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Foundation Fieldbus

Tutorial on Foundation Fieldbus

Contents: a) Introduction on Foundation Fieldbus b) Comparison with conventional wiring c) Fieldbus Terminologies d) Network wiring fundamentals e) Network wiring options f) Segment design g) Overview of Fieldbus network h) Fieldbus communication mode i) Fieldbus blocks j) Loop scheduling k) Interoperability l) Reliability and Redundancy m) Fieldbus signals n) Fieldbus segment length calculation o) Fieldbus in Hazardous area p) Intrinsic safety q) Choosing a host system r) Control design s) Project engg. standard t) Merits of Fieldbus u) Commissioning v) Checkout and troubleshooting w) Diagnostics with fieldbus

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Foundation Fieldbus

Foundation Fieldbus
INTRODUCTION Fieldbus is a digital, two way, multidrop communication link among intelligent measurement and control devices. Fieldbus is gradually replacing 4 to 20 mA standard instrumentation signals used to transfer measurement and control between control room and plant floor. It is one of several local area networks dedicated for industrial automation. Two related implementations of Foundation Fieldbus have been introduced to meet different needs within the process automation environment. These two implementations use different physical media and communication speed. H1 works at 31.25 Kbits/sec and generally connects to field devices. It provides communication and power over standard twisted pair wiring. H1 is the most commonly used implementation. HSE ( High speed Ethernet) works at 100Mbit/sec and generally connects input/output subsystems, host systems, linking devices, gateways and field devices using standard Ethernet cabling.

Conventional analog and discrete field instruments use point to point wiring: one wire pair per device. They are also limited to carry only one piece of information, usually a process variable or control output over those wires. As a digital bus, Foundation Fieldbus doesnt have those limitations. a) Multidrop wiring: - Foundation fieldbus supports upto 32 devices on a single pair of wires (called a segment), more if repeaters are used. In actual practice, considerations such as power, process modularity, and loop execution speed make 4 to 16 devices per H1 segment more typical. That means if you have 1000 devices, which would require 1000 wire pairs with traditional technology, you need only 60 to 250 wire pairs with Foundation Fieldbus, that is lot of wiring and installation saving. b) Multivariable instruments: That same wire pair can handle multiple variables from one field device. For example, one temperature transmitter might communicate inputs from as many as eight sensors, reducing both wiring and instrument costs. c) Two way communication: - In addition the information flow can now be two way. A valve controller can accept a control output from a host system or other source and send back the actual valve position for more precise control. In analog world, that would take another pair of wire.

Foundation Fieldbus

d) New type of information:- Traditional analog and digital devices have no way to tell you if they are operating correctly, or if the process information they are sending is valid. As a consequence, technicians spend a lot of time verifying device operation. But Foundation fieldbus devices can tell you if they are operating correctly, and if the information they are sending is good, bad or uncertain. This eliminates the need for most routing checks and helps you detect failure conditions before they cause a major process problem. Their predictive diagnostics can also help increase plant uptime and performance by detecting or predicting deteriorating performance and failure conditions before they cause problems. e) Control in the field:- Foundation fieldbus also offers the option of executing some or all control algorithms in field devices rather than a central host system. Depending on the application, control in the field may provide lower cost and better performance, while enabling automatic control to continue if there is a host related problem. f) Safe and effective process control:- Foundation fieldbus H1 was developed specially to meet the needs of the process industry. It can withstand the harsh and hazardous environment of the process plant. It delivers power and communications over the same pair of wires. It can use existing plant wiring. It supports intrinsic safety. f.i) Control you can count on:Foundation fieldbus also provides deterministic process control : control communication happen on schedule, without delays caused by other traffic on the bus. If a message doesnt get through, it tries again. Control reliability doesnt stop there. If fieldbus devices lose their connection to the host system, they are capable of maintaining safe and effective control across the bus.

Foundation Fieldbus

COMPARISON BETWEEN CONVENTIONAL WIRING AND FOUNDATION FIELDBUS NETWORK In a conventional Distributed Control System, two wires are used to connect to a field instrument. The wires carry electrical power to a device. The device signals its measured values to the DCS controller by varying the current it uses between 4 and 20 mAmps. The controller gathers the data from number of devices, makes the necessary calculations and sends commands by varying the current to the actuator. Refer Figure: 1 Following figures shows the wiring in a panel using conventional DCS wiring as compared to one using Foundation Fieldbus network.

Foundation Fieldbus

Figure1: Wiring Schematic using Conventional Wiring

Fieldbus also uses two wires to carry power to the devices. A number of devices share the same Field bus wires. Because the devices share the wires, the devices can send data to each other without a DCS controller. A twisted pair cable called as a trunk connects the field instruments with the controller. Refer Figure: 2

Foundation Fieldbus

Figure: 2 Wiring Schematic using Fieldbus Network

Comparing a traditional DCS installation with Foundation Fieldbus illustrates that there is a significant decrease in terminations, number of I/O cards required, home run wiring and control room panel space when Foundation Fieldbus network is used.

Terminations

Conventional Wiring 16 devices require 240 terminations a) 16 devices to JB (3 terminals each) = 48 terminals b) JB to Marshalling rack = 48 terminals c) Marshalling rack to I/O cards = 48 terminals

Foundation Fieldbus 16 devices require 60 terminations a) 16 devices to Megablock (3 terminals each) = 48 terminals b) Megablock to Marshalling rack = 6 terminals c) Marshalling to I/O cards = 6 terminals
Multi-drop Digital Signal Bidirectional Multiplex signal

Topology Transmission Method Transmission Direction Type of signal

One to One 4 to 20 mA DC analog signal One-way Single signal 6

Foundation Fieldbus
Requires one cable for each measured variable. e.g. In a control valve, control and signals are transferred through different cables.

Supports Multivariable transmission. e.g. In a control valve using Foundation Fieldbus network all the control and signals are transferred via same cable.

Multivariable Detection and Transmission

Errors in data Transmission and Accuracy

When data in transmitted using conventional wiring, it is first converted to analog in the field devices and then the signal is transmitted to the system where it is again converted to digital form. This conversion is prone to errors and so is the analog data transmission which thus reduces the accuracy.

Interoperability

Information exchange between devices of different manufacturers is difficult because each device uses its manufacturers protocol

Fieldbus transmits data using digital signals. Signal transmission errors rarely occur in digital signal transmission, unlike analog signal transmission. In addition, Fieldbus does not need A/D and D/A conversions because data is always transmitted digitally. Fieldbus removes these errors, improving transmission accuracy. Foundation fieldbus devices allow digital data to be exchanged between devices from different manufacturers. Therefore, the freedom to configure the process control system increases since there is no need to choose one device manufacturer.

Foundation Fieldbus VARIOUS TERMINOLOGIES USED IN FOUNDATION FIELDBUS NETWORK SYSTEM Trunk: It is the link between the Host controller (or the H1 card in the controller) to the megablock in the field. It is a twisted pair cable.

Figure 3: Typical Foundation Fieldbus Cable


(Pen shown for size comparison) Cable Type Type A Type B Distance (metres/feet) 1900/6270 1200/3960 Characteristic Impedance (Ohms) 100 100 Resistance (Ohms/Km) 22 56 Attenuation (DB/Km) 3 5 Description Each twisted pair has shield Multiple twisted pair with overall shield Multiple twisted pairs, no shield Multiple conductor cable, no pairing of wires

Type C Type D

400/1320 200/660

Unknown Unknown

132 20

8 8

Spur: It is the link between the megablock and the field devices. It is same as the trunk cable and connects the field instruments to the megablock. Splice: The spur cable less than 1 meter (3.28 ft.) is termed as splice. Megablock: The Megablock is a wiring connection block that allows termination of two trunk cables and number of spurs to devices. For a large number of devices, multiple megablocks can be cascaded by connecting trunk of one megablock to the other trunk. Refer Figure.4

Foundation Fieldbus

Figure: 4 Typical connections made in a Megablock.

Terminator: - A Terminator is an impedance-matching module used at or near each end of a transmission line. Only two Terminators can be used on a single H1 segment. Generally, one terminator is at the control room end of the cable and the other terminator is in the junction box in the field. The terminator can be a separate part or may be part of a wiring block or part of a Fieldbus power supply. The terminator should be clearly marked so that it can be identified in an installed system. Figure 5: Types of Terminators 1) separate 2) in power supply 2 3) in megablock

Fieldbus Power supply (Power conditioner): An ordinary constant voltage power supply cannot be used directly to power a Fieldbus. A power conditioner (PC) needs to be used to provide a filter between the network and the power source so that the power source does not absorb the signals on the network. The

Foundation Fieldbus voltage needs to be between 9 and 32 Volts. Generally, Fieldbus power supplies provide about 24 Volts. A typical Fieldbus device uses about 20 mAmps of current. Generally, the number of devices on a Fieldbus network segment is less than 16. A power supply with a 16 x 20 = 320 mAmp current rating is sufficient for most applications. Figure: 6 A typical Power supply Module

Surge Protectors: Surge Protectors are devices that divert a surge current to earth, and control voltage to a level, which will not damage the connected equipment. Once the surge current has subsided the Surge Protector Device automatically restores normal operation and reset to a state ready to receive the next surge. While in operation the surge protector device does not adversely affect the performance of the fieldbus or connected equipment, it allows signals to pass with very little attenuation while diverting surge currents safely to earth and clamping output voltages to safe levels.

For Trunks and spurs

For Field Instruments and Devices Figure:7 Surge Protectors

Current to Fieldbus converter: It is a device that it is used to convert any normal 4 to 20 mAmps (or 0 to 20 mApms) field transmitter signal into a Fieldbus compatible signal.

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Foundation Fieldbus

Foundation Fieldbus Host: The Host or the H1 device is usually located in the control room. Its function is to see the operation of the control system made up of devices connected by the Fieldbus network. Current Limiter: A current limiter is a device which overcomes the problem of spur shorts developed during installation of a new instrument, servicing etc. which otherwise may result in the total break down of the entire segment whose spur is short. The current limiter allows only a given amount of current to be used by each device. If a spur is shorted, the current will be limited within a few microseconds. Only the shorted device is affected and the rest of the devices continue to operate. Repeaters: Repeaters are optional components used either to extend the length of a fieldbus segment or to increase the number of devices on a segment. They provide power and a clean communication signal for the extended part of the segment. A segment can have as many as four repeaters dividing the segment into five pieces. Electrically, each piece acts as a separate segment, but devices can communicate with each other as though they were on the same segment, even if there are upto two repeaters between the devices. Although a fieldbus segment can have upto 32 devices without repeaters, H1 segments typically dont have more than 12-16 devices even if repeaters are used. Intrinsic safety barriers: Foundation fieldbus was designed to support intrinsic safety, and to do so with more flexibility and lower cost than traditional analog intrinsic safety. In the analog world, each input and output has a dedicated barrier. But in the fieldbus world, with its single cable supporting multiple devices, one barrier can serve several devices. That is tremendous saving on barriers and its installation. Depending on the requirement, it is optional to put several barriers on a single fieldbus segment. Also both intrinsically safe and conventional points can be attached on the same segment. NOTE: While converting existing analog wiring in to fieldbus, the analog barriers are also to be changed with barriers for Foundation fieldbus as the latter is certified for fieldbus and existing barriers will not support fieldbus wiring. Using Foundation fieldbus repeater barrier, the combined function of repeater and an intrinsic safety barrier can be made available. Figure: 8 An intrinsic barrier

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Foundation Fieldbus

NETWORK WIRING FUNDAMENTALS Many aspects of a Foundation fieldbus network are similar to a traditional analog control network. It still requires wire, power, field devices I/O cards, and possibly intrinsic safety barriers. There are a few new components such as terminators. And there are differences how they are put together. A fieldbus advantage: Wire isnt expensive, if connecting a couple of instruments a few yards away. But put in a few miles of wire to connect hundreds or even thousands of individual devices across a plant, it leads to a major expense. Especially when labor required to install the wire, as well as conduits and cable trays is included. And also the documentation every wire and connection, then keeping up in changes. These are the costs that Foundation fieldbus are designed to reduce. Digital communication enables several devices to share the same cable, vastly reducing the total amount of wire required. Foundation fieldbus H1 can work on standard plant wiring, so you can even use wires that are already available. If required to add wiring, either for new construction or for a capacity increase, available wiring and cable options make the job easier and the results more reliability. And all that translates into a lot of less cost.

