 1314-1333 Lorain-R] United ninety three checking in three five oh. [ZOB 1314-1333 Lorain-R]

9:25:08 LOR-R

United ninety three three five zero roger. [ZOB 1314-1333 Lorain-R]

9:27:25 LOR-R

United ninety three that traffic for you is one o'clock twelve miles east

9:27:30 UAL-93

bound three seven zero. [ZOB 1314-1333 Lorain-R] negative contact we're looking United ninety three. [ZOB 1314-1333

9:28:16 UAL-93

Lorain-R] *** (mayday) *** (hey get out of here) ***. [ZOB 1314-1333 Lorain-R]

9:28:48 UAL-93

*** (get out of here) *** (get out of here). [ZOB 1314-1333 Lorain-R]

9:29:14 LOR-R

United ninety three verify three five zero. [ZOB 1314-1333 Lorain-R]

9:29:20 LOR-R

United ninety three verify you're at flight level ah three five zero. [ZOB

9:29:34 LOR-R

1314-1333 Lorain-R] United ninety three verify you're level at three five zero. [ZOB 1314-1333

9:29:40 LOR-R

Lorain-R] United ninety three Cleveland. [ZOB 1314-1333 Lorain-R]

9:29:56 LOR-R

United ninety three Cleveland. [ZOB 1314-1333 Lorain-R]

9:30:03 LOR-R

United ninety three if you hear Cleveland center ident please. [ZOB 1314-

9:30:58 LOR-R

1333 Lorain-R] United ninety three Cleveland if you hear the center ident. [ZOB 1314-1333

9:31:55 UAL-93

Lorain-R] *** please sit down, keep remaining seating, we have a bomb on board, so

9:32:05 LOR-R

***. [ZOB 1314-1333 Lorain-R] er uh calling Cleveland center you're unreadable say again slowly. [ZOB

9:35:36 LOR-R

1314-1333 Lorain-R] ah United ninety three if able * ah squawk trip please. [ZOB 1333-1344

Lorain-R]

9:36:51 LOR-R [Cleveland center announces that UAL93 is turning south and east and climbing]. [ZOB 1333-1344 Lorain-R] 9:39:10 UAL-93 ah this is the captain uh would like to all remain seated there is a bomb aboard and we go back to the airport and to have our demands so please remain quiet. [ZOB 1333-1344 Lorain-R]

9:39:19 LOR-R

okay thats United ninety three calling?

[ZOB 1333-1344 Lorain-R]

9:39:24 LOR-R

United ninety three understand you have a bomb on board go ahead. [ZOB

9:40:04 LOR-R

1333-1344 Lorain-R] United ninety three go ahead. [ZOB 1333-1344 Lorain-R]

 

_

9:40:12 LOR-R

United ninety three go ahead.

[ZOB 1333-1344 Lorain-R]

>

9:41:01 LOR-R

United ninety three do you hear Cleveland center? [ZOB 1333-1344 Lorain-

R]

9:41:36 LOR-R

9:45:29 LOR-R

[Cleveland center announces loss of transponder signal from UAL93] [ZOB 1333-1344 Lorain-R] United ninety three Cleveland do you still hear the center? [ZOB 1344-

1400

Lorain-R]

9:45:35 LOR-R

United ninety three do you still hear Cleveland? [ZOB 1344-1400 Lorain-R]

9:46:13 LOR-R

United ninety three United ninerthree do you hear Cleveland? [ZOB 1344-

1400 Lorain-R]

9:47:28 LOR-R United ninety three United ninety three Cleveland. [ZOB 1344-1400 Lorain-

9:48:39 LOR-R

R] United ninety three United ninety three do you hear Cleveland center. [ZOB 1344-1400 Lorain-R]

NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD Vehicle Recorders Division Washington, D.C. 20594

December 21, 2001

Air Traffic Control Recording

Specialist's Report by Joseph A. Gregor

A. ACCIDENT

Location:

Date:

Time:1

Aircraft:

NTSB Number:

B. GROUP

N/A

C. SUMMARY

Shanksville, PA

September 11, 2001

Boeing 757

DCA01SA065

On September 11, 2001 United Airlines Flight 93, a Boeing 757 crashed near

Shanksville, PA. A certified analog copy of air traffic control (ATC) transmissions

recorded on September 11, 2001 at various tower, departure, and Air Route Traffic

Control Center (ARTCC) positions along the route of flight was sent to the audio

laboratory of the National Transportation Safety Board. These recordings were used to

create an audio and text transcript of the aircratt-ground communications from takeoff

to accident time.

