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A Seminar Report Submitted by


In partial fulfilment for the award of the degree Of


Guided by

Prof. V. M. Kulkarni


2012- 2013

This is to certify that, the report Peak to Average Power Ratio Reduction in OFDM submitted by Samhita Hiswankar is a bonafide work completed under my supervision and guidance in partial fulfilment for award of Bachelor of Technology (Electronics and Telecommunication) Degree of Maharashtra Institute of Technology Aurangabad.

Place: Aurangabad Date :

Prof. V.M. Kulkarni Guide

Prof. V. M. Kulkarni Head of the Department

Dr. S. P. Bhosle Principal Maharashtra Institute of Technology Aurangabad

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing is a multicarrier modulation technique being used in state of the art communication systems today. It has been known to have many advantages such as minimal inter symbol interference, minimal frequency selective fading due to multipath, avoidance of complex equalization filters and many more. However its biggest disadvantage is high Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR). The high PAPR necessitates the use of high resolution analog to digital convertor and digital to analog convertor. That unnecessarily increases the cost of equipment radically There are many techniques used for reduction of PAPR. This seminar focuses on one of them namely Iterative Clipping and filtering. It involves clipping the rare but present peaks in OFDM signal. However clipping of the original signal introduces noise in the system. That has to be removed. This removal is done by the use of filters that are inserted in the system This seminar also includes various simulation results and deep theoretical study of the topic done from various well known journals and papers.

List of Figures
Fig No. 2.1 2.2 2.3 Error! No text of specified style in document.2.4 2.5 Block Diagram of Modulation and Demodulation of OFDM 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10 2.11 Block Diagram : Block Coding Technique Block Diagram : Selective Mapping Technique Block Diagram: Partial Transmit Sequence Technique Process of Peak Windowing Block Diagram of Envelop Scaling Block Diagram of iterative clipping-filtering. 20 21 21 22 22 25 14 FDM Multiplexing process Block Diagram of Multicarrier Modulation Spectrum of OFDM pulse Symbol Structure of OFDM word with Cyclic Prefix Title Page no. 9 10 10 13

List of Tables

Table No Table 2.1 Table 3.1 Table 3.2 Table 3.3

Comparison of various PAPR reduction schemes PAPR without and with clipping for PSK PAPR before and after clipping filtering for QAM PAPR for QAM: Original and repetitive clipping filtering.

Page no.
21 24 25 25

List of Acronyms
OFDM PAPR CDMA FDM ISI ICI PAP PA QPSK DFT IDFT PTS RF BER CDF FEC QAM Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Peak To Average Power Ratio Code Division Multiple Access Frequency Division Multiplexing Inter Symbol Interference Inter Carrier Interference. Peak Average Power Power Amplifier Quadrature Phase Shift Keying Discrete Fourier Transform Inverse Discrete Fourier Transform Partial Transmit Sequence. Radio Frequency Bit Error Rate Cumulative Distribution Function Forward Error Correction Quadrature Amplitude Modulation

Page No. Abstract List of Figures List of Tables List of Acronyms 3 4 4 5

1. INTRODUCTION 2. LITERATURE SURVEY 2.1 Introduction to Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing 2.2 DEVELOPMENT OF OFDM SYSTEMS 2.2.1 2.2.2 Frequency Division Multiplexing Multicarrier modulation.

8 9 9 9 9 10 10 11 11 12 12 13 13 15 15 16 16 16 16 16 16

2.3 OFDM Theory 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 2.3.4 2.3.5 2.3.6 Orthogonality Sub carriers. Inter-symbol Interference Inter-carrier Interference Cyclic Prefix Inverse Discrete Fourier Transform

2.4 Modulation and Demodulation in OFDM system 2.4.1 2.4.2 2.4.3 2.4.4 2.4.5 2.4.6 2.4.7 Modulation :QAM IFFT Parallel to Series Convertor Guard Interval Insertion Transmit Filter Communication channel Demodulation Blocks

2.5 Peak To Average Power Ratio in OFDM: An Overview 2.5.1 2.5.2 2.5.3 Introduction Peak To Average Power Concern PAPR of Multicarrier Signal 17 17 18 20