Basic segment design: Conventional analog installations have a dedicated pair of wires connecting each field device to a host system. Foundation fieldbus installations use a single twisted-pair cable also called a bus or trunk to connect multiple devices. The cable, connected devices, and supporting components are called a segment. Devices connect to the fieldbus either individually or in groups. It they connect through individual spurs branching off the main trunk, the result is called a branch layout or topology.

Figure: 9 Branch topology

Figure: 10 Tree Topology

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Foundation Fieldbus

A bus with spurs connected to the trunk in closed groups is called a tree layout. A single segment can have both branches and trees, as long as a few rules are followed for total segment length, length of drops, total device count, and segment current draw. Key segment limits Maximum of 32 devices per segment without a repeater. Maximum of 240 devices per segment with a repeater. Each device must draw at least 8 mA from the segment. Voltage range 9-32 Vdc Typical values 4 to 16 devices per segment.

15 to 25 mA power consumption for a two-wire device. 8.5 mA for a four wire device 400 mA typical segment limit. 24 Vdc

Total segment length: Total segment length is determined by adding the length of all the sections of the segment. The total segment length must be within the maximum allowed for the wire type used.

The total segment length is the sum of the lengths of all the spurs (S1 through S7), plus the lengths of the main cables, or trunks (T1 and T2). For type A wire, the total must be less than 1900 meters.

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Foundation Fieldbus Mixing wire types on a segment: Different types of wires can be used on same fieldbus segment, as long as the rules about how much of each type can co-exist on the segment. To find the maximum length of each wire type on a segment, first calculate the following ratio for each wire. Length of individual wire Max. length for wire type (For max length of each wire type refer the table of fieldbus cables page 8) Then add the ratios for all the individual wires in the segment. If the sum of the ratios is less than 1.0 (or 100%), the wire combinations and lengths are acceptable. Example: A segment has 2000 feet (610 meters) of type A shielded twisted pair wire and 400 feet (122 meters) of type D non-shielded, non-twisted pair. For type A cable 2000 ft = 0.32 6270 ft max For type D cable 400 ft = 0.61 660 ft max

0.32+0.61 = 0.93 or 93% The sum of 0.93 or 93% is less than 1.0 or 100%. So this is an acceptable wire combination.
Spur length: The maximum length of a spur depends on The total number of devices on the spur, and The total number of devices on the segment. Note that a spur can have up to three devices. Total devices on Devices per spur segment 1 2 3 120 m 90 m 60 m 1-12 90 m 60 m 30 m 13-14 60 m 30 m 1 m 15-18 For example, if a segment consist of eight devices, then reading across the 112 row in the table indicates that the spur with one device can each be 120 meters long, the spur with two devices can be 90 meters, and the spur with three devices can be 60 meters.

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Foundation Fieldbus

NETWORK WIRING OPTIONS A fieldbus network should be designed with the location of the field devices in mind. Thats especially true in an existing plant with wiring, conduit, junction boxes, field devices, and related equipment already installed. Some device will be located by themselves, others in groups. Foundation fieldbus accommodates both situations through branch and tree network layouts (also called topologies). Branch: Like its name, a branch is a single limb or spur off the main trunk of a fieldbus segment. A branch layout makes sense when the devices on a segment are geographically separated from each other. Refer figure:12 Tree: A tree layout also called a chicken foot has a number of branches, or spurs, that connects to the main trunk in one location. This layout works well when several devices are located near each other. Refer Figure:11 Either of these network layouts can be used with wire in conduit or not, with a combination of conduit and armored cable, and with existing wiring and junction boxes. Conduit option: Tree Many plants have existing wire in conduit. This setup can easily be used in Foundation fieldbus network with either tree or branch layout. A tree layout connects several spurs to the main fieldbus trunk (also called a home run cable) at a single point. Standard shielded, twisted pair wire for the home run cable and for the spurs that connect to the devices. Or you can use conduit for the home run cable and the trunk, and armored exposed cable for the spurs. The connection to the main cable is often made with a junction box or spur block. A spur block takes in a segment and passes it out to other spur blocks or remote devices. Another connection option is to use standard field terminal blocks. The style of terminal block showncalled a disconnect block, reduces the risk of a short circuit by eliminating the need to physically unscrew a device in order to remove it from a segment.

Figure: 11 Tree Conduit (Disconnect block)

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Foundation Fieldbus Conduit options: Branch There are also several options for using conduit with a branch layout. One option is called as condulet. As the figure shows, a condulet is designed so that a segment comes into the box on one side (the top side in the figure) and extends through the opposite side, if necessary. The branch line to the device is attached on the third side.

Figure:12 Branch Conduit option Non-conduit options: Tree Conduit is expensive, especially if you need a lot of it. So rather than installing miles of conduit, many plants use cable trays or other ways of routing signal wires. One option for use in a tree layout is a pre-assembled fieldbus junction box like the one in the figure. The junction box, sometimes called a megablock, combines a set of cable connectors. These junction boxes come with connectors for four, eight or more devices plus connectors for segment-in and segment-out. Each connector is labeled to help prevent incorrect assembly. Caps protect unused connectors from the environment. This type of junction box is typically mounted to a plant structural member close to the devices it serves.

Figure: 13 Non conduit: Tree

Some junction boxes are available with short circuit protection. If there is a short circuit on a spur, the short is isolated to just that spur, and therefore just one device. This reduces the risk of a wiring problem affecting several devices. When installing a fieldbus segment, avoid filling a junction box completely. Allow room for growth by leaving at least one location open for either a fieldbus terminator or an extension of the segment trunk.

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Foundation Fieldbus Non-conduit options: Branch For non-conduit installations with a branch layout, where each device is attached to an individual drop off the main trunk, a T connector offers low cost and easy installation. The T connector has a segment-in and a segment-out connection, plus a connection for the single spur or branch to the individual field device.

Figure: 14 Non Conduit: Branch

Like the fieldbus megablock the T connector can be mounted on a plant structural member close to the segment trunk. And, like the megablock, it is made to withstand typical plant environment. Using existing wiring and junction boxes: Foundation fieldbus is designed to work with existing instrument-grade wires. With just a few wiring changes to a junction box, you can convert point to point analog wiring to a Foundation fieldbus trunk with spurs. As the figure shows, the positive wires are jumpered together, as are the negative wires, on the home run (or the host) side of the junction box. The individual plus minus terminals on the field side connect to the spurs that run to groups of 1 to 3 devices per spur.

The figure below shows a conventional junction box that has been converted to a Foundation fieldbus H1 junction box.

Figure: 15 Conventional JB converted in FF JB

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Foundation Fieldbus

SEGMENT DESIGN Using proven segment design tools and good installation practices, it is easy to design and implement a highly reliable and functional fieldbus segment. However, loops and processes differ in criticality and functional requirements. Designing for loop criticality: Designing a fieldbus segment that is both reliable and easy to maintain depends to a large degree on segmentation. This means putting common elements on the same fieldbus segment and dissimilar elements on separate segments. One of the most important criteria for segmentation is loop criticality: how much impact a loop failure would have on the process or on the entire plant. With mission-critical loops, the loss of automatic control will result in a shutdown. In highly important loops, a loss of automatic control will require a nearsuperhuman effort from the operator to sustain operations. For normal-importance loops, loss of automatic control or operator visibility could be tolerated during normal mean-time-to-repair. Finally, loss of automatic control or the operators ability to view a loop would not have any detrimental effect on view-only or data acquisition loops.

Mission-critical loop: Initially, a mission-critical loop may be the only loop on a segment. That way problems with another loop, such as accidental shorting the segment during maintenance on the non-critical loop, cant cause loss of the segment with the mission-critical loop. If two mission-critical loops are interacting or cascading, both the loops can be put on the same segment. But if the process can be kept running with only one of the loops active, consider separate segments. Redundancy: On segments with mission-critical loop, it is a good idea to use redundant segment infrastructure. That includes using redundant H1 interface cards and power supplies. One of the devices on the loop should also have a backup LAS. (Dont use redundant terminators on the same segment. Doing so can cause signal problems.) If loops also include redundant field devices and process piping, put these redundant components and loops on separate segments and bring the two segments into separate H1 field interface cards. Control in the field: Consider using control in the field for critical loops. As long as the segment retains power (and one device has backup LAS), automatic

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Foundation Fieldbus control can be maintained in the field devices even if the H1 interface card and all other host components are lost. Remember that critical loops may have supervisory control, operator visibility, or regulatory reporting requirements that require the host to be connected to the loop for the loop to remain operational. Control in the field will not address these needs. Non-fieldbus control: although Foundation fieldbus is quite capable of handling critical loops, sometimes plant practices dictate that specific loops be controlled using other technologies. There is no harm in using both traditional and fieldbus technologies on the same project. Highly important loops: If a highly important loop loses automatic control, an operator will typically go to the loops physical location and operate the valve manually, receiving instructions by radio from the control room. Grouping and loading of such loops is therefore guided by how many loops an operator can control this way, without control room visibility to the final control element. Loops and devices: As a rule of thumb, two related loops will share a segment. You can also put critical operator monitoring information on the same segment. Consider six devices per segment as a maximum for these loops. The right number for any plant will be determined by the nature of the process. System interface: The number of highly important loops that should be brought into a single H1 field interface card depends on how many loops an operator can handle via manual control at the valve, without visibility through the host system, if the card fails. If redundant H1 cards are available, it is possible to bring more loops on a segment. Control in the field: If it is okay for a loop to operate in automatic control without operator control, then control in the field can be a good idea for highly important loops. Even if the H1 card and all the other host components are lost, automatic control can continue as long as the segment has power and one of the devices has backup LAS. That is why you should not run power through the H1 card if removing the card would interrupt power to the segment. Normal-importance loops: Although it is tempting to use higher loading on normal-importance loops, there are still practical limits. Generally, no more than 4 to 6 normal-importance control loops, and 12 to 16 devices, should be on a single segment. These limits will help ensure a stable, reliable operation. Heres why;

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Foundation Fieldbus Communication: As the total number of devices and loops increases, communication loading also increases. If you have several fast loops, the total amount of communication on the segment might be more than the segment can reliably handled. A properly optimized communication schedule can give devices plenty of time to communicate. But automatic scheduling tools dont necessary produce optimized schedules. If such tools are used care should be taken for the total communication loading for the segment. Power: Different devices take different amounts of power. Make sure the total current draw for all devices on the segment is well within the capacity of the segment power supply; typically about 400mA. View-only or data acquisition loops: These kinds of loops are generally not very fast, nor do they place a tremendous load on the segment. In general, for view-only or data acquisition applications, a segment can be loaded with sixteen or more devices. However, you still need to make sure that total current draw of all devices on a segment is well within the power supplys capacity. In some cases, the number of devices and blocks host system can support will also be a limiting factor. Power modularity: Its generally a good idea to group devices, and segments along process lines. Besides providing structure for the design, this modular approach offers both maintenance and performance benefits. Use separate segments for unrelated equipment units or process area. That is why, maintenance of the devices or network for one unit during shutdown, for example, wont affect the operation of other units. Use separate segments for parallel process streams. That way one process stream can be shut down while parallel streams remain online. Put all devices for the same loop on the same segment. This includes closely integrated or cascaded loops. Although multi-segment loop will work, they increase maintenance complexity and the number of components required to close the loop. Timing of control execution and communications also becomes a bit less precise. For fast or time critical loops, this can degrade performance. Leave room for growth. You may decide to add more devices to a loop in the future. When that happens, the extra capacity built helps to keep all devices on the same segment.