- II-

D. DETAILS OF INVESTIGATION

Transmissions

between the accident aircraft and ATC were recorded and an

The tapes cover the

analog copy was sent to the Safety Board's audio laboratory.

following ATC positions and time periods:

Facility

Time Period1 (UTC)

Position

EWR

1235-1247

LC

N90

1238-1256

E155

N90

1238-1256

B43

ZNY

1245-1258

Sector 39R

ZNY

1250-1328

Sector 73R

ZOB

1301 -1331

FKL-R

ZOB

1314-1333

LOR-R

ZOB

1333-1344

LOR-R

ZOB

1344-1400

LOR-R

Sections of the tape recordings containing air-ground transmissions to and from the

incident aircraft were digitized at a 22,050 Samples/second data rate and saved as

standard Microsoft .wav files, individual .wav files were combined into a single 1 hour 3

minute 19 second long .wav file containing all transmissions to and from the incident

aircraft from 1241:49 UTC (aircraft cleared for takeoff) to 1348:47 UTC. A transcript

was obtained from the final composite recording. Times are approximate due to

limitations inherent in the data obtained from the FAA.

Joseph A. Gregor Electrical Engineer

- Ill -

Transcript of ATC communications with a Boeing B-757 (United Airlines flight 93) which crashed near Shanksville, PA on September 11, 2001.

LEGEND

UAL-93

Radio transmission from United B-757, flight 93

LC

Radio transmission

from Local Control

E155

Radio transmission

from Newark Departure

B43

Radio transmission from Liberty West

39R

Radio transmission

from Sector 39 Radar position

73R

Radio transmission from Sector 73 Radar position

FKL-R

Radio transmission from Franklin Radar position

LOR-R

Radio transmission from Lorain Radar position

*

Unintelligible word

#

Expletive

(

)

Questionable insertion

[

]

Editorial insertion

 

Pause

-

Interruption

Note 1:

Times are expressed in universal coordinated time (UTC).

Note 2:

Only radio transmissions to and from the accident aircraft were transcribed.

Note 3:

Words shown with excess vowels, letters, or drawn out syllables are a phonetic representation of the words as spoken.

INTRA-COCKPIT COMMUNICATION

Page 1 of 10 AIRCRAFT-TO-GROUND COMMUNICATION

Time (UTC)

Time (UTC)

SOURCE

CONTENT

SOURCE

CONTENT

Start of recording

Start of transcript

1241:49*

LC

United ninety three wind three three zero at seven runway four left cleared for takeoff. [EWR 1235-1247 LC]

1241:53*

UAL-93

cleared takeoff four left United ninety three. [EWR 1235-

1247LC]

1242:07*

LC

United ninety three. [EWR 1235-1247 LC]

1242:41*

LC

United ninety three contact departure. [EWR 1235-1247 LC]

1242:43*

UAL-93

going to departure United ninety three good day. [EWR 1235-1247 LC]

1243:00

UAL-93

United ninety three fourteen hundred for twenty five hundred. [N90 1238-1256 Newark Dept.]

INTRA-COCKPIT COMMUNICATION

Page 2 of 10 AIRCRAFT-TO-GROUND COMMUNICATION

Time (UTC)

Time (UTC)

SOURCE

CONTENT

SOURCE

CONTENT

 

1243:04

E155

United ninety three New York departure good morning radar contact climb and maintain eight thousand and turn left heading three three zero vector for ELIOT. [N90 1238-1256 Newark Dept.]