2.6 PAPR Reduction Techniques.

2.7 Amplitude Clipping and Filtering 2.7.1 2.7.2 2.7.3 2.7.4 Introduction Clipping Filtering Repetitive Clipping and Frequency Domain Filtering Combination of Interleaving with Repetitive Clipping and Frequency Domain Filtering 3 System Performance

24 24 24 25

26 27

4 Conclusion and Future Scope References Acknowledgement

33 35

1. Introduction
Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) technology is one of the most attractive candidates for fourth generation (4G) wireless communication. It effectively combats the multipath fading channel and improves the bandwidth efficiency. At the same time, it also increases system capacity so as to provide a reliable transmission. OFDM uses the principles of Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM) but in much more controlled manner, allowing an improved spectral efficiency. The basic principle of OFDM is to split a high-rate data stream into a number of lower rate streams that are transmitted simultaneously over a number of subcarriers. These subcarriers are overlapped with each other. Because the symbol duration increases for lower rate parallel subcarriers, the relative amount of dispersion in time caused by multipath delay spread is decreased. Inter-symbol interference (ISI) is eliminated almost completely by introducing a guard time in every OFDM symbol. OFDM faces several challenges. The key challenges are ISI due to multipath-use guard interval, large peak to average ratio due to non linearity of amplifier; phase noise problems of oscillator, need frequency offset correction in the receiver. Large peak-to-average power (PAP) ratio distorts the signal if the transmitter contains nonlinear components such as power amplifiers (PAs). The nonlinear effects on the transmitted OFDM symbols are spectral spreading, inter modulation and changing the signal constellation. In other words, the nonlinear distortion causes both in-band and out-of-band interference to signals. Therefore the PAs requires a back off which is approximately equal to the PAPR for distortion-less transmission. This decreases the efficiency for amplifiers. Therefore, reducing the PAPR is of practical interest. Many PAPR reduction methods have been proposed. Some methods are designed based on employing redundancy, such as coding, selective mapping with explicit or implicit side information, or tone reservation. An apparent effect of using redundancy for PAPR reduction is the reduced transmission rate. PAPR reduction may also be achieved by using extended signal constellation, such as tone injection, or multi-amplitude CPM. The associated drawback is the increased power and implementation complexity. A simple PAPR reduction method can be achieved by clipping the time-domain OFDM signal. In this paper, I focus on Iterative clipping and filtering technique to reduce the PAPR.

2. Literature Survey 2.1 Introduction to Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing With the ever growing demand of this generation, need for high speed communication has become an utmost priority. Various multicarrier modulation techniques have evolved in order to meet these demands, few notable among them being Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) and Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM). Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing is a frequency division multiplexing (FDM) scheme utilized as a digital multi carrier modulation method. A large number of closely spaced orthogonal sub carriers is used to carry data. The data is divided into several parallel streams of channels, one for each sub carriers. Each sub carrier is modulated with a conventional modulation scheme (such as QPSK) at a low symbol rate, maintaining total data rates similar to the conventional single carrier modulation schemes in the same bandwidth. 2.2 Development Of OFDM Systems The development of OFDM systems can be divided into three parts. This comprises of Frequency Division Multiplexing, Multicarrier Communication and Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing. 2.2.1 Frequency Division Multiplexing Frequency Division Multiplexing is a form of signal multiplexing which involves assigning non overlapping frequency ranges or channels to different signals or to each user of a medium. A gap or guard band is left between each of these channels to ensure that the signal of one channel does not overlap with the signal from an adjacent one. Due to lack of digital filters it was difficult to filter closely packed adjacent channels.

Figure 2.1 FDM Multiplexing Process


2.2.2 Multicarrier Communication As it is ineffective to transfer a high rate data stream through a channel, the signal is split to give a number of signals over that frequency range. Each of these signals are individually modulated and transmitted over the channel. At the receiver end, these signals are fed to a de multiplexer where it is demodulated and re combined to obtain the original signal.