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Foundation Fieldbus Know your comfort level. Traditional analog input or output cards typically have at least 8 to 16 points and are usually non-redundant. Since loops integrity of a Foundation fieldbus implementation is comparable to or better than a traditional analog solution, it is reasonable to use similar risk levels for a first fieldbus implementation. Multivariable devices: Multivariable devices can make segment design easier and more costeffective by letting you acquire multiple measurements with a single instrument. For example, one mass flow device may provide values for real-time mass flow, total mass flow, process temperature, density and viscosity. You get the functionality of five or six instruments, without the maintenance and reliability issues that can come with adding that many devices to the segment. Cost is also much lower for multivariable devices than for multiple individual devices, especially when cost for design and for multiple process penetrations are considered. Capacity restrictions in some host systems may limit the number of multivariable devices you can put on one segment. And if the inputs from a multivariable device are used in controlling valves or other final control elements on more than one segment, it may be better to use separate measurement devices on each segment. Host system considerations: Different host provide different levels of support for Foundation fieldbus. Those can affect the segment design. Capacity limits: All host have capacity limits of some sort. Some have limits on the total number of devices for a segment. Some limit the number of devices or function blocks for a H1 interface card. Some even have a fixed capacity for parameters. Outages for repairs: Ideally, a failed system component, such as an H1 card, can be removed under power, its replacement installed, and the configuration of the card downloaded automatically, all without affecting segment power. There are host implementations, however, that require the H1 card, or even the entire controller card cage, to be shut down for repair, affecting a large part of the process. And there are instances where a partial download isnt possible. In this case, the entire card cage must be downloaded. In either of these circumstances, a failure generally requires a shut down. Keep that in mind as it can be designed how many segments, which ones will be connected to each H1 card. More important, select a host that doesnt have these limitations.

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Foundation Fieldbus OVERVIEW OF FIELDBUS NETWORK/WIRING SCHEMATIC The figure illustrates the typical wiring method for Foundation Fieldbus network. The diagram shows field instruments that are connected to a Fieldbus segment.

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Foundation Fieldbus

Figure:16 A typical format showing the segment length calculation details.

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Foundation Fieldbus FIELDBUS COMMUNICATION

One of the most important aspects of Foundation fieldbus is its ability to collect and deliver vast amount of information; not only process variables and control signals, but other types of instrument and process data as well. It does this consistently and reliably, while also providing interoperability between devices from different manufacturers and compatibility with existing wiring. The Communication Model: The Foundation fieldbus communication model has three parts: The physical layer The data link and application layer The user layer The physical layer and data layer and application layers make up the communication stack. The user layer sits on top of the stack and enables you to interact with other applications in your system.

Physical Layer: The first functional layer of the Foundation fieldbus communication model is the physical layer, which deals with the translating messages into physical signals on the wire and vice versa. The physical layer also provides the common electrical interface for all Foundation fieldbus devices. Foundation fieldbus H1 segments require 9-31 volts DC power and approximately 15-20 mAmps of current per device. They operate at a communication speed of 31.25Kbaud. The Foundation fieldbus physical layer is defined by approved standards (IEC61158-2 and ANSI/ISA 50.02, part2). It can run on the existing field wiring over long distances, supports two wire devices, and offers intrinsic safety as an option. Data link and application layer: The second part of the communication model combines several technologies that control transmission of data on the fieldbus. The data link and application layers provide a standard way of packaging the data, as well as managing the schedule for communication and function-block execution. They enable process control while providing standardization and interoperability. User layer: The user layer sits on top of the communication stack, where it enables you to interact with the other layers and with other applications. The user layer contains resource blocks, transducer blocks and functional blocks that describe and execute device capabilities such as control and diagnostics. Device description enables the host system to interact with and understand these blocks without custom programming.

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Foundation Fieldbus

Scheduled communications: All the devices and functional blocks on a Foundation fieldbus segment execute and communicate process control information on regular, repeating cycle. Timing for this type of communication is determined by a master schedule in a Link Active Scheduler, which is a function residing in the host system or one of the devices on the segment. These scheduled (also called cyclic) communications use a publisher/subscriber method. This means data is send on the bus or published once, and all devices that need the data listen to or subscribe to the same transmission. A specific parameter can therefore be used by as many different devices or functions as you want, without increasing traffic on the bus or potentially affecting control performance. These communications are also deterministic. This means that they always occur on a pre-determined schedule. So information is certain to be broadcast and received precisely when its needed. The result is regular and precise execution of communication and control, which helps reduce process variability. For fast or time-critical control loops, control on fieldbus can improve plant performance. Unscheduled communication: Foundation fieldbus supports a great deal of information beyond process loop control data. These other types include. Configuration information sent to devices or a central database Alarm, event and trend data Information for operator display Diagnostic and status information. This information is important, but not as time-critical as loop control information. If it is transmitted 1/8 second early in one communication cycle and1/8 second late in next cycle, there is no impact on process control or plant operation. Flexible timing:- Foundation fieldbus gives this information a lower priority on the segment than scheduled control-loop-related communications. However, a certain amount of time in the communication cycle is reserved for these unscheduled (or acyclic) communications to ensure that the segment is not too loaded to carry the information. During this time, a token-passing method gives each device on the segment the opportunity to transmit messages until it has finished or an allotted time has expired. Parameter status: Foundation fieldbus supports a variety of data redundancy checks to avoid message-bit errors. Two additional features that help ensure data reliability are an application clock and status associated with every parameter.

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Foundation Fieldbus Each device is designated to check for problems and label the data it sends accordingly. This status label shows whether the quality of the data is good, bad or uncertain. For example, a bad status signal could indicate a device failure, such as a failed sensor on a temperature transmitter. An uncertain status indicates that the quality of the data is unknown. For example, a pressure transmitter reading that is 110% if the devices upper limit may be accurate; or it may be inaccurate because the device has saturated high and the actual pressure is even higher. Note: Device status is made available to the host system but not all host use this information. Application clock: Every device on a Foundation fieldbus segment shares the same time. A system management function called the application clock periodically broadcasts the time, either local or universal coordinated time to all devices. Each device uses an internal clock to keep time between these synchronization broadcast. Alarms and events are time-stamped at the device where they occur, when they occur; not later when they are received by a historian, alarm log, or other application on a host system. Because of this approach, Foundation fieldbus provides superior time resolution and accuracy for activities such as sequence of events recording and analysis. Link active scheduler: The link active scheduler (LAS) function maintains the central, deterministic schedule for communication between devices on a segment. It improves overall communication reliability by compelling each device to transmit cyclic data when it is scheduled to do so. Message retries also increase communication reliability. If a device doesnt respond to the LAS compel data message; for example, if a momentary electrical transient at a device prevents it from communicating, then the LAS will resend the message to compel the device to publish its information. The LAS resides in a device or host system component (such as an H1 interface card) on the segment. If the LAS fails, then backup LAS in another device or host system component takes over as master scheduler. There can be more than one back up LAS on a segment. If the first backup fails, the second backup takes over, and so on. This means that Foundation fieldbus is designed to degrade gracefully, further increasing reliability. Device address assignment: As a digital, multidrop bus, Foundation fieldbus carries signals to and from several devices over the same cable. To identify which information is associated with which device, each device is assigned an address. Depending on the communication protocol, addresses can be assigned in several ways, from dip switches or off-line addressing to automatic online assignment.

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Foundation Fieldbus Methods such as using dip switches or offline addressing carry the risk of human errors, such as inadvertently assigning an address to more than one device. These addressing errors can cause communication problems, or in extreme cases prevent the bus from working. Thats why Foundation fieldbus doesnt allow these methods of address assignment. Online addressing helps avoiding problems such as duplicate devices with the same address, but by itself it does not guarantee there are no addressing errors. You can avoid this risk if addresses are assigned automatically by a configuration tool or host system as each device is connected to the segment. Finally, you can override the default addresses and assign specific addresses to certain devices when necessary. Find tag service: Many communication protocols require the user to identify devices and parameter, and then link them by address and/or register assignment. This can be a difficult and error prone process. Foundation fieldbus, on other hand, is a tag-based bus. Instead of requiring a hardware or register address, it can find devices or variables by tag (such as FT-101) To find a specific tag, a find tag query is sent out on the bus. As each device receives the query, it searches itself for the requested tag. When a device finds the tag, it sends back complete path information and all necessary parameters and descriptors associated with the tag. The host or maintenance tool can then use the path to access the data for the tag. This feature also helps avoid duplicate tag assignments.

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Foundation Fieldbus

FIELDBUS BLOCKS Fieldbus blocks are small, sealed software modules. Each block has a defined set of inputs and/or outputs for a specific function or type of information. Foundation fieldbus uses three types of blocks. Resource block Transducer block Function block

Resource and transducer blocks provide valuable information about devices, sensors and actuators, and their performance. Function blocks are engines of open, interoperable, device-independent control. Together, these three types of blocks make it easier to improve equipment performance and process control. Resource block: The resource block deals with the overall device. It contains information such as manufacturer, device type and serial number. Each device has one resource block. In addition, the resource block also often provides information about the health or status of the device as a whole. Access to this additional information may be one of the most important features of Foundation fieldbus because it can enable you to detect potential device problems before they affect the process. During project execution, the resource block is used to identify a device, tag it, and commission it. During ongoing operations, it is used by maintenance technicians to obtain overall device configuration and status information, and to run some types of device specific diagnostics. Transducer block: The transducer block deals with the wetted parts of a device. It provides the local input/output functions needed to read sensors and to command actuators, displays, or other output hardware. Its the link between the physical world of sensors and actuators and the data world of process control. The transducer block may contain information such as calibration data, sensor type, materials of construction, and in many cases the health and operating status of actuators and sensors. Special transducer blocks are also used to provide statistical process monitoring, predict sensor life, detect plugged impulse legs, and similar functions. During project executions, transducer blocks are used for calibrating the device, setting units, and other tasks related to providing an accurate and reliable input or output. During ongoing operations, maintenance technicians use these blocks to troubleshoot and calibrate devices, to perform diagnostic checks, and to carry out other tasks to maintain device health and performance. There may be several transducer blocks in a single device. For example, one transducer block may deal with the sensor or actuator, another with the local display, and third with diagnostics.

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Foundation Fieldbus Function block: Function blocks provide control-system behavior within the fieldbus environment. Analog and discrete input and output blocks, and a wide variety of control algorithms such as characterizer, splitter, or PID, can be linked across the fieldbus to perform process control. Its even possible, in many cases advantageous to run a control loop completely in field devices, without involving the host system. A simple device may have only single input or output function block. More complex devices may have several input and output blocks, as well as blocks for monitoring and control. During project execution, control engineers use function blocks to implement the control strategy. During ongoing operations, the function blocks provide the processcontrol information and functions the operators use to run the plant.

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Foundation Fieldbus LOOP SCHEDULING Good process control is time-dependant. If control actions dont happen when they should, the resulting process variability can increase energy and feedstock use, reduce yields, and reduce product quality. Fieldbus solves this problem by executing control on a deterministic, real time schedule. The technology is designed to accommodate the full range of control situations likely to be faced. Basic scheduling: In Foundation fieldbus, control related communication and function blocks execute at precisely defined intervals, and in proper scheduled order for process control. The overall schedule is called a macrocycle. The macrocycle for all devices on a segment are precisely scheduled and all use the same absolute start time. Function blocks and communications execute at specified offsets from this absolute start time. Figure shows the schedule for a typical loop where the PID function is in the valve controller (Device 2). Each activity occurs at a defined offset from the absolute start time.

Figure:17 Typical loop Scheduling This cycle repeats on an exact, ongoing schedule. Unscheduled (acyclic) messages can be communicated anytime scheduled (cyclic) messages are not being sent. Care must be taken in scheduling loops. Functions will execute in the order specified, even if that order is incorrect. Scheduling the AO first, the PID next, and the AI last will add a large and needless delay to overall loop processing.