1243:12

UAL-93

eight thousand heading three three zero for ELIOT

United

ninety three. [N90 1238-1256 Newark Dept.]

1243:48

E155

United ninety three turn left heading uh two eight zero. [N90 1238-1256 Newark Dept.]

1243:52

UAL-93

left two eighty United ninety three. [N90 1238-1256 Newark Dept.]

1244:34

E155

United ninety three dimb and maintain one zero thousand. [N90 1238-1256 Newark Dept.]

1244:38

UAL-93

climb and maintain one zero thousand ten thousand United ninety three. [N90 1238-1256 Newark Dept.]

1245:10

E155

United ninety three do not exceed two five zero knots. [N90 1238-1256 Newark Dept.]

1245:13

UAL-93

not exceed two fifty United ninety three. [N90 1238-1256 Newark Dept.]

INTRA-COCKPIT COMMUNICATION

Time (UTC)

SOURCE

CONTENT

Page 3 of 10 AIRCRAFT-TO-GROUND COMMUNICATION

Time (UTC)

SOURCE

CONTENT

1245:54

E155

United ninety three resume normal speed contact departure one three five point three five. [N90 1238- 1256 Newark Dept.]

1246:00

UAL-93

one three five three five normal speed good day United ninety three. [N90 1238-1256 Newark Dept.]

1246:18*

UAL-93

United ninety three is with you one zero thousand,

normal speed, heading two eighty. Liberty West]

[N90 1238-1256

1246:23*

B43

United ninety three departure good morning, climb

maintain one four thousand. West]

[N90 1238-1256 Liberty

1246:26*

UAL-93

climb maintain one four thousand United ninety three. [N90 1238-1256 Liberty West]

1248:03*

B43

United ninety three right turn heading of ah three one zero. [N90 1238-1256 Liberty West]

1248:07*

UAL-93

right heading three one zero United ninety three. [N90 1238-1256 Liberty West]

1248:41*

B43

United ninety three climb maintain one six thousand. [N90 1238-1256 Liberty West]

INTRA-COCKPIT COMMUNICATION

Time (UTC)

SOURCE

CONTENT

Page 4 of 10 AIRCRAFT-TO-GROUND COMMUNICATION

Time (UTC)

SOURCE

CONTENT

1248:44*

UAL-93

climb maintain one six thousand United ninety three. [N90 1238-1256 Liberty West]

1249:31*

B43

United ninety three climb maintain one seven thousand go direct ELIOT on course. [N90 1238-1256 Liberty West]

1249:35*

UAL-93

up to one seven thousand direct ELIOT United ninety three. [N90 1238-1256 Liberty West]

1250:37*

B43

United ninety three contact New York center one three two point one good day. [N90 1238-1256 Liberty West]

1250:41*

UAL-93

thirty two one good day United ninety three. [N90 1238-

1256

Liberty West]

1250:57*

UAL-93

and New York United ninety three with you one seven

thousand.

[ZNY 1245-1 258 R39]

1251:03

R39

United ninety three New York center climb and maintain flight level two eight zero. [ZNY 1245-1258 R39]

1251:07

UAL-93

maintain two eight oh United ninety three. {ZNY 1245-

1258R39]

1254:09*

R39

United ninety three cleared direct DEMO. [ZNY 1245-

1258 R39]

INTRA-COCKPIT COMMUNICATION

Page 5 of 10 AIRCRAFT-TO-GROUND COMMUNICATION

Time (UTC)

Time (UTC)

SOURCE

CONTENT

SOURCE

CONTENT

1254:12

UAL-93

direct DEMO United ninety three. [ZNY 1245-1258 R39]

1254:53

R39

United ninety three contact New York center one three three point four correction New York center one thirty two eighty seven. [ZNY 1245-1258 R39]

1254:59*

UAL-93

one thirty two eighty seven good day United uh ninety three. [ZNY 1245-1258 R39]

