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-reduce interception & evapotranspiration resulting in increase runoff and soil erosion -silting result rise river bed-reduce

capacity of river to hold more water thus result in flooding. -Reduce throughflow since plant roots are removed which take up water from soil. This river will have high peak discharge and shorter lagtime.

example

Himalayas: Increase population and need for fuel, timber & grazing land-trees cut down. -1950, 40% forest in Nepal cut down, -It was estimated that soil is being lost 400 times faster in deforested areas and is raising the river bed of the Brahmaputra by 5cm per year.

Example The high Plain groundwater in Texas is used for irrigation, as a result under 50 years the water level has declined by 30 to 50m in large area to the north of Lubbock Texas. In the long run it will affect Water tables, Baseflow and ultimately channel.

ABSTRACTION

DEFORESTATION Others FLOW

Abstraction occurs not only directly from channel flow (irrigation, water supplies etc) but also from the groundwater sources through wells, boreholes and so on.

STORAGE HUMAN ACTIVITIES AFFECT RIVER CHANNELS

URBANISATION

-reduction of Evapotranspiration-removal vegetation, -impermeable ground; covered with concrete, building and roads -drains and gutter carries water move quickly to the river-resulted much run off and high peak dischargeflood occur -human alter shape river channel to prevent flooding,e.g. dredging, straightening or canalizing the channel-friction reduced water flow more quickly to stream (shorter lagtime and high peak discharge.

Example

E.g. Reservoirs. By building dams there is an increase in surface storage, increase groundwater supplies in the catchment and decrease flood peaks, i.e. preventing flood. Unfortunately it also can cause problems such as low flows in rivers downstream, decrease sediment yield (clear water erosion) thus land become infertile and also it could deprives water from the lower parts of the catchment for example in Nile river. (Behind lake Nassier-dam constructed) -trap of sediment behind damerosion delta-less source. Ground water high-water logging -soil salinization-less water pulled up by evaporation-distance between groundwater and surface small-this affect crops

Rapid urbanization in KL after independent 1957. - A larger portion of former forest and agricultural areas have been cleared and replaced by concrete buildings, roads, and drainage systems which are impermeable. - Soil erosion-mining, housing & development areas-silting river, improper drainage facilities & intense rainfall-flashflood low-lying area