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Foundation Fieldbus Multiple loops on the same segment: This figure shows that you can have several blocks executing at the same time on the same segment, provided that theyre in different devices and have different start times. The example has three loops, with PID in the valve controller. However, one more than one device cannot communicate on the same bus at the same time. The example schedule prevents communication overlap by staggering the function block communication start times so one block doesnt start until the previous one has finished. For the sake of simplicity, the diagram shows blocks executing in sequence, with no processing overlap. In reality, multiple blocks can execute at the same time as long as theyre in different devices, and data can be communicated as soon as the processing is complete. Multiple devices cannot communicate at the same time.

Figure:18 Multiple loop scheduling

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Foundation Fieldbus FIELDBUS INTEROPERABILITY The Fieldbus Foundation defines interoperability as the ability to operate multiple devices, independent of manufacturer, in the same system, without loss of functionality. The term multiple devices refers to a set of fieldbus products that may include a mix of field devices such as valves and transmitters, and host devices such as control system. Independent manufacturer means vendor independence. That is, having the freedom to choose the best technology for the task, regardless of which vendor makes the product. In the same system means within the mix of control equipment that operates as a single automation solution. There are, of course, guidelines for the number and type of devices that should be combined together within individual segments of the fieldbus network, primarily for electrical and intrinsic safety purposes. Without loss of functionality means the device operate without the loss of any of their designated features. That is, being part of an interoperable network doesnt interfere with any of their functions. Field-device interoperability: Interoperability between field devices basically means that field devices from different manufacturers can work together, sending and receiving information related to their specific function in the process. The Foundation fieldbus has established guidelines for interoperability between field devices on a fieldbus segment. These guidelines address different aspects of device interoperability such as physical characteristics, communication and software functionality. To be truly interoperable, devices must Be physically and electrically compatible with the fieldbus segment (as defined by the ISA 50.02-2 Physical Layer Specification). Include a communication stack that passes the Foundation fieldbus Stack Conformance Test. Correctly implement the Function Block Application Process Model defined in the Foundation fieldbus specification. This means a devices function block must interconnect and interoperate with the function blocks of other devices on the network. Testing devices for interoperability: Interoperability testing, using a prescribed set of consistent and rigorous test procedures, helps ensure that all devices will operate together. The Foundation fieldbus has established two tests for this purpose; the Stack Conformance Test and the Device Interoperability Test. The Stack Conformance Test ensures that the device interfaces correctly with the bus, that is, electrical characteristics and bus access are consistent with the fieldbus specification.

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Foundation Fieldbus The Device Interoperability Test ensures that the devices function blocks will interact with other blocks correctly, and will provide accurate information and mode behaviour. Device capability evolvement: Foundation fieldbus allows manufacturers to enhance and differentiate their products while maintaining the interoperability users want. Adding blocks:- A device is registered for the defined set of blocks tested during the Foundation fieldbus interoperability test. If a manufacturer adds additional blocks to the same device, the device may be retested and reregistered for the additional blocks. Alternatively, the manufacturer can offer the blocks as unregistered functionality. In some cases, that may be the only option; no functional block type can be registered unless at least two manufacturers offer the block in their products, and both products pass interoperability testing for that block type. Devices may also be retested and registered following other changes, such as firmware revisions. Different capabilities:Interoperability test determines interoperability, not functionality. The internal operation of a devices control algorithms is determined by the manufacturer. Registered devices can work quite efficiently with each other on the network, but exhibit different behavior due to varying control algorithm characteristics. Host-system interoperability: In most cases, a host system is used to configure fieldbus devices, set up the control strategy, and display all information available from the field devices. The host system may also participate with field devices in providing process control. To do all this, the host system must be able to access, use, and display Foundation fieldbus data from all devices involved. The Host Interoperability Support Test (HIST), consists of 18 separate tests, shows how well a host system interoperates with specific standard capabilities of Foundation fieldbus devices. Although field device testing is mandatory, host testing is optional. A host can undergo none, some, or all of these tests to demonstrate its support for specific functions. Understandably, the HIST doesnt cover proprietary capabilities that manufacturers may add to their products. However, its still possible for a host to access those capabilities if the device manufacturer provides a Device Description (DD) and if the host includes DD Services to read it. In short, the HIST ensures that the host is a good citizen on the fieldbus segment, but not that it will access, display, or use device information completely or to its best advantage.

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Foundation Fieldbus Off-line interoperability: In on-line interoperability, where field devices are physically connected to the host system as they are being configured. Quite often, however, field devices are not available at the time configuration is being done by the host system. Capabilities files:- To help solve this problem, the Foundation fieldbus has issued a Common File Format specification which defines a Capabilities file that can be used to describe information about a fieldbus device that would normally only be available by reading it from the device itself. An interoperable host system that supports off-line configuration uses this Capabilities File, along with the Device Description, to build an offline configuration of the field devices. Anytime configuration:- Offline interoperability allows those doing configuration, such as engineering and consulting firms, the capability to configure an entire fieldbus networkoffline. This means that much of the engineering for a Foundation fieldbus network, including configuration of the devices and control strategy, can be accomplished prior to acquisition of actual devices.

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Foundation Fieldbus RELIABILITY AND REDUNDANCY With good design and installation practices, Foundation fieldbus actually offers significant advantages in total system reliability. How much redundancy to have in the plant, and how to provide it, depends on the situation. It is based on things like mean time between failure, system availability and experience. It is also based on how critical particular devices, loops, and processes are to safe and effective plant operation. Wiring reliability: The major concern with wiring is not failure of the media itself, but external factors that affect the wiring. Fewer wires mean faster repairs:- Consider the damage if a physical event affects an entire wire bundle. In the world of analog point to point wiring, this catastrophe could involve hundreds, may be thousands of severed wires. In the digital fieldbus world, however, where many devices can be connected to the same set of wires, the same number of I/O points would be on far fewer wires. Service would be interrupted in either case. But the time to repair would be significantly less in the fieldbus scenario because there are fewer wires, and wiring checkout is faster for each wire pair. And the faster the repair, the sooner production resumes. Reasons for assurance:- Excluding external events, wire reliability is determined by the reliability of the physical wire itself, and wire has the lowest complexity level of the system and generally the lowest failure rate. The reliability of he wire can be greatly enhanced by following installation and maintenance procedures that avoid accidental shorting or grounding. Those are the most common causes of wiring failures. Reliability can also be enhanced by selecting the wire, cable routes, and connectors that shield exposed media from physical contact with electrical discontinuities. In addition, fieldbus junction boxes are available that isolate short circuit to a single drop on a segment. Segment reliability: The total fieldbus network is divided into segments for the purpose of aligning sections of the network with process, hazardous, or geographic areas, or with specific device combinations. From the reliability standpoint, each segment can be treated as a separate entity, and thus can be handled separately. If a host H1 interface card connects to more than one segment, and represents a failure point that could impact more than one segment, then all segments attached to the interface card should be considered as a whole. Segment reliability depends upon several factors such as Segment power and power conditioners Segment terminators The segment wire itself

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Foundation Fieldbus Various connectors Field devices connected to the segment The segment host (if present) The greatest threat to overall segment reliability is loss of power, which affects the entire segment. One way to counter this threat is redundant segment power, coming from different sources. Another threat to segment power involves electrical transients such as Lightning Solar storms Electrical noise Good installation practices, backup power with uninterruptible power suppliers (UPSs), and surge protectors minimize disruption from these electrical transients Proper installation can also reduce the chances of improper grounding; another major cause of reliability problems. Total system reliability: A systems reliability is only as good as the reliability of each of its parts. So it makes sense that the fewer the parts, the higher the potential reliability of the system. Fieldbus allows the control system to have fewer parts because control can now be done in the field. That is, control does not have to go through all the host systems terminations, input cards, controllers, output cards and so on; each a potential failure point. With the control in the host system, all these parts must be working properly for the control loop to be working. Failure of any of these components in a non-redundant system will cause loop failure. The number of loops affected can range from 8-16 for an I/O card failure to hundreds or even more if a controller or controller power fails. In Foundation fieldbus environment using control in the field, however, the entire host system can fail without loss of control. Thats because the control is being done in the field devices. The host system is being used as the interface to a truly distributed field control system. Closing the loop in the field can be much more reliable than through the host. Transmitter redundancy: Transmitter redundancy in a fieldbus environment is implemented basically the same way as in a traditional, analog environment. The primary difference is that Foundation fieldbus provides additional information that improves the reliability of the measurement. Analog transmitter redundancy:- Analog transmitter redundant schemes often require triple redundancy. When two of the transmitters report different values, the value from the third transmitter breaks the tie. All three measurements are sent to an input selector which chooses the input that gets sent to the PID. Sometimes the operator receives all three values and manually chooses the value that looks best.

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Foundation Fieldbus The Foundation fieldbus input selector block available in some transmitter support a broad range of input selection criteria; from selecting the high, low or middle value, to calculating the average of the three inputs, to eliminating the reading with the greatest deviation from the others. Foundation fieldbus provides status information that helps automatically identify if a measurement is good, bad, or uncertain. A bad or uncertain quality reading can be eliminated from consideration before it is presented to the operator. This capability may even eliminate the need for triple redundancy. Since the third device is no longer needed to determine which signal is the bad one. Valve and piping redundancy: Like transmitter redundancy, valve redundancy in a traditional, analog environment involves installing two valves on parallel pipes, which eventually increases the installation cost to double. In fieldbus, unlike the traditional method, the advantage is in the information the fieldbus valve instrument provides. Because of this feature it can predictively and proactively indicate if it is having health problems so that it can be dealt before they result in a failure. Since valve are mechanical devices they are subjected to a harsh environments and wear of moving parts are thus points of maintenance and potential failure in the process loop. Because an analog valve controller has no way of determining valve health, it may fail without warning. Control redundancy: Control redundancy is probably the most important aspect of any total redundancy scheme because typical DCS and PLC control system failures can affect a large number of loops. The loss of control, and possible equipment failure or plant shutdown, can carry an extremely high price. The traditional method of providing control redundancy involves duplicating parts of the host control system. This means potentially a lot of extra equipment; input and output cards, terminations, power, controllers, etc.; at a lot of extra cost. Fieldbus provides a lower cost alternative to the traditional control redundancy schemes. It does this primarily by moving the redundant control loop from the host system to the field devices. In this scenario, the primary PID loop remains in the host system while the backup PID loop resides in a field device. If the host is lost, then the field devices own output takes over. Limitations: Putting redundant control in the field can eliminate the need for costly redundant host components. However, when the host is lost, the operator can no longer see what is happening or control it manually from the operator console. Data will not be available to alarm and event logs and historians. Also, the PID block in a host may offer features (such as autotuning) not available in the devices PID function block. And although

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Foundation Fieldbus regulatory control is maintained in the field devices, host resident advanced control is lost until the host connection is re-established. Host redundancy options: Control in the field will provide regulatory control in the event the host or host connection is lost. But it wont provide operator visibility, host based advanced control, or alarm, alert, or historian data. To ensure these are available, host redundancy is needed. Many plants have standard practices for redundancy. These frequently include redundant communications, operator interface, power, controllers, and I/O. specific implementations of redundancy depend on the requirement of the process. Foundation fieldbus redundancy should conform to these practices. Redundant host H1 interface cards:- Although the fieldbus specification does not require H1 interface card redundancy, a backup H1 card will allow the operator continued visual access to the process should the primarily H1 card fails. It will also provide process information needed for functions such as validation or quality systems, plus uninterrupted advanced control. If your plant or process requires these things, redundant H1 cards should be used. Another common criterion is that redundant I/O is required if I/O modularity exceeds a certain level for example, 8 points per card. If redundant H1 card arent available, plant practices may require that the loading of the H1 segment be reduced to a level below the threshold required for redundancy. Finally if no device on the segment is a link master, capable of taking over the function of link active scheduler, redundant H1 interface cards may provide this capability. Custom redundancy block: This software option is a custom function block, residing in the valve, designed specifically for redundancy. The valve function block passes an output from the primary (host) PID to the valves analog output. If the primary PID fails, the backup PID (in the valve) sends its output to the valves AO. Redundant air and power: Since actuators, transmitters, valves and control systems all depend on air or electrical power to operate, making these sources redundant, or having a reliable backup, will go a long way towards ensuring a safe plant. Foundation fieldbus power redundancy includes redundant, isolated bulk power, and redundant power conditioners to the segment. This level of power redundancy provides reliable power even if a power failure occurs. Redundant media (wire): The wire in general is the most reliable part of the control architecture. Adding a backup wire segment make sense only if it is part of a completely redundant process stream with redundant instruments, valves, process piping, and host elements. This is implemented by having one set of valves and instruments on one segment, and the