Figure 2.2 Block Diagram of Multicarrier Modulation

2.3 OFDM THEORY Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing is a special form of multicarrier modulation which is particularly suited for transmission over a dispersive channel. Here the different carriers are orthogonal to each other, that is, they are totally independent of one another. This is achieved by placing the carrier exactly at the nulls in the modulation spectra of each other.


Figure 2.3 Spectrum of OFDM pulse [2] 2.3.1 Orthogonality Two periodic signals are orthogonal when the integral of their product over one period is equal to zero. For the case of continuous time:

For the case of discrete time:

Where mn in both cases.

2.3.2 Sub Carriers Each sub carrier in an OFDM system is a sinusoid with a frequency that is an integer multiple of a fundamental frequency. Each sub carrier is like a Fourier series component of the composite signal, an OFDM symbol. The sub carriers waveform can be expressed as



The sum of the sub carriers is then the baseband OFDM signal:

2.3.3 Inter Symbol Interference Inter symbol interference (ISI) is a form of distortion of a signal in which one symbol interferes with subsequent symbols. This is an unwanted phenomenon as the previous symbols have similar effect as noise, thus making the communication less reliable. ISI is usually caused by multipath propagation or the inherent non linear frequency response of a channel causing successive symbols to blur together. The presence of ISI in the system introduces error in the decision device at the receiver output. Therefore, in the design of the transmitting and receiving filters, the objective is to minimize the effects of ISI and thereby deliver the digital data to its destination with the smallest error rate possible. 2.3.4 Inter Carrier Interference Presence of Doppler shifts and frequency and phase offsets in an OFDM system causes loss in orthogonality of the sub carriers. As a result, interference is observed between subcarriers. This phenomenon is known as inter carrier interference (ICI).


2.3.5 Cyclic Prefix The Cyclic Prefix or Guard Interval is a periodic extension of the last part of an OFDM symbol that is added to the front of the symbol in the transmitter, and is removed at the receiver before demodulation. The cyclic prefix has to two important benefits The cyclic prefix acts as a guard interval. It eliminates the inter symbol interference from the previous symbol. It acts as a repetition of the end of the symbol thus allowing the linear convolution of a frequency selective multipath channel to be modelled as circular convolution which in turn maybe transformed to the frequency domain using a discrete Fourier transform. This approach allows for simple frequency domain processing such as channel estimation and equalization.

Figure 2.4 Symbol Structure of OFDM word with Cyclic Prefix [2] 2.3.6 Inverse Discrete Fourier Transform By working with OFDM in frequency domain the modulated QPSK data symbols are fed onto the orthogonal sub-carriers. But transfer of signal over a channel is only possible in its time-domain. For which we implement IDFT which converts the OFDM signal in from frequency domain to time domain.


IDFT being a linear transformation can be easily applied to the system and DFT can be applied at the receiver end to regain the original data in frequency domain at the receiver end. Since the basis of Fourier transform is orthogonal in nature we can implement to get the time domain equivalent of the OFDM signal from its frequency components. Usually, in practice instead of DFT and IDFT we implement Fast Fourier Transformation for an N-input signal system because of the lower hardware complexity of the system.


2.4 Modulation & Demodulation In OFDM Systems

Figure 2.5 Block Diagram of Modulation and Demodulation of OFDM [2]

2.4.1 Modulation: QAM Modulation is the technique by which the signal wave is transformed in order to send it over the communication channel in order to minimize the effect of noise. This is done in order to ensure that the received data can be demodulated to give back the original data. In an OFDM system, the high data rate information is divided into small packets of data which are placed orthogonal to each other. This is achieved by modulating the data by a desirable modulation technique (QAM). Like all modulation schemes, QAM conveys data by changing some aspect of a carrier signal, or the carrier wave, (usually a sinusoid) in response to a data signal. In the case of QAM, the amplitude of two waves, 90 out-of-phase with each other (in Quadrature) are changed (modulated or keyed) to represent the data signal. Amplitude modulating two carriers in Quadrature can be equivalently viewed as both amplitude modulating and phase modulating a single carrier.