1255:05*

UAL-93

good morning New York United ninety three with you twenty five and a half for two eight oh. [ZNY 1250-1328

R73]

1255:09*

R73

United ninety three New York center good morning. [ZNY 1250-1328 R73]

1257:12*

R73

United ninety three climb and maintain flight level three five zero. [ZNY 1250-1328 R73]

1257:16*

UAL-93

leaving two eight for three five oh United ninety three. [ZNY 1250-1328 R73]

1322:20

UAL-93

United ninety three starting to pick up some light chop at thirty five, any ride reports? [ZNY 1308-1328 RA73]

INTRA-COCKPIT COMMUNICATION

Time (UTC)

SOURCE

CONTENT

Page 6 of 10 AIRCRAFT-TO-GROUND COMMUNICATION

Time (UTC)

SOURCE

CONTENT

1322:26

RA73

the ah first complained I've had and United ah ninety three, contact the Cleveland center now on one three three point zero seven. [ZNY 1308-1328 RA73]

1322:37

UAL-93

thrity three oh seven United ninety three. [ZNY 1308-

1328RA73]

1323:00

ACARS

BEWARE ANY COCKPIT

TWO

AIRCRAFT IN NY, HIT TRADE CNTER BUILDS

1323:05

UAL-93

morning Cleveland it's United ninety three with you at three five oh ah there's some light chop here at thirty five any ride reports? [ZOB 1301-1331 Franklin-R]

1323:14

FKL-R

an no just a little light chop nothing worse than that United ninety three. [ZOB 1301-1331 Franklin-R]

1323:56

FKL-R

United ninety three Cleveland one three threethree seven. [ZOB 1301-1331 Franklin-R]

1324:00

UAL-93

one three three three seven good day United ninety three. [ZOB 1301-1331 Franklin-R]

1324:20*

UAL-93

good morning Cleveland United ninety three is with you at three five oh intermittent light chop. [ZOB 1314-1333 Lorain-R]

INTRA-COCKPIT COMMUNICATION

Page 7 of 10 AIRCRAFT-TO-GROUND COMMUNICATION

Time (UTC)

Time (UTC)

SOURCE

CONTENT

SOURCE

CONTENT

 

1325:06*

UAL-93

United ninety three checking in three five oh. [ZOB

 

1314-1333Lorain-R]

 

1325:08*

LOR-R

United ninety three three five zero roger. [ZOB 1314-

 

1333Lorain-R]

 
 

1327:25*

LOR-R

United ninety three that traffic for you is one o'clock twelve miles east bound three seven zero. [ZOB 1314-

 

1

333 Lorain-R]

 

1327:30*

UAL-93

negative contact we're looking United ninety three. [ZOB 1314-1333 Lorain-R]

1328:16*

UAL-93

*** (mayday) *** (hey get out of here) ***. [ZOB 1314-

 

1

333 Lorain-R]

 

1328:48*

UAL-93

*** (get out of here) — (get out of here). [ZOB 1314-

 

1333

Lorain-R]

 
 

1329:14*

LOR-R

United ninety three verify three five zero. [ZOB 1 314-

 

1333

Lorain-R]

 
 

1329:20*

LOR-R

United ninety three verify you're at flight level ah three five zero. [ZOB 1314-1333 Lorain-R]

1329:34*

LOR-R

United ninety three verify you're level at three five zero. [ZOB 1314-1333 Lorain-R]

INTRA-COCKPIT

COMMUNICATION

AIRCRAFT-TO-GROUND

Page 8 of 10 COMMUNICATION

Time (UTC)

Time (UTC)

SOURCE

CONTENT

SOURCE

CONTENT

 

1329:40*

LOR-R

United ninety three Cleveland. [ZOB 1314-1333 Lorain-

 

R]

 

1329:56

LOR-R

United ninety three Cleveland.