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Foundation Fieldbus second set on a second segment. Each device is connected to only one segment and one set of physical media. In this case, a link must exist between the two segment to ensure status information is continually exchanged. Link active scheduler: In a host control system, the control strategy generally dictates the execution of function blocks as well as communication between the blocks themselves. On a fieldbus segment, this task is the responsibility of the Link Active Scheduler, or LAS. As the name implies, the LAS actively schedules communication and function block execution on the segment. If there is no LAS running on the segment, function block execution and communication on the segment ceases. Because the LAS often resides in the host often resides in the host system, the most probable cause of an inactive LAS is the loss of the host. A host-based LAS is also unavailable in the case of stand-alone loops, where a host is used for configuration and then disconnected. Back up Link active scheduler: A back up LAS, usually not residing in the host, coordinates block execution and communication on the running segment when the primary LAS is lost or unavailable. A backup LAS should be used in the host, that is, no control in the field, then the loss of host means loss of control, even if a back up LAS is present. The exception occurs when the host has redundant controllers and Foundation fieldbus H1 interface cards, configured to take over control if the primary control fail. In this case, the backup LAS would usually be in the host system rather than a field device. Regardless of where control resides, it is still important to make sure final control elements are selected to fail to the proper failsafe positions if automatic control is lost.

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Foundation Fieldbus FIELDBUS SIGNALS The twisted pair cables, terminators, and power conditioner work together as a wiring system that can carry signals between Fieldbus devices. When a device is enabled to signal, it varies the amount of current it draws from the network.

When not transmitting, a device draws power from the cable for its internal operation. It also draws an additional 10mAmps that it wastes. When the device transmits a high signal, it turns off this 10mAmps. This increases the voltage between the wires. When the device transmits a low signal, it draws an extra 10mAmps from the wires, resulting the voltage decrease. The signal waveform is shown below. Note that the signal is above and below the 24 volt non-transmitting level on the network.

Figure 19: Fieldbus signal Digital data is sent on the Fieldbus at a rate of 31.25 kbits/second. Thus, each bit cell is 32 microseconds long. The digital data, ones and zeros, is represented as a Manchester code. A zero is a positive signal transition in the middle of a bit cell; a one is a negative transition in the middle of a bit cell. A sequence of Manchester encoded ones and zeros would look like this

Figure 20: Manchester code signal

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Foundation Fieldbus When a device begins transmitting, it puts out a preamble, an 8-bit sequence with alternating ones and zeros. This pattern is used by the receiving devices to synchronize themselves to bit cell boundaries. Besides ones and zeros, there are also two non-data symbols. These non-data symbols are N+, a high level during the whole bit cell, and N-, a low level during the whole bit cell. These symbols are used to make an 8-bit start delimiter that shows where real data starts and an 8-bit end delimiter that shows where data transmission stops. When a device transmits, the different parts are combined to form a data frame:

The Data portion of the frame contains information such as the address of the device for which the frame is intended, identification of the type of frame, measurement values, etc. The delimiters are very different from any signal pattern that might be in the Data portion of the frame. This difference allows the Data portion of the frame to be unambiguously identified and allows Data corrupted by noise to be detected using a Frame Check Sequence (FCS). The FCS is the very last part of the Data portion of the frame. This feature makes Fieldbus much more robust than many other control networks. Because all devices share the cable, only one device should transmit at any given time. Otherwise, there would be chaos on the cable with all the transmitted signals interfering with one another. A special device, called the Link Active Scheduler (LAS), selects which single device can transmit. The LAS allows each device to transmit by sending out a special frame to each device in turn. A frame might be: the LAS asking a device to transmit data, a device broadcasting its data to other devices, a device

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Foundation Fieldbus reporting an error condition, etc. The link active scheduler enabled device can continue to perform the control function even if the connection between the instrument and the Host is lost or disconnected. This is because the LAS allows the data to be transmitted between the devices in the field itself thus avoiding the breakdown of the control in the entire segment. Bus Scheduling The LAS addresses devices on the logical bus in a cyclic pattern. A complete cycle is called the Macro cycle. This cycle is sub divided into two addressing sequences. The first addressing sequence is the addressing of prescheduled devices (function blocks), while the second addressing sequence is unscheduled date (event data). The length of the macro cycle is determined by the LAS and recalculated each time a new device is active on the bus. Execution times per function block in the scheduled sequence of the macro cycle may vary in the range of 20 ms to 50 ms. This communication, which has fixed repetition rate represents the process related synchronous data sampling. By adding about 400 ms of processing time for unscheduled activity, the total macro cycle time will be 1000 ms. (Note: As a general rule, unscheduled time should not be less than 50% of the total macro cycle). The cyclic update time per tag is one second. It is important to be aware of the fact that process variable update times for a single tag is identical to the update time for a group of tags (in this case 8instrument values). It will be misleading to convert a group update time into an average update time per tag. In special cases, one might want to increase the update time of a certain tag. In order to do so, one need to segregate instruments into cycle time groups. The general rule is that, if the update rate is doubled, only half of the instruments can be present on the segment. The following sample calculation will illustrate this point. Seven instruments (each with 38 ms bus processing time) requires a scheduled cycle time of 266 milliseconds. Adding 234 ms of unscheduled time will produce a macro cycle of 500 ms. The instrument values will be updated two times per second, and the total unscheduled time is about 468 ms. per second. It is good engineering practice to perform Clustering design when distributing instruments on segments. In practical sense, three types of clustering may be relevant: Geographical - Instruments that are graphically close should be grouped in one segment or adjacent segments. Process - Instruments that are process related should be grouped on one segment. Reliability - Instruments that are part of a common reliability concept should not be on the same segment.

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Foundation Fieldbus SEGMENT LENGTH CALCULATION CRITERIA Theoretically, if Foundation Fieldbus supply is 24 V to the network; then as each device uses 9 V as a minimum, there are 24-9=15 volts that are available to be used by the cable resistance. The total current that can be applied at each trunk is Voltage / Resistance = Current available 15 Volts / 44*Ohms/km = 340 mAmps
(* Considering the trunk cable is 1km and the resistance of both wires is 44ohms.)

Since each device draws 20mAmps, the maximum devices that can be connected to each trunk are 17 devices. Generally there are less than 16 devices on any single Fieldbus segment. Attenuation: As signals travel on a Fieldbus cable, they are attenuated, that is, they are reduced in amplitude. The longer the cable, the greater the attenuation. The Fieldbus standard requires that a Fieldbus device transmits a signal at least 0.75 Volts peak-topeak and that a receiver must be able to detect a signal of as little as 0.15 Volts peakto-peak. (In electrical engineering talk, this is 14 dB of attenuation). If standard Fieldbus cable is used (attenuation of 3 dB/ km), then the cable can be
14 dB / 3 dB/km = 4.6 km long.

However, there is additional attenuation that needs to be considered. Signals are also attenuated by the spur cables that branch off the trunk cable. This attenuation is largely caused by cable capacitance. Standard Fieldbus cable capacitance is about 0.15 nF/ meter and the attenuation caused by capacitance is about 0.035 dB/nF. As an example, if the lengths of all the spurs is 500 meters, then the attenuation will be 500 meters x 0.15 nF/meter x 0.035 dB/nF = 2.6 dB. As an example, assume that the trunk cable is 800 meters long. The trunk attenuation is 3 dB/ km x 0.8 km = 2.4 dB. The total signal attenuation is 2.6 dB + 2.4 dB = 5 dB. This is well within the 14 dB available.

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Foundation Fieldbus Signal Distortion: Fieldbus cable is limited to less than the theoretically possible length. Signals also get distorted by various cable characteristics, spur reflections, etc. Shown below on the left is a transmitted signal and on the right a received signal at the end of a 900 meter long cable with 16 120-meter spurs at the chickenfoot.

Figure 21: Transmitted and received signals Although it is not possible here to provide a definitive analysis of cable distortion, here are two recommendations to minimize distortion: If the trunk cable is more than 250 meters long, put a terminator on each end. Keep each spur length below 120 meters. These recommendations are a result of testing Fieldbus signal fidelity on a 1 km long trunk cable with 16 spurs 120-meter long at the chickenfoot.

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Foundation Fieldbus FIELDBUS IN HAZARDOUS AREA Equipments and products in hazardous areas are required to meet stringent criteria. They must be protected to avoid the possibility of them becoming a source of ignition. Fieldbus devices used in hazardous areas can only be supplied with a limited amount of power to be Intrinsically Safe (IS). Using fieldbus entity isolators, only about 3 or 4 Fieldbus devices can be on an IS fieldbus trunk. Fieldbus Intrinsically Safe Concept (FISCO): A new Fieldbus powering method called FISCO (Fieldbus Intrinsic Safety Concept) increases the vailable power to a level that allows about 12 devices to be on an IS fieldbus segment in Gas Group IIB (Groups C,D in North America). This typically represents more than of 80% of the IS applications. In Gas Group IIC (A,B) the FISCO power supply will typically power 5 or 6 devices on an IS fieldbus trunk which is a small number compared to non-IS installations. A process to be controlled in a IIC (A,B) Gas Group may require more devices to work together. One way to do this is to have the H1 host controller relay messages between devices on independent segments. This is problematic because an H1 host controller only has a limited number of Fieldbus connection ports. Repeaters can be used to solve this problem. Repeaters are devices that interconnect Fieldbus segments into a single network. A repeater takes signals from one segment, reconstructs them to the proper waveshape and retransmits them on to the other segment. The devices on the separate segments think they are on the same segment. Fieldbus power must be separately provided to each segment. Repeaters can also be used to extend the length of a Fieldbus network. This is not generally necessary. See Fieldbus Limitations on page 22. Repeaters are more useful in hazardous area applications to combine electrically separate segments to look like a single logical segment. The example below shows this arrangement. Note that each segment requires a pair of terminators. Repeaters often have terminators as part of their assembly. Suppose Fieldbus segments 2, 3, and 4 are in a hazardous area. Each segment has 5 devices that need to communicate with each other and with devices on the other segments. Three repeaters with built-in FISCO power supplies are used as shown. All the data packets sent by any one of the Fieldbus devices appear on all segments including segment 1. The H1 host controller needs to have only one Fieldbus port. To the host and to each of the devices, data transmission and reception appears to be on a single segment. In reality, they are on separate physical segments. Each segment is individually powered and terminated in the same way as any other Fieldbus segment.

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Foundation Fieldbus

Figure 22: Repeaters with FISCO power supplies Also refer Multiple barrier Fieldbus Non Incendive Concept (FNICO): FNICO is the Fieldbus Non-Incendive Concept. FNICO builds on the experimental work carried out for FISCO, by applying the same priciples to the non-incendive fieldbus circuits in zone-2 and division 2 hazardous areas. FNICO networks may be live worked in the hazardous area without the need for gas clearance procedures, and support even greater number of field devices than FISCO. To assemble a FNICO fieldbus system, the power supply, field devices, cables and wiring components need to comply with FNICO design rules. A wide choice of components is available since any intrinsically safe Entity or FISCO certified devices and most non-incendive devices can be used. The key benefits of FNICO system are as follows: a) Flexible low cost alternatives to flameproof/ explosion-proof technique. b) Live-workable field network, just like intrinsic safety. c) Relaxed installation requirements. d) Simple safety documentation just a list of devices.