2.4.2 IFFT: After this, IFFT is performed on the modulated signal to convert the signal from frequency domain to time domain as only a time domain signal can be transmitted over a carrier. The size of IFFT is chosen with care as the no. of data points used for IFFT affect the systems performance on PAPR front. 2.4.3 Parallel to Series Convertor IFFT provides parallel inputs. That needs to be converted into serial one for transmission over channel. Parallel to series convertor gives a serial output to GII 2.4.4 Guard Interval Insertion Guard interval or cyclic prefix is added to OFDM symbol to avoid inter symbol interference. It acts as a repetition of the end of the symbol thus allowing the linear convolution of a frequency selective multipath channel to be modelled as circular convolution 2.4.5 Transmit Filter Transmit filter (BPF) centred around the subcarrier frequencies are used to filter out the individual subcarrier components of OFDM for noise removal 2.4.6 Communication Channel This is the channel through which the data is transferred. Presence of noise in this medium affects the signal and causes distortion in its data content. It can be coaxial cable, copper wire or wireless RF. 2.4.7 Demodulation Blocks Demodulation is the technique by which the original data (or a part of it) is recovered from the modulated signal which is received at the receiver end. In this case, the received data is first made to pass through a low pass filter to remove any noise inserted while transmission through channel. The GIR removes the cyclic prefix. FFT of the signal is done to convert the time domain signal into the original frequency domain. Then it is made to pass through a serial to parallel converter. A demodulator is used, to get back the original signal.

2.5 Peak To Average Power Ratio In OFDM: An Overview 2.5.1 Introduction OFDM is one of the many multicarrier modulation techniques, which provides high spectral efficiency, low implementation complexity, less vulnerability to echoes and non linear distortion. Due to these advantages of the OFDM system, it is vastly used in various communication systems. But the major problem one faces while implementing this system is the high peak to average power ratio of this system. A large PAPR increases the complexity of the analog to digital and digital to analog converter and reduces the efficiency of the radio frequency (RF) power amplifier. Regulatory and application constraints can be implemented to reduce the peak transmitted power which in turn reduces the range of multi carrier transmission. This leads to the prevention of spectral growth and the transmitter power amplifier is no longer confined to linear region in which it should operate. This has a harmful effect on the battery lifetime. Thus in communication system, it is observed that all the potential benefits of multi carrier transmission can be out - weighed by a high PAPR value. There are a number of techniques to deal with the problem of PAPR. Some of them are amplitude clipping, clipping and filtering, coding, partial transmit sequence (PTS), selected mapping (SLM) and interleaving. These techniques achieve PAPR reduction at the expense of transmit signal power increase, bit error rate (BER) increase, data rate loss, computational complexity increase, and so on . 2.5.2 Peak To Average Power Ratio Presence of large number of independently modulated sub-carriers in an OFDM system the peak value of the system can be very high as compared to the average of the whole system. This ratio of the peak to average power value is termed as Peak-to-Average Power Ratio. Coherent addition of N signals of same phase produces a peak which is N times the average signal. The major disadvantages of a high PAPR are1. Increased complexity in the analog to digital and digital to analog converter. 2. Reduction is efficiency of RF amplifiers.


2.5.3 PAPR Of A Multicarrier Signal Let the data block of length N is represented by a vector Duration of any symbol .

in the set X is T and represents one of the sub carriers set. As the N sub carriers chosen to transmit the signal are

orthogonal to each other, so we can have


and NT is the

duration of the OFDM data block X. The complex data block for the OFDM signal to be transmitted is given by

The PAPR of the transmitted signal is defined as

Reducing the max|x (t)| is the principle goal of PARP reduction techniques. Since, discrete- time signals are dealt with in most systems, many PAPR techniques are implemented to deal with amplitudes of various samples of x (t). The Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF) is one of the most regularly used parameters, which is used to measure the efficiency of any PAPR technique. Normally, the Complementary CDF (CCDF) is used instead of CDF, which helps us to measure the probability that the PAPR of a certain data block exceeds the given threshold. By implementing the Central Limit Theorem for a multi carrier signal with a large number of sub-carriers, the real and imaginary part of the time domain signals have a mean of zero and a variance of 0.5 and follow a Gaussian distribution. So Rayleigh distribution is followed for the amplitude of the multi carrier signal, where as a central chi-square distribution with two degrees of freedom is followed for the power distribution of the system. The CDF of the amplitude of a signal sample is given by