[ZOB 1314-1333 Lorain-

 

R]

 

1330:03*

LOR-R

United ninety three if you hear Cleveland center ident please. [ZOB 1314-1333 Lorain-R]

1330:58*

LOR-R

United ninety three Cleveland if you hear the center ident. [ZOB 1314-1333 Lorain-R]

1331:55*

UAL-93

*** please sit down, keep remaining seating, we have a bomb on board, so ***. [ZOB 1314-1333 Lorain-R)

1332:05*

LOR-R

er uh calling Cleveland center you're unreadable say again slowly. [ZOB 1314-1333 Lorain-R]

1335:36

LOR-R

ah United ninety three if able * ah squawk trip please. [ZOB 1333-1344 Lorain-R]

1336:51

LOR-R

[Cleveland center announces that UAL93 is turning south and east and climbing]. [ZOB 1333-1344 Lorain-

R]

INTRA-COCKPIT COMMUNICATION

AIRCRAFT-TO-GROUND

Page 9 of 10 COMMUNICATION

Time (UTC)

Time (UTC)

SOURCE

CONTENT

SOURCE

CONTENT

 

1339:10

UAL-93

ah this is the captain uh would like to all

remain seated

there is a bomb aboard and we go back to the airport

and to have our demands so please remain quiet. 1333-1344 Lorain-R]

[ZOB

1339:19

LOR-R

okay thats United ninety three calling?

[ZOB 1333-1344

Lorain-R]

1339:24

LOR-R

United ninety three understand you have a bomb on board go ahead. [ZOB 1333-1344 Lorain-R]

1340:01

LOR-R

United ninety three go ahead. [ZOB 1333-1344 Lorain-

R]

1340:12

LOR-R

United ninety three go ahead. [ZOB 1333-1344 Lorain-

R]

1341:01

LOR-R

United ninety three do you hear Cleveland center? [ZOB 1333-1344 Lorain-R]

1341:36

LOR-R

[Cleveland center announces loss of transponder signal from UAL93] [ZOB 1333-1344 Lorain-R]

1345:29*

LOR-R

United ninety three Cleveland do you still hear the center? [ZOB 1344-1400 Lorain-R]

INTRA-COCKPIT COMMUNICATION

AIRCRAFT-TO-GROUND

Page 10 of 10 COMMUNICATION

Time (UTC)

Time (UTC)

SOURCE

CONTENT

SOURCE

CONTENT

End of transcript

'times verified via FAA timecode reader.

1345:35*

LOR-R

United ninety three do you still hear Cleveland? [ZOB 1344-1400 Lorain-R]

1346:13*

LOR-R

United ninety three United niner three do you hear Cleveland? [ZOB 1344-1400 Lorain-R]

1347:28*

LOR-R

United ninety three United ninety three Cleveland. [ZOB 1344-1 400 Lorain-R]

1348:43

LOR-R

United ninety three United ninety three do you hear Cleveland center. [ZOB 1344-1400 Lorain-R]

1241:49

LC

United ninety three wind three three zero at seven runway four

1241:53

UAL-93

left cleared for takeoff. [EWR 1235-1247 LC] cleared takeoff four left United ninety three. [EWR 1235-1247

1242:07

LC

LC] United ninety three. [EWR 1235-1247 LC]

1242:41

LC

United ninety three contact departure. [EWR 1235-1247 LC]

1242:43

UAL-93

going to departure United ninety three good day. [EWR 1235-1247

1243:00

LC] UAL-93 United ninety three fourteen hundred for twenty five hundred.

1243:04

E155

[N90 1238-1256 Newark Dept.] United ninety three New York departure good morning radar contact climb and maintain eight thousand and turn left heading

1243:12

three three zero vector for ELIOT. [N90 1238-1256 Newark Dept.] UAL- 9 3 eight thousand heading three three zero for ELIOT United ninety three. [N90 1238-1256 Newark Dept.]

1243:48

E155

United ninety three turn left heading uh two eight zero. [N90

1243:52

UAL- 9 3

1238-1256 Newark Dept.] left two eighty United ninety three. [N90 1238-1256 Newark Dept.]