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Foundation Fieldbus INTRINSIC SAFETY Devices and barriers for intrinsically safe areas are designed so that the energy released by an electrical fault is not enough to cause ignition. The ignition point is function of power, determined by voltage and current. Amount of current allowed on an intrinsically safe segment as well as segment voltage, choice of barrier and device count on each barrier depends only on the type of hazardous atmosphere in which the devices are located, but also on which intrinsic safety model on use. For fieldbuses, there are two models: The Entity model assumes the electrical parameters that represents the characteristics of the wire are all concentrated at the point of fault. In this model, a wire is considered a source of stored energy. This conservative approach leads to a maximum DC current of 83mA permitted in the wire and a maximum voltage of 18.4 V. This model is well known and recognized worldwide. The Fieldbus Intrinsically Safe Concept or FISCO model considers the electrical wiring parameters to be distributed along its entire length. This reduces the energy at the fault, resulting in a maximum current of 110mA. This model permits more devices on a wire in a hazardous area. FISCO is not a world wide standard.

Intrinsic safety barriers are certified on the basis of one model or the other. Field devices can be certified for both. Despite the differences between the two models, the basic concepts for designing an intrinsically safe segment are similar. The ignition curve: Each type of atmosphere requires a certain minimum power for ignition. The plot of the voltage and current points that provide that power is called the ignition curve. Because power is voltage times current, as voltage increases, the maximum amount of current required for ignition decreases. And, conversely, as voltage decreases, the maximum amount of current required for ignition increases. In a segment using the FISCO model, the maximum current allowed is 110 mA in a Class IIC environment. This means that the total current draw for all devices on this barrier is 110 mA.

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Foundation Fieldbus Designing an intrinsically safe segment: To calculate how many devices a single barrier can support, you add the individual current draws of each devicesince each device type has a potentially different current draw. For the FISCO model, as long as the total current draw is under 110 mA for gas groups A and B, and under 235 mA for gas groups C and D, the segment on the hazardous side on the barrier is intrinsically safe. You must also consider the electrical parameters of each device and be below the amounts permitted for the hazardous area classification. In the example shown in the figure, a single barrier is placed on a segment between the segment power conditioner and the filed devices. There is a terminator in the safe area and in the hazardous area.

Here are some example calculations to determine the number of field devices allowable in this example. The current consumptions listed are for illustration purposes only and do not reflect the actual current consumption of specific devices or devices types: Temperature monitoring. If a temperature transmitter uses 16 mA of current, a maximum of six (6 x 16 =96) transmitters could be placed in hazardous environment on a single barrier. For Class IIB gases, the maximum current is 240mA, allowing 15 devices per barrier. Temperature and pressure compensated mass flow. In this case, the temperature transmitter uses 16 mA, a pressure and DP transmitter each use 20mA, and a control valve uses 25 mA. All four of these devices could be placed on the same barrier in a Class IIC hazardous environment (16+20+20+25 = 81)

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Foundation Fieldbus Combining safe and hazardous areas: There may be occasions when it is desirable to have both safe and hazardous areas on the same fieldbus segment. This isnt a problem as long as simple rules are followed in the example illustrated below.

In this example, there are n devices in the safe area and k devices in the hazardous area. The maximum number of devices on a segment is 32. Experience demonstrates that up to 16 devices are acceptable. So k+n must be less than or equal to 32 or 16, depending on the type of devices being used.

In addition, k must equal the total number of devices with a combined power consumption of 110mA or less (remember the ignition curve) with FISCO safety barrier. If more devices are desired in the hazardous area, you can use multiple segments, multiple barriers on one segment, or devices with lower power consumption. Multiple barrier: (A better approach)

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Foundation Fieldbus The diagram shows an example of multiple-barrier configuration using repeating barriers for one fieldbus segment. In the example, the loop process requires six temperature measurements, a mass flow loop, a liquid flow loop and a level loop. The digital advantage. One of the advantage of Foundation fieldbus devices is that, being digital, they can have multiple parameters. As such, the previous example can be redesigned by placing all six temperature measurements into a single 8-point temperature multiplexer, thus reducing power consumption. Its a good idea to have all components associated with a loop on a single barrier. So the new design looks like: Barrier 1: one 6-point temperature mux (22mA), one liquid flow transmitter (20 mA), and one valve (25 mA). The current is safe 67 mA Barrier 2: one 4-way coriolis flow meter (10 mA), one level transmitter (20 mA), and two valves (50 mA). The total current draw is 80 mA Careful selection of intrinsic safety devices can significantly reduce engineering time and complexity, and component cost. Other safety considerations: Device safety consideration: No equipment supplying or sourcing over 250 V RMS Ac or DC power can be connected to any part of safe segment. In addition, the entire system on the hazardous side of an intrinsic safety barrier is certified at the lowest certification category and gas group of any apparatus in the system. For example, if a single piece of equipment on a category IIC segment is classified as IIB, then the entire system is classified as IIB. Power supply consideration: Different type of power supplies can be used for intrinsic safety. A type 133 power supply uses galvanic isolation. It provides a nominal 80 mA to the hazardous area and can connect directly to devices in hazardous area. A type131 supply provides a nominal 400 mA for the segment. An intrinsic safety barrier must be used between a type 131 power supply and the hazardous area.

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Foundation Fieldbus CHOOSING A HOST SYSTEM A host must have the same level of functionality, especially when it comes to taking full advantage of fieldbus technology. As a host system is selected, it must fulfill the consideration which meets number of areas, including Collecting and easily disseminating Foundation fieldbus information for more efficient operations, precision control, and proactive maintenance. Integrating field and supervisory control. Surpassing the capabilities associated with traditional distributed control system. Host designed for fieldbus: The design of many host systems, especially those based on traditional distributed control system architectures, can affect their ability to take full advantage of Foundation fieldbus and the information it provides. Function block compatibility: For consistent control with minimum configuration, the same fieldbus function block should be able to run in either the host system or the fieldbus device. If not, extra effort is required to modify control strategies and tuning parameters to get similar performance. You may also have to map fieldbus block structures into legacy host structures to access fieldbus data. Depending on the host architecture, the mapping can be extensive. Matching operating modes: The mode of host control strategies should be identical to Foundation fieldbus standard modes, whether the block runs in the host controller or fieldbus device. Mode mismatch between the host and the device could result in inoperable control with very little indication of the problem. Single configuration environment: The host system should provide a common control-strategy configuration tool that can assign execution of the function block to the host controller or to the fieldbus device, or split execution between them. Ideally, you should be able to configure a control strategy before determining whether it will run in the host or the device. Calibration from the host: A well-integrated host system allows to calibrate fieldbus devices right from the configuration environment on one of the host workstations. This integration reduces engineering time and effort and avoids the neec for separate, nonintegrated software. Access to validated device data: The Foundation fieldbus standard provides for fieldbus devices to pass not only process data to the host system, but also the status or goodness of the data. Having good, validated data from the fieldbus device improves the validity of the control, and ability to respond correctly to abnormal or failure conditions. A well designed host system should incorporate this validated data in many area:

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Foundation Fieldbus In control strategies: Control strategies that recognize when data coming from a fieldbus device is no longer good cam take corrective actions, potentially avoiding process upsets and dangerous conditions. Propagating the status of the field signal to supervisory control strategies and to historical storage also ensures that these decision support systems are using a true representation of the plant. In advanced control applications: To be effective, robust advances control relies on a solid foundation of accurate information. When applied in host systems that do not give the goodness of the data, these controls are often decommissioned because they no longer work as initially designed. If a field device is delivering bad data, the host should recognize this and propagating the status information to advanced control strategies such as Model Predictive or Neural Network Control to mark those strategies as using bad or suspect data. In operator displays/alarms: For conditions not handled by the control strategies, operators can be notified of suspect data coming from a fieldbus device and take the proper actions to avoid process upsets. Fieldbus redundancy options: Host system under consideration must provide redundancy in fieldbus segment communications scheduling, in power supplied to the fieldbus segment, and in the interface between the segment and the host system. Segment communication scheduling: In addition to fieldbus devices that can provide backup scheduling (link active scheduling or LAS) of communications, the H1 interface card to the host system should be able to provide this backup scheduling. Fieldbus segment power: A robust host system offers redundancy options in the power supplied to the fieldbus segment. This redundancy is critical to eliminate single points of failure for the fieldbus segment. H1 interface card: Beyond just redundant communications scheduling and segment power, redundant H1 interface to the host system provide the ability to maintain an operator window into a running segment. The redundant pair of H1 cards should provide automatic and bumpless switch over if a card fails. Interoperability testing: Important consideration in selecting a host system are its interoperability with other manufacturers fieldbus devices. To understand the systems level of interoperability with other manufacturers fieldbus devices, the supplier must have a library of device descriptions for devices that have already been tested for interoperability. Such a library allows to quickly build your control strategies around these devices.

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Foundation Fieldbus Ease of commissioning and testing: For each host under consideration, it is necessary to evaluate the engineering effort required to commission a Foundation fieldbus segment and its devices. Auto sensing of devices: Host systems designed with the fieldbus standard in mind automatically identify new fieldbus devices as they are connected to a fieldbus segment. Commissioning time is shortened if the host supports connecting an entire segment and auto recognizing all devices without the need to commission a device fully before connecting additional devices. Drag and drop commissioning: The effort required from the sensing of the device to using it in control strategies can vary dramatically among host systems. Consider ones that provide intuitive, drag and drop commissioning. Auto-macrocycle generation/optimization: Some hosts make scheduling the underlying fieldbus communications transparent to the user by automatically scheduling and optimizing the communications based on the number and types of fieldbus devices on a segment. Host systems that have this capability reduce the effort required and avoid the mistakes associated with the complex calculations of bus schedules. Simulations of field devices: For faster commissioning, the host system that can simulate the fieldbus device so control strategies can be pre-tested before startup begin is generally preferred. Device simulation also lets the operator perform training before startup, which increases the efficiency of the operation earlier. In addition, FAT (Factory Acceptance Test) is accomplished far more readily than with staging a complete set of field devices. Rollback of device configuration: Plants continually work to improve operational efficiency. This frequently involves some experimentation to determine the optimum settings to run the plant. Sometimes these experiments are not successful, and it is necessary to return to previous operating parameters. To ensure quick return to more efficient state of operation, a host system that can roll back the configuration of a fieldbus device to a known optimally operating state is preferred. Predictive maintenance: Host systems incorporating Foundation fieldbus technology have varying levels of support to deliver predictive maintenance capabilities to plant operations. Device health alerts: Advanced fieldbus devices have the capability to send alert about their health to the host system. A host system that is designed to receive these messages and has pre-engineered alarms, faceplates and screens that recommend a course of action to solve the problem is preffered. Process health alerts: Some advanced fieldbus devices have the ability to spot process problems around them, such as plugged sensing line. Like device health alerts,

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Foundation Fieldbus this information is immediately communicated to systems and applications that can solve the problem and avoid downtime. Detailed device diagnostics upon demand: Host systems that integrate asset management as a core part of their architecture can provide detailed device diagnostic information from any view station into the host. Audit trail and event history: To satisfy regulatory requirements and provide a clear picture of who changed what, when, and why, some host systems incorporate changes in fieldbus devices in the host audit trail. This, combined with the standard host system audit trail data, provides the integration of device and host information needed to speed up troubleshooting and avoid process problems.