The CCDF of the PAPR of the data block is desired is our case to compare outputs of various reduction techniques. This is given by


2.6 PAPR Reduction Techniques: 2.6.1 Introduction PAPR reduction techniques vary according to the needs of the system and are dependent on various factors. PAPR reduction capacity, increase in power in transmit signal, loss in data rate, complexity of computation and increase in the bit-error rate at the receiver end are various factors which are taken into account before adopting a PAPR reduction technique of the system. The PAPR reduction techniques are basically of two types. They are Signal Scrambling and Signal Distortion. Their respective types are as follows.

Signal Scrambling Techniques Block Coding

Figure 2.6 Block Diagram : Block Coding Technique[6] The fundamental idea is that of all probable message symbols, only those which have law peak power will be chosen by coding as valid code words for transmission. No introduction of distortion to the signals [4].


Selected Mapping

Figure 2.7 Block Diagram : Selective Mapping Technique[7] In this a set of sufficiently different data blocks representing the information same as the original data blocks are selected. Selection of data blocks with low PAPR value makes it suitable for transmission [4]. Partial Transmit Sequence

Figure 2.8 : Block Diagram: Partial Transmit Sequence Technique[8] Transmitting only part of data of varying sub-carrier which covers all the information to be sent in the signal as a whole is called Partial Transmit Sequence Technique [4]. Tone Reservation The main idea of this method is to keep a small set of tones for PAPR reduction. This can be originated as a convex problem and this problem can be solved accurately. Tone reservation method is based on adding a data block and time domain signal [4].


Tone Injection This technique is based on general additive method for PAPR reduction. Using an additive method achieves PAPR reduction of multicarrier signal without any data rate loss. TI uses a set of equivalent constellation points for an original constellation points to reduce PAPR [4]. Interleaving The notion that highly correlated data structures have large PAPR can be reduced, if long correlation pattern is broken down. The basic idea in adaptive interleaving is to set up an initial terminating threshold. PAPR value goes below the threshold rather than seeking each interleaved sequences [4].

Signal Distortion Techniques Peak Windowing

Figure 2.9 Process of Peak Windowing[ 9] This method, proposes that it is possible to remove large peaks at the cost of a slight amount of self interference when large peaks arise infrequently. Peak windowing reduces PAPRs at the cost of increasing the BER and out-of-band radiation [4]. Envelope Scaling

Figure 2.10 Block Diagram of Envelop Scaling [10]


The key idea of this scheme is that the input envelope in some sub carrier is scaled to achieve the smallest amount of PAPR at the output of the IFFT. Thus, the receiver of the system doesnt need any side information for decoding the receiver sequence. [4] Peak Reduction Carrier It includes the use of a higher order modulation scheme to represent a lower order modulation symbol. The amplitude and phase of the PRC is positioned within the constellation region symbolizing the data symbol to be transmitted. This method is suitable for PSK modulation [4]. Amplitude Clipping And Filtering A threshold value of the amplitude is set in this process and any sub-carrier having amplitude more than that value is clipped or that sub-carrier is filtered to bring out a lower PAPR value. One of the simple and effective PAPR reduction techniques is clipping, which cancels the signal components that exceed some unchanging amplitude called clip level. However, clipping yields distortion power, which called clipping noise, and expands the transmitted signal spectrum, which causes interfering. Clipping is nonlinear process and causes in-band noise distortion, which causes degradation in the performance of bit BER and out-of-band noise, which decreases the spectral efficiency [4]. The following table shows a basic comparison of various PAPR reduction schemes according to multiple criteria. Table 2.1 Comparison of Various PAPR Reduction Techniques [4].


2.7 Amplitude Clipping And Filtering 2.7.1 Introduction Amplitude clipping is considered as the simplest technique which may be under taken for PAPR reduction in an OFDM system. A threshold value of the amplitude is set in this case to limit the peak envelope of the input signal. Signal having values higher than this predetermined value are clipped and the rest are allowed to pass through un-disturbed.