1244:34

E155

United ninety three climb and maintain one zero thousand. [N90

1244:38

1238-1256 Newark Dept.] UAL- 9 3 climb and maintain one zero thousand ten thousand United ninety

1245:10

E155

three. [N90 1238-1256 Newark Dept.] United ninety three do not exceed two five zero knots. [N90

1245:13

1238-1256 Newark Dept.] UAL- 9 3 not exceed two fifty United ninety three. [N90 1238-1256 Newark Dept.]

1245:54

E155

United ninety three resume normal speed contact departure one three five point three five. [N90 1238-1256 Newark Dept.]

1246:00

UAL- 9 3 one three five three five normal speed good day United ninety three. [N90 1238-1256 Newark Dept.]

1246:18

UAL- 9 3 United ninety three is with you one zero thousand,

normal

1246:23

B43

speed, heading two eighty. [N90 1238-1256 Liberty West] United ninety three departure good morning, climb maintain one

1246:26

UAL- 9 3

four thousand. [N90 1238-1256 Liberty West] climb maintain one four thousand United ninety three. [N90

1248:03

B43

1238-1256 Liberty West] United ninety three right turn heading of ah three one zero. [N90 1238-1256 Liberty West]

1248:07

UAL- 9 3

right heading three one zero United ninety three.

[N90 1238-

[N90

1248:41

B43

1256 Liberty West] United ninety three climb maintain one six thousand.

1248:44

UAL- 9 3

1238-1256 Liberty West] climb maintain one six thousand United ninety three. [N90 1238-1256 Liberty West]

1249:31

B43

United ninety three climb maintain one seven thousand go direct

1249:35

UAL- 9 3

ELIOT on course. [N90 1238-1256 Liberty West] up to one seven thousand direct ELIOT United ninety three.

1250:37

B43

[N90 1238r1256 Liberty West] United ninety three contact New York center one three two point one good day. [N90 1238-1256 Liberty West]

1250:41

UAL- 9 3

thirty two one good day United ninety three. [N90 1238-1256 Liberty West]

1250:57

UAL- 9 3 and New York United

ninety three with you one seven thousand.

1251:03

R39

[ZNY 1245-1258 R39] United ninety three New York center climb and maintain flight

level two eight zero. [ZNY 1245-1258 R39]

1251:07 UAL-93 1254:09 R39 1254:12 UAL-93 1254:53 R39

1254:59* UAL-93

1255:05 UAL-93

1255:09 R73

1257:12 R73

1257:16 UAL-93

1322:20 UAL-93

1322:26 RA73

1322:37 UAL-93

1323:00 ACARS

maintain two eight oh United ninety three. [ZNY 1245-1258 R39] United ninety three cleared direct DEMO. [ZNY 1245-1258 R39] direct DEMO United ninety three. [ZNY 1245-1258 R39] United ninety three contact New York center one three three point four correction New York center one thirty two eighty seven. [ZNY 1245-1258 R39] one thirty two eighty seven good day United uh ninety three.

[ZNY 1245-1258 R39] good morning New York United ninety three with you twenty five

and a half for two eight oh.

United ninety three New York center good morning. [ZNY 1250-

[ZNY 1250-1328 R73]

1328 R73]

United ninety three climb and maintain flight level three five

zero. [ZNY 1250-1328 R73] leaving two eight for three five oh United ninety three. [ZNY

1250-1328 R73] United ninety three starting to pick up some light chop at thirty five, any ride reports? [ZNY 1308-1328 RA73] the ah first complained I've had and United ah ninety three, contact the Cleveland center now on one three three point zero seven. [ZNY 1308-1328 RA73] thrity three oh seven United ninety three. [ZNY 1308-1328

RA73]