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Foundation Fieldbus CONTROL DESIGN One of the advantages of using Foundation fieldbus is the ability to choose where the control algorithm executes. You can put control in the host system, in intelligent field devices, or both. Moving control in the field may give higher reliability, lower costs, and better performance than traditional host-based control. But the key is making the choice that best supports the plant needs. Plant philosophy: The decision on whether a transmitter, a valve, or a host system will control a specific loop can affect process performance and reliability. A well thought out philosophy can guide decision making, resulting in a smoother, faster design process. It can also maximize future maintenance costs. More than a PID: Control is commonly equated with PID. But PID is only an algorithm that receives a signal input from a measurement device and provides a calculated signal output to a final control element. Theres a lot of control action even before the PID algorithm receives the input signal, including signal-conditioning functions such as Temperature, pressure, and differential pressure measurements to calculate mass flow Characterizer functions to linearize inputs. Calculations to derive parameters such as density. Integration for flow totalization. It makes sense to put these pre-PID functions as close as possible to the actual measurement; in other words, in the measurement device. If calculation requires several inputs, processing them in the transmitter reduces links and traffic on the fieldbus segment. Also, the blocks in each transmitter are typically chosen to provide the specific type of signal conditioning required for that application. Likewise, functions performed on the signal output after it leaves the PID algorithm are best done as close as possible to the final control device that will actually implement the control action; for example, a valve. Of course, if the control function you need; such as advanced or supervisory control, isnt available in a field device, then host-based control makes sense. Control modularity: With the control in the field, an entire control loop, including inputs, outputs, and control algorithms, can operate in the device on a fieldbus segment. This allows a more modular approach than traditional host-based control. As process grows and you add more field devices, youre also adding control capacity.

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Foundation Fieldbus With host based control, on the other hand, extending control to new process areas can result in increased loading on the same host controllers. The net result could be slower control in the host. This modularity can also give control in the field the edge in process reliability. Only field devices, segment power, and wire continuity are required to maintain process control. If one or more of these components fails, only that one segment is affected Host based control requires the same components plus An input card, controller, and output card Intra-card communications for the host Power for the host Significantly more wiring Many of these components are shared by a large number of loops, making the impact of a single failure quite extensive. This is usually addressed with redundancy, which is more expensive option. Field control location: Control in the transmitter and control in the valve both seem equally effective. But there are other considerations that may make one location more appropriate. For example, if a problem causes loss of automatic control, the operators ability to manually control the process can be affected by where the PID block was running, as well as by the host systems capabilities. 1. If the PID is in the valve, and the transmitter fails: The operator assumes manual control by placing the PID in manual mode and manipulating its output using the hosts loop faceplate display of the PID block. [The PID output is normally sent to an analog output block which actually controls the valve positions.] 2. If the PID is in the transmitter, and the transmitter fails: If access to the transmitters PID block is also lost, the operator must take manual control at the analog output block. However, many host operator interface dont support direct access and control of the output from an analog output block, it must be done from the PID. In this case, manual control may not be available. 3. If the PID is in either the valve or transmitter, and the valve fails: Control of the PID is meaningless since the final control element -- the valve, will go to the failsafe position and can no longer be manipulated. If the host doesnt support direct manipulation of the analog output block, as in the second example, it is advisable to put PID in the valve controller rather than the transmitter.

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Foundation Fieldbus Potential exceptions: Once control location philosophy or standard is finalized, follow the same throughout, unless there are overriding considerations that require an exception. Here are some examples. Cascade loops may require an exception if you want to put PID in the valve. You can Place the outer loop AI and PID, and the inner loop AI, in transmitters. Place the inner loop PID and AO in the valve. Device capability and capacity. Remember that even interoperable devices may have different capabilities and capacities. PID may be supported in a device from one vendor but not from another. A device may have its entire capacity used for calculations or other functions, so control must be placed elsewhere. Other functions may override the standard location for control. For example. A device may need PID capability to perform statistical process monitoring or other device-resident diagnostics for control loops. A device may require the PID block to use its auto-tuning capability. Maintenance and purchasing considerations: Control location affects more than just operations. A consistent approach to this decision also benefits in purchasing and maintenance. Standardizing on a single location for the PID block simplifies instrument purchasing as well as spare parts procurement, storage, and usage. Thats because you will need fewer types of instruments to implement the project, and fewer types of spares. For example, if PID is always put in the transmitter, you can buy every transmitter originals and spares, with PID capability. If this consistent approach is not followed, then you will need to stock some transmitters with control capabilities and some without, and some valve controllers with control and some without.

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Foundation Fieldbus PROJECT ENGINEERING STANDARDS Field device specification: Because of the added functionality in fieldbus devices, their specifications are more comprehensive than for analog devices. Specification sheet for fieldbus devices should incorporate new fields for input and output, control, and diagnostic capabilities that didnt exist in analog instruments. Input and output. Function blocks, such as integrators for flow devices and characterizers for analytical devices. Multivariable input blocksfor example, allowing a flow device to also provide temperature, density and viscosity inputs. Output blocks that include both the output value and the actual valve position. Additional information used in diagnostics, such as temperature of electronics. Control. Standard control function block in a device, such as PID. Multiple function block in the same device, such as two PIDs for a cascade loop. Link Active Scheduler/ Backup LAS to maintain loop control without a host. Configurable loop execution times. Diagnostic. Basic status information, such as sensor failure. Health monitoring to detect problems such as impulse leg plugging, glass breakage, or probe fouling. Wear monitoring indicators such as valve cycles and total valve travel. Statistical process monitoring. Loop diagnostics. In addition to function block, control and diagnostic requirements, other items to include in fieldbus device specification include. Working voltage. Maximum current draw from bus. Block execution speed. Interoperability testing. Polarity sensitivity (if required) Capacity for instantiable function blocks. Segment design practices In fieldbus, segment design replaces and greatly simplifies the traditional I/O assignment task. Segment design standards set the segment-loading rules for your plant.

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Foundation Fieldbus Instead of assigning every signal to specific I/O at the host and splitting inputs and outputs to separate places, design segments and bring all the devices, regardless of input or output, into a single point for I/O assignment. The bus nature of fieldbuses also gives much more flexibility in adding to and modifying device counts and types. As devices are added and changed during design, in many cases I/O assignment is either unchanged or changed only to a very limit extent. Finally, the need to marshall I/O points, so different signal types and inputs and outputs can be properly routed to a dedicated termination point, is significantly reduced. Segment design standards set the segment loading rules for the plant. Devices should be grouped according to these rules and also with specific process.

Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams: There is currently no industry for showing fieldbus capabilities in P&ID s, although some self generated standards can be used for this purpose. Labeling all field devices: This can be done by simply placing a small FF beside each fieldbus device.

A different line style can be used for connection between field devices.

Indicate where control resides: Especially if it is in a field device. It can be done by placing a small FF next to the PID or the function block. Then to decide where the control block resides, place the function block symbol next to the field device that will execute control.

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Foundation Fieldbus

Label the Link Active Scheduler (LAS): If a specific loop requires a back up LAS, this should also be indicated. Label the loop execution time: Show the execution time (such as 250 ms or 500 ms) so devices with appropriate control performance can be specified. Loop sheets: Fieldbus changes whats shown in the loop sheets, or even eliminate the need for them. For example; because point to point wiring is replaced with fieldbus segments, a loop sheet that shows only point to point wiring can be replaced by a segment drawing. One segment drawing typically shows four to six loops (as well as additional devices), substantially reducing drawing time and cost. And with the added diagnostic capabilities of Foundation fieldbus, loop specific diagnostics can also be added to the loop sheet can. Segment design drawings: Segment design drawings can be used to document the topology, electrical characteristics, and control properties of each segment. 1. Segment topology Segment and spur length. Wire types Locations and types of o Junction boxes and connectors. o Power supplies and connectors o Barriers and terminators o Guest devices like configuration tools and bus analyzers. Additional segment physical capacity for connecting new devices or extending the segment. 2. Segment electrical characteristics Voltage and current draw, both per device (including guest devices) and for the overall segment. This is especially important for long segment or those with intrinsic safety requirements. Device polarity, or polarity insensitivity for devices that offer this feature.
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Foundation Fieldbus 3. Control properties Loop execution requirements and times are used to determine overall segment communication loading. Control schedules Standards for cable schedules should address types of cables and cable numbering conventions. The type of cable used will depend on the planned segment length and, of course, plant practices. Single shielded, twisted pair wires inside an instrument cable, or small multiconductor cables, are often used for fieldbus wiring. Existing wires can be used unless its old or in poor condition. Cable and wire numbering and labeling conventions will need to be changed in order to differentiate between traditional point to point, single device wire pairs, and a multi-drop digital bus. For example, in a traditional analog installation, a single wire pair has a single device tag. In the fieldbus environment, that same wire pair acts as a digital bus connecting multiple devices, so it should be labeled with a segment number or segment description. Installation practices: Installation of fieldbus is similar to the conventional wiring but has some differences which should be reflected in standard installation practices. Optimize wiring. To reduce cost and labor, wire the home run cable to a field junction box close to the field devices. Then connect the devices using either of the following method: Continue running individual wire pairs, through conduit if you want from the trunk to the individual devices. Run quick-connect cables from the junction box to the individual devices. Quickconnect cables cost more than twisted pair, but they install faster, produce fewer wiring errors, and provide some short circuit protection. Device polarity. Because most fieldbus devices are polarity sensitive, crossing the positive and negative anywhere on a segment may cause individual devices or parts of the segment to malfunction. Although this wont happen with polarity insensitive devices, observing the polarity of all devices will reduce electrical installation problems.

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Foundation Fieldbus MERITS OF USING FOUNDATION FIELDBUS NETWORK Apart from the benefits listed in the documents earlier Fieldbus also yields some merits for its use such as: 1) Scaleability: The use of Fieldbus enables a easy way of upscaling the plant in future. As the devices are just to be plugged on to the segment (taking care of the voltage and current levels) it reduces the time for installing a totally new device on to the controller. 2) Ease of maintenance: Fieldbus supports an easy way of maintenance since all the hardware is automatically configured on the controller. Mapping of individual instruments need not to be done. Also error tracing is comparatively easier due to less hardware. 3) Execution time: The scan time of each segment ( and thus each instrument in the segment) is very low i.e about 1second (including the unscheduled time) thus providing a faster and accurate control or a real time control. 4) Expanded view of process and Instruments: The self test and communication capabilities of micro-processor based fieldbus devices help reduce downtime and improve plant safety. Upon detection of abnormal conditions or the need for preventive maintenance, plant operations and maintenance personel can be notified. This allows corrective actions to be taken quickly and safely.

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Foundation Fieldbus COMMISSIONING Compared to traditional analog technology, Foundation fieldbus reduces commissioning time and cost. Reduced commissioning time can mean an earlier startup. In the analog world, commissioning is done one device at a time by two technicians with walkie-talkie and multimeters. With Foundation fieldbus, as instrument technician can attach several devices to a segment in the field, while an operator watches the devices appear on the control room display, completely functional and ready to go. Staging: As automation architectures become easier to integrate and install, staging is becoming less common. For example, instrument technicians can practice connecting devices and verify device operation and configuration. You could even simulate potential error conditions such as missing or extra terminators so the technicians can get used to viewing and correcting these problems. Operators also benefit form early hands-on experience. At many plants, theyre part of the team that develops displays and control strategies. At a minimum, give them time during staging to become familiar with the system and verify both the operator interface and control action. If possible, use a host system to simulate control and operation so operators can start, stop, and step through the control strategy and displays before startup, even without the field devices connected to the host. This is especially valuable for sequencing operations. Taking advantage of the opportunity to train operators and technicians during staging can help save time, and avoid problems, during actual plant installation and startup. It will also speed acceptance of the new equipment and software. Pre-configured or not For the first-time fieldbus project, or a project with a tight timeline, buying devices that are pre-configured with specific plant parameters can save valuable time. Thats because the physical and software capabilities are already set up. All you have to do is install and verify the devices. Youll spend a little more time specifying these pre-configured devices because configuration parameters must be communicated at the time of purchase. This means device tags and operating ranges must be known prior to delivery, which isnt the case with unconfigured devices. You may also want to order the devices earlier so each pre-configured device is available when its needed. And youll have to be careful managing device inventory, even for identical devices, since each may have a different configuration.

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Foundation Fieldbus Using pre-configured device: Each pre-configured device must be installed in the specific plant location it has been configured for. Youll also need to set up the control strategy to access the field devices at a specific tag and / or address. The easiest way to do this is with a host system that allows configuration of a placeholder with the correct device type and tag in the host database, without the actual device being connected. Commissioning a device should be as simple as: Attaching it electrically to the segment, which causes fieldbus to recognize it as un-commissioned device with a tag. Using the configuration software to drag and drop the newly connected device on to the appropriate placeholder. This creates the link between the physical device in the plant and the configuration in the databases. Uploading the device internal data from the device to the host and downloading the control strategy from the host to the device.