B(x) = the amplitude value after clipping. x = the initial signal value. A = the threshold set by the user for clipping the signal.

The problem in this case is that due to amplitude clipping distortion is observed in the system which can be viewed as another source of noise. This distortion falls in both in band and out of band. Filtering cannot be implemented to reduce the in band distortion and an error performance degradation is observed here. On the other hand spectral efficiency is hampered by out of band radiation. Out of band radiation can be reduced by filtering after clipping but this may result in some peak re growth. A repeated filtering and clipping operation can be implemented to solve this problem. The desired amplitude level is only achieved after several iteration of this process.

2.7.2 Clipping Filtering Clipping and filtering technique is effective in removing components of the expanded spectrum. Although filtering can decrease the spectrum growth, filtering after clipping can reduce the out-of-band radiation, but may also cause some peak re-growth, which the peak signal exceeds in the clip level.

Figure2.11 Block Diagram of iterative clipping-filtering. [3]

The technique of iterative clipping and filtering reduces the PAPR without spectrum expansion. However, the iterative signal takes long time and it will increase the computational complexity of an OFDM transmitter. But without performing interpolation before clipping causes it out-of-band. To avoid out-of-band, signal should be clipped after interpolation. However, this causes significant peak re-growth. So, it can use iterative clipping and frequency domain filtering to avoid peak re-growth. In the system used, serial to parallel converter converts serial input data having different frequency component which are base band modulated symbols and apply interpolation to these symbols by zero padding in the middle of input data. Then clipping operation is performed to cut high peak amplitudes and frequency domain filtering is used to reduce the out of band signal, but caused peak regrowth. This consists of two FFT operations. Forward FFT transforms the clipped signal back to discrete frequency domain. The in-band discrete components are passed unchanged to inputs of second IFFT while out of band components are null. But heavy clipping causes about 1 dB lower average EVM. Clipping introduces in band distortion and out-of-band signals, which can be controlled by proper filtering. 2.7.3 Repeated Clipping and Frequency Domain Filtering A clipping method in its basic form is based on simple time domain signal limitation. Clipped signal can be Expressed by following relationship:


Where A is the clipping level and

is the phase of original signal S (t) by this

limitation, the peak values of signal are removed that results in PAPR reduction. However, the clipping introduces signal distortion resulting in adjacent channel emissions. This undesirable effect can be suppressed by low pass filtering of clipped signal that unfortunately further increases the PAPR. Armstrong developed a method based on K-times repetition of the clipping and filtering process. [5]. Therefore both PAPR and adjacent spectral emissions are reduced, although the PAPR reduction is far from simple clipping case. In this paper results for repeated clipping are discussed. 2.7.4 Combination of Interleaving With Repeated Clipping and Filtering In paper, authors used a combination of interleaving (adaptive sym1bol selection) with simple clipping followed by a filter increasing the PAPR. We have chosen a concatenation of interleaving and repeated clipping and frequency domain filtering or its simplified non iterative alternative. First, the interleaving approach is used and the signal with lowest PAPR is then passed through clipping and filtering method. The intention to combine these two methods is to obtain signal with lower PAPR than in the case of interleaving method and with lower distortion (and thus lower bit error rate) than in the case of standalone Repeated clipping and filtering. As both methods used in the combination suffer from high complexity, the main disadvantage of the combined method is above all the complexity. Moreover, side information (SI) to identify the interleaver with lowest PAPR has to be sent to receiver for each OFDM symbol. Without this side information, it is not possible to decode the data. As the correct decoding of side information is fundamental for the performance of OFDM modem, the SI can thus be either mapped using modulation with lower number of states or encoded by FEC. The complexity of the presented combined method can be dramatically reduced using the recently proposed method Simplified clipping and filtering instead of the repeated clipping and frequency domain filtering method. This case has been also considered in our paper and this method is recommended for practical use.