TWO AIRCRAFT IN NY, HIT TRADE

BEWARE ANY COCKPIT

CNTER BUILDS morning Cleveland it's United ninety three with you at three five oh ah there's some light chop here at thirty five any ride reports? [ZOB 1301-1331 Franklin-R] an no just a little light chop nothing worse than that United ninety three. [ZOB 1301-1331 Franklin-R] United ninety three Cleveland one three three three seven. [ZOB 1301-1331 Franklin-R] one three three three seven good day United ninety three. [ZOB 1301-1331 Franklin-R] good morning Cleveland United ninety three is with you at three five oh intermittent light chop. [ZOB 1314-1333 Lorain-R] United ninety three checking in three five oh. [ZOB 1314-1333

Lorain-R] United ninety three three five zero roger. [ZOB 1314-1333 Lorain-R] United ninety three that traffic for you is one o'clock twelve

1323:05 UAL-93

1323:14

1323:56

1324:00

1324:20

1325:06

1325:08

1327:25

1327:30

FKL-R

FKL-R

UAL-93

UAL-93

UAL-93

LOR-R

LOR-R

miles east bound three seven zero. [ZOB 1314-1333 Lorain-R] UAL-93 negative contact we're looking United ninety three. [ZOB 1314-

1328:16

1328:48

1329:14

1329:20

1329:34

1329:40

1329:56

UAL-93

UAL-93

LOR-R

LOR-R

LOR-R

LOR-R

LOR-R

1333 Lorain-R] *** (mayday) *** (hey get out of here) *** Lorain-R] *** (get out of here) *** (get out of here).

[ZOB 1314-1333

[ZOB 1314-1333

Lorain-R] United ninety three verify three five zero. [ZOB 1314-1333 Lorain-R] United ninety three verify you're at flight level ah three five zero. [ZOB 1314-1333 Lorain-R] United ninety three verify you're level at three five zero.

[ZOB 1314-1333 Lorain-R] United ninety three Cleveland.

United ninety three Cleveland. [ZOB 1314-1333 Lorain-R]

[ZOB 1314-1333 Lorain-R]

1330:03 LOR-R

1330:58 LOR-R

United ninety three if you hear Cleveland center ident please. [ZOB 1314-1333 Lorain-R] United ninety three Cleveland if you hear the center ident.

1331:55

[ZOB 1314-1333 Lorain-R] UAL-93 *** please sit down, keep remaining seating, we have a bomb on board, so ***. [ZOB 1314-1333 Lorain-R]

1332:05 LOR-R

1335:36 LOR-R

er uh calling Cleveland center you're unreadable say again slowly. [ZOB 1314-1333 Lorain-R] ah United ninety three if able * ah squawk trip please. [ZOB 1333-1344 Lorain-R] [Cleveland center announces that UAL93 is turning south and

1336:51 LOR-R

east and climbing]. [ZOB 1333-1344 Lorain-R] 1339:10 UAL-93 ah this is the captain uh would like to all remain seated there

is a bomb aboard and we go back to the airport and to have our demands so please remain quiet. [ZOB 1333-1344 Lorain-R] okay thats United ninety three calling? [ZOB 1333-1344 Lorain-

R]

United ninety three understand you have a bomb on board go

1339:19 LOR-R

1339:24 LOR-R

ahead. [ZOB 1333-1344 Lorain-R] 1340:01 LOR-R United ninety three go ahead. [ZOB 1333-1344 Lorain-R] 1340:12 LOR-R United ninety three go ahead. [ZOB 1333-1344 Lorain-R]

1341:01 LOR-R

United ninety three do you hear Cleveland center? [ZOB 1333-

1344 Lorain-R]

1341:36 LOR-R

UAL93] [ZOB 1333-1344 Lorain-R] 1345:29 LOR-R United ninety three Cleveland do you still hear the center? [ZOB 1344-1400 Lorain-R]

1345:35 LOR-R

[Cleveland center announces loss of transponder signal from

United ninety three do you still hear Cleveland? [ZOB 1344-

1400 Lorain-R]

1346:13 LOR-R

1347:28 LOR-R

United ninety three United niner three do you hear Cleveland?

[ZOB 1344-1400 Lorain-R] United ninety three United ninety three Cleveland.