Using un-configured devices: Un-configured devices are configured during commissioning. To do this, Connect the appropriate device to a fieldbus segment. The system will recognize them as un-commissioned devices. In the configuration software, drag and drop each device on to the appropriate segment. Assign the tag for a specific process location to the appropriate device. Load the configuration into the device. Tagging devices: A typical segment may have several un-configured devices of the same type. For example, you may want to attach three similar valves to the same segment before returning to the control room to commission them. It is vital that each physical device be given the correct tag and configuration, and linked to the correct control strategy. One way to manage this is to use a two-part instrument tag attached to the field device at the factory. The two part tear away tag has the device serial number printed on each part. When an instrument technician attaches a device to a segment, he writes the plant tag on the removable portion of the physical tag. Then he separates the tear away portion to take back to the control room. When he gets there, he looks at the list of un-commissioned devices on the host operator interface. The individual device serial number printed on the tear away instrument tags he is holding will be shown on the display. The technician now knows which devices are in specific plant tag locations, and thus can correctly commission the devices.

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Foundation Fieldbus Attaching devices: When a fieldbus devices is attached to a segment, it is recognized by the system but identified as un-commissioned. Fieldbus allocates four addresses for uncommissioned devices, which means you can attach and then commission four devices at time. Some hosts dont support this, requiring to commission every device as it is attached. For one person working alone, attaching and commissioning 16 devices therefore requires 4 to 16 trips to the field. Two people working together, one in the field and one in the control room, still do the job four devices at a time, but without all the back-and forth trips. Calibration and scaling: Calibration is often associated with analog devices. It is therefore sometimes assumed that digital fieldbus devices dont need to be calibrated. Many do. With analog devices, calibration compensates for inaccuracies in three parts of the device. Sensor or actuator Device electronics Analog communications signal Fieldbus devices have no analog communications signal, eliminating that source of error. However, on many devices the sensor or actuator, and the device electronics, can have errors. So calibration is still sometimes required. With an analog device, such as a transmitter, the output is scaled so that the expected operating range uses the entire 16mA of 4-20mA signal. This minimizes the effect of error in both the transmitter analog output and the host analog input. However, it is common to see errors resulting from a mismatch between the scaling of the field device and the host. With digital fieldbus devices, output scaling isnt required, so there is no such mismatch. Fieldbus does require that the unit of measure be the same in both the device transducer block and the function blocks.

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Foundation Fieldbus CHECKOUT AND TROUBLE SHOOTING After installation is complete, the next step towards ensuring a successful startup is checkout and (if necessary) troubleshooting the network. These procedures help eliminate potential network communication problems. Checkout generally includes testing both the wiring and the communication signal using standard tools like a multimeter, capacitance meter, and scope meter. Wiring check This part of process involves checking resistance and capacitance for Conductor to conductor Conductor to shield Conductor to ground Shield to ground Before beginning, make sure all the parts of the segment are connected. That includes all wiring, terminators and field devices, but dont connect the segment power connector during the wiring check. With a multimeter, check the following resistance levels. + Signal to signal 50 K ohms + Signal to shield> 20 M ohms - Signal to shield> 20 M ohms + Signal to instrument ground > 20 M ohms - Signal to instrument ground > 20 M ohms Shield to instrument ground > 20 M ohms Also lift the shield from the ground and check the isolation between the shield and the ground. The value should be greater than 20 M ohms. Check capacitance wherever there are long wire runs or where fieldbus will be installed on old wiring. Capacitance values should be + Signal to signal ~ 1 F + Signal to shield < 300 nF - Signal to shield < 300 nF + Signal to instrument ground < 300 nF - Signal to instrument ground < 300 nF Shield to instrument ground < 300 nF If everything checks out to be within these limits, then the basic wiring for segment is good.

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Foundation Fieldbus Voltage check: After ensuring the segment wiring checkout, next examine the segment power. Remember that the power connector was disconnected for the wiring check. Reattach it now for the voltage check. Check voltage at The power supply The H1 host interface card The individual field device The voltage between all the positive (+) and negative (-) signal wires must be between 9 and 32 Vdc It is a good idea to make sure the lowest voltage on the segment is at least 1-2 Vdc higher than the minimum 9 Vdc. This gives some buffer for low voltage conditions. Generally, as the distance increases between devices on the segment and the power supply, the voltage on the bus drops. Any device whose voltage varies significantly from other devices, or any significant voltage drop that is not associated specifically with the distance to the power supply, indicates a possible wiring problem. If a segment is extending long distances beyond the current end point, then plan for a higher level of power at the current end point, or make provisions for a powered repeater. Signal check: Problems can arise when wiring isnt consistently setup according to the rules. For example, a high rate of message retries, especially form a single device, indicates a potential wiring problems. Fortunately, signal checks can help you easily detect and diagnose situations like this. Three error conditions account for most of the problems not detected by a resistance, voltage and capacitance check: 1. Not enough terminators on the segment. For example, the type of power conditioner used may not have the terminator that is needed for use in a fieldbus installation. 2. Too many terminators on the segment. A terminator may have been added unnecessarily when one already existed as an optional component in another device, such as a power conditioner. Or a segment may have been extended without moving or removing the existing terminator. 3. Excessive trunk or spur length. Excessive trunk or spur length can be caused by cable runs that are significantly longer than the line of sight distance between the two ends of the segment. This can happen because cable trays tend to follow a vertical/horizontal grid pattern and often change height. This can make the actual length as much as double the perceived length.

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Foundation Fieldbus Mixing wire types in a segment can also make your segment electrically much longer than expected. Recognizing common errors: Foundation fieldbus is very robust. Many segments can operate despite the presence of waveform error conditions, but the overall reliability of the segment will be reduced. These errors will commonly appear as an excess number of message retries. Many of these errors can be diagnosed by using a scopemeter to check the communication waveforms. Here are some of the errors: Missing terminator. If the waveform shows peak to peak signal strength to be twice as large as the normal 0.8 to 1.2 volt, you may be missing a terminator on the segment. There are two common reasons for missing terminators. The first is that many fieldbus components such as power conditioners have built-in terminators that can be switched in or out. Often a terminator that is intended to be switched is in fact switched out. This frequently happens after a repair or maintenance activity where the component with the terminator is replaced. The other common reason is that a segment is extended beyond its original end point. The terminator at the end point is removed, but the terminator is not installed at the new end point. Less common reasons include failing to terminate after an isolating safety barrier, or failing to secure the terminator sufficiently and having it fall out. Too many terminators. If the waveform peaks are shorter than normal, there may be extra terminators somewhere on the segment. This problem can occur when a technician doesnt realize that a fieldbus component such as a power conditioner has a terminator in it, and adds another terminator. It also happens when someone extends a segment, adds a terminator at the new segment end, and forgets to remove the terminator at the old end location. Excessive spur or segment length. A waveform with rounded peaks, rather than flat, horizontal areas at the top and bottom, may indicate that a spur or segment is too long. The most common causes of excessive length are Using conduit and cable tray routes that are much longer than line of sight Mixing wire types without considering the different maximum length specifications for different wire types. Using wire that is very old and in poor condition.

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Foundation Fieldbus DIAGNOSTICS USING FOUNDATION FIELDBUS By enabling to identify both the source and the nature of a problem, often before it affects the process, diagnostics can actually reduce the effort required to keep process and equipments running as they should. Predictive diagnostics alerts also enable a shift from reactive and preventive maintenance practices to predictive maintenance practices. This shift can significantly reduce maintenance workload and cost while improving overall plant availability. Foundation fieldbus provides a framework for implementing a vast array of device and process diagnostics. The actual diagnostics, however, arent specified for Foundation fieldbus. Instead they are device and vendor specific. That is why it is important to choose devices and vendors that provide the diagnostic capabilities required to meet plant objectives. More than device maintenance: Much of the publicity about diagnostics centers on improving the maintenance of field devices, such as measurement instruments and control valves. That is understandable. Quickly detecting a failure sensor as the cause of a measurement problem or identifying which valves need service during a plant turnaround, can substantially reduce maintenance costs and downtime. But diagnostics can also help improve the performance of other process equipment, as well as keep the process itself up and running at its best. Equipment diagnostics: Diagnostics can be used to detect and alarm problems not only with field devices, but also with other process equipment. For example, statistical process monitoring can identify a wide variety of problems with process equipment, from leaks in pipes to fouling in heat exchangers, filters and similar equipment. The advanced diagnostic transducer block available in Foundation fieldbus devices allows process variables to be monitored for changes in mean and standard deviation. Statistical process monitoring analyzes how these factors change in relation to each other to detect equipment problems. As heat exchangers and filters foul and clog, for example, the diagnostics can detect a mean change in the differential pressure across the unit without a corresponding mean change in setpoint or flow rate, and alert operator or maintenance shop of the problem. Loop diagnostics: Diagnostics can also be used to detect and alarm problems at the loop level. Here again, statistical process monitoring provides a good example: detecting wetleg evaporation in a liquid level loop by monitoring process variables (PV) setpoint, output, and actual valve position. How does this work? Liquid level is maintained at setpoint by comparing the actual process level to the reference level in a wet leg. But if the liquid in the wet leg evaporates, the reference

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Foundation Fieldbus level drops, and the control function respond by moving the outflow valve to a more open position to lower the process operating level accordingly. When this happens, the diagnostics function detects that both control demand and actual valve position are more open without a change in setpoint or measured process variable. This means the measurement has drifted, so an alert is generated. Reducing process variability: Process variability increases production cost by increasing material and energy costs, and reduces plant production by producing off-spec product that must be blended, reprocessed, or disposes off. One tool for reducing process variability is the valve signature diagnostic, which can be used to detect a wear induces condition called stiction. Stiction causes a valve to stick at one position until there is a large change in the actuator force. Then the valve moves a significant amount, perhaps several percent. As a result, the valve spends most of its time at the wrong position. This condition can be revealed by the valve signature diagnostic. If stiction is present, the signature shows valve movement as a series of bumps, rather than the normal smooth line, as actuator force is increased or decreased. Economic consequences of stiction can be significant. For example, excess variability in steam flow to a distillation column can increase utility costs. Another example is sensor fouling detection. Fouling of analytical probes cause bad readings that can lead to excess material consumption, off spec product that must be reproduced or discarded or even safety problems. Sensor fouling detection can help to avoid these costs by triggering maintenance requests or even automatically initiating cleaning the sensor. Improving process variability: Diagnostics can improve process availability both by reducing the length of scheduled shutdowns and by eliminating unscheduled shutdowns. For example, you can reduce the length of scheduled shutdowns by knowing which valves need repair and which dont, so you pull only the ones that need it. Detecting a problem in critical equipment before it fails completely can also help you take actions to avoid a process trip and unexpected shutdown. But diagnostics can also help you avoid on-stream availability problems. For example, a bad pH reading in a fermentation application can ruin a complete batch, causing a loss of production even though the actual plant equipment is online. The sensor fouling detection diagnostic can help detect problems like this. Enhancing safety and environmental compliance: Diagnosing devices and equipment problems from the control room or maintenance shop enhances safety by reducing the time technicians spend locating the fixing problems in hazardous areas. Consider the example of a valve that controls the flow of an acid. If technicians can check the valves packing friction and other operating parameters from the

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Foundation Fieldbus maintenance shop, they dont have to put on protective gear and go out to the valves location, or expose themselves to hazardous conditions. Diagnostics can also help you detect problems that could lead to equipment failures with safety or environmental consequences. Managing alarms and alerts: Plant personnel are drowning in a sea of alarms, alerts, advisories events, and other automation-generated data. Diagnostics can either help the situation or make it worse. Diagnostic information should only be sent to people who will be affected by the situation the diagnostic detects, or those who will use the information to correct problems or improve performance. In addition, the level of detail each person receives should be appropriate to the action that person can take.

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