3. System Performance.
As discussed in earlier chapters, OFDM is an advantageous scheme used in almost all modern and up to date communication systems. The main disadvantage it has is the high PAPR. The report suggests the method of repetitive (iterative) clipping and filtering to overcome this problem. In the system overview some simulation results are shown to illustrate the point that PAPR can be effectively reduced using the suggested technique. The first simulation result shows that PAPR is reduced by the use of suggested technique for phase shift keying modulation. The table gives the near accurate PAPR readings before and after clipping-filtering and high power amplification for QPSK and BPSK. It also shows that PAPR values also depend upon IFFT size and number of data points.

Table3.1 PAPR without and with clipping for PSK [1]

The next table is the obtained simulation result for single iteration of clipping filtering for QAM. The table considers different numbers of frame and different power spectral densities of QAM. It shows significant decline in PAPR and a small value of Bit Error Rate (BER)


Table3.1 PAPR before and after clipping filtering for QAM [1]

The third table shows the results of repetitive clipping and filtering for various numbers of data points. A significant decline is observed for every iteration of the clipping- filtering operation. Table3.2 PAPR for QAM: Original and repetitive clipping - filtering. [2]


4. Conclusions and Future Scope

During the literature survey for this seminar, I have covered the basics of FDM, OFDM and PAPR reduction. I have also taken introduction of various schemes for PAPR reduction and elaborated clipping filtering. This report also contains detailed description of OFDM basics, Modulation and demodulation process and entire theoretical explanation for the execution of ClippingFiltering method of reduction in PAPR. The system Performance overview also shows the results of simulations that are referenced bellow. In this paper some PAPR reduction carried out by clipping technique in two ways for modulation techniques like BPSK, QPSK, 16-QAM. Results are compared as per the tabular data shown over here. Here we can conclude that in case of BPSK modulation we get maximum PAPR reduction for IFFT size of 32 while data points are 512. Its up to: 13.525361 dB. Here also we can conclude that In case of QPSK modulation we get maximum PAPR reduction while IFFT size is 32 for 512 data bits. Its up to: 17.384791 dB.

The robust high-bandwidth capabilities of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) confer immediate advantages on wireless products that can take advantage of it--and many types of networking systems are doing so. OFDM underlies the existing IEEE 802.11a wireless LAN (WLAN) standard and the proposed IEEE 802.11g WLAN standard, as well as digital cable, DSL, digital TV, and power-line networking products. OFDM is also being considered for use in 4G cellular systems. The reasons for this widespread interest become clear from a glance at OFDM characteristics. In 802.11a, OFDM provides raw data rates up to 54 Mbits/s in a 20-MHz channel. In addition to supporting high data capacity and resisting degradation from various types of radio effects, OFDM makes highly efficient use of the available spectrum. The latter characteristic will become crucial in coming years as wireless networks are built out, especially in enterprise environments. 4.1 Managing Imperfect Airwaves All wireless systems have to deal with the many unruly ways in which radio signals behave in the real world. Along with the general challenges of signal-to-noise ratio, the main

types of problems are self-interference (intersymbol interference or ISI) and fading owing to multipath effects, which occur when the same signal arrives at a receiver via different paths. The main way to prevent multipath errors is to transmit a short block of data (a symbol) then wait until all the multipath echoes fade before sending another symbol. This waiting time is often referred to as the guard interval. The longer the guard interval, the more robust the system is in the presence of multipath effects. But during the guard interval, the system gets no use from the available spectrum. So the longer the wait, the lower the effective channel capacity. Some guard interval is necessary for any wireless system, but the goal is to minimize that interval and maximize the symbol transmission time. OFDM meets this challenge by dividing transmissions among multiple subcarriers. The same guard interval can then be applied to each subcarrier, while the symbol transmission time is multiplied by the number of subcarriers. Since 802.11a OFDM uses 52 subcarriers, for example, an 802.11a WLAN can afford 52 times the guard interval than a single-carrier system could. The 802.11a subcarriers are spaced 312.5-kHz apart. The symbol period is 3.2 s plus an 800-ns guard interval. The system thus tolerates peak multipath delays of nearly 800 ns. Compared with the 65 ns of multipath tolerance provided by many 802.11b direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) based products, OFDM represents a 12-plus times improvement in multipath tolerance. Using multiple subcarriers also makes OFDM systems more robust in the presence of fading. Because fading typically decreases the received signal strength at particular frequencies, the problem affects only a few of the subcarriers at any given time. Errorcorrecting codes provide redundant information that enables OFDM receivers to restore the information lost in these few erroneous subcarriers. Each of the subcarriers in an OFDM system can be modulated individually using whatever technique suits the application. In 802.11a, the choices include BPSK, QPSK, 16QAM, and 64-QAM.