[ZOB 1344-

1400 Lorain-R]

1348:43 LOR-R United ninety three United ninety three do you hear Cleveland

center. [ZOB 1344-1400 Lorain-R]

United Airlines Flight 93 - Flight Profile

OFFICIAL ONLY USE

The following profile of United Airlines Flight 93 is based on data from the flight data recorder (FDR) recovered from the crash site, as well as radar data obtained from the Federal Aviation Administration's Air Route Traffic Control Centers and the U.S. Air Force 84th Radar Evaluation Squadron. Figure 1 shows the flight path of the aircraft from take off at Newark, NJ to the crash site near Johnstown, PA. Figure 2 shows the aircraft's altitude profile for the 1 hour and 21 minute duration of the flight.

United flight 93 departed Newark, NJ at 8:42 am (point A in Figures 1 and 2) and reached its assigned cruising altitude of 35,000 feet at about 9:02 am (B). The flight appears normal until a brief descent of about 600 feet starting at 9:28 (C). The words "get out of here" and sounds of a struggle were recorded on the air traffic control radio at FAA's Cleveland Center facility at this time. The Cockpit Voice Recorder (CVR) onboard the airplane began providing sounds from the cockpit at approximately 9:32. At 9:34 (D) the airplane starts to climb from 35,000 feet, and shortly thereafter begins a left turn to the southeast. The airplane maintained a maximumaltitude of 41,000 feet for about 2 minutes and then started descending at about 9:39 (E). Radar stations stopped receiving transponder returns fromUAL93 at approximately 9:41.

There was a brief interruption in the descent at 9:46 (F) as the airplane climbed from 19,000 feet to 20,500 feet before resuming its descent. At about 9:57 the airplane started a left turn to the east. Just before 9:59 (G) the airplane was at 5,000 feet when about 2 minutes of rapid, full left and right control wheel inputs resulted in multiple 30 degree rolls to the left and right. From approximately 10:00 to 10:02 (H) there were four distinct control column inputs that caused the airplane to pitch nose-up (climb) and nose-down (dive) aggressively. During this time the airplane climbed to about 10,000 feet while turning to the right. The airplane then pitched nose-down and rolled to the right in response to flight control inputs, and impacted the ground at about 490 knots (563 mph) in a 40 degree nose-down, inverted attitude. The time of impact was 10:03:11.

Figure 1. UA-93 Radar Ground Track

A - UAL 93 takes off from Newark, NJ at 0842 EDT.

B - UAL 93 levels off at assigned altitude of 35,000 ft.

C - 600 foot deviation from assigned altitude.

D - Starts climb to 41,000 feet, then turns towards Southeast.

E - At max altitude of 41,000 feet; xponder returns cease 2 min. later.

F - Brief interruption in descent.

G - Evidence of struggle on CVR; aircraft starts climbing.

H - Aircraft noses down and starts rapid descent.

I - Aircraft aircraft impacts the ground inverted and at high speed.

C

Q LI 010:03:11 AM

Figure 2. UA-93 Altitude Profile

0)

TJ

45000

40000

35000

30000

25000

20000

15000

10000

5000

:30:00

08:40:

.L

1

j-~i

I

"11

I

r

-t-

i _

!

L.

-UAL 93 takes off from Newark, NJ at 0842 EOT.

- UAL 93 levels off at assigned altitude of 35,000 ft.

- 600 foot deviation from assigned altitude.

- Starts climb to 41,000 feet, then turns towards Southeast.

- At max altitude of 41,000 feet; xponder returns cease 2 min. later.

- Brief interruption in descent.

- Evidence of struggle on CVR; aircraft starts climbing.

- Aircraft noses down and starts rapid descent. Aircraft aircraft impacts the ground inverted and at high speed.

08:50:00

I

09:00:00

09:10:00

09:20:00

Eastern Daylight Time, HH/

09:30:00

I

09:40:00

I

09:50:

SS (= UTC - 4 Hours)

_|Jl_4

10:00:00

L.

_!

I

-,

10:10:00