After modulation, the data from all the subcarriers are converted to a single stream of symbols for transmission. At the receiver, the stream is converted to the frequency domain via fast Fourier transform (FFT), then each "frequency bin" (subcarrier) is decoded separately. 4.2 Need of Orthogonality Traditionally, frequency division multiplexing (FDM) has used conventional filtering to separate subcarriers at the receiver. This approach required the insertion of significant guard bands between the subcarriers (different from the guard intervals that prevent ISI). Making the subcarriers mathematically orthogonal was a breakthrough for OFDM because it enables OFDM receivers to separate the subcarriers via an FFT and eliminate the guard bands. As Fig. 1 shows, OFDM subcarriers can overlap to make full use of the spectrum, but at the peak of each subcarrier spectrum, the power in all the other subcarriers is zero. OFDM therefore offers higher data capacity in a given spectrum while allowing a simpler system design. Creating orthogonal subcarriers in the transmitter is easy using an inverse FFT. To ensure that this orthogonality is maintained at the receiver (so that the subcarriers are not misaligned), the system must keep the transmitter and receiver clocks closely synchronized--within 2 parts per million in 802.11a systems. The 802.11a standard therefore dedicates four of its 52 subcarriers as pilots that enable phase-lock loops in the receiver to track the phase and frequency of the incoming signal. This method also eliminates lowfrequency phase noise. Separating the subcarriers via an FFT requires about an order of magnitude fewer multiply-accumulate operations than individually filtering each carrier. In general, an FFT implementation is much simpler than the RAKE receivers used for CDMA and the decisionfeedback equalizers for TDMA. The complexity advantage of OFDM grows dramatically as the data rate increases. The complexity of the transceivers is hidden inside the chipsets that implement a particular standard, but reducing device complexity and signal-processing requirements lead to benefits

customers can see. A simpler chip is more reliable and can reduce costs. Perhaps more important, the simpler circuitry helps reduce the system's power demands--a crucial advantage for mobile devices. 4.3 The Wireless Future Since inexpensive and high-performance CMOS 802.11a chipsets entered the market in September 2001, the relative merits of 802.11a and 802.11b have increasingly been debated. However, 802.11a's underlying OFDM technology is easily superior to 802.11b's DSSS approach in terms of both bandwidth and robustness, so for technologists the debate has been a nonstarter. The supporters of 802.11b have even adopted OFDM as the technology of choice for eventual successor products to 802.11b in the 2.4-GHz band. The proposed standard for these products is 802.11g. The introduction of chipsets that support both 802.11a and 802.11b as well as the 802.11g draft standard has resolved the debate about WLAN standards. With the ability to choose any of these standards, increasing numbers of users will see the advantages of OFDM first hand. 802.11a's combination of OFDM and the interference-free 300-MHz-wide 5-GHz band are proving that the future of WLANs lies in this direction. [11]


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The potion of success is brewed by the efforts put in by many individuals. It is constant support provided by people who give you the initiative, who inspire you at each step of your endeavour that eventually helps you in your goal. I wish to express my deep gratitude and heartily appreciation for the invaluable guidance of our professors throughout the span of preparing this seminar. We are indebted to our college Principal Dr. S. P. Bhosle. I am also thankful to our HOD and my Seminar Guide Prof. Mrs. V. M. Kulkarni for her invaluable and elaborate suggestions. Her excellent guidance made me to complete this task successfully within a short duration. The inspiration behind the every aspect of life constructs a way to get success, which I have got from all the professors of the department. No thanks giving would be complete without mentioning our parents and friends, without their constant support and encouragement, this assignment would have not been successful.