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[Biology Form 4] Animal Cell & Plant Cell

>>> Pakej Pembelajaran & Penilaian Online <<< The cell is the basic unit of all organism. It is made up of a cell membrane that encloses the cytoplasm. Contained within the cytoplasm are not only the nucleus but also organelles, whose specific functions help the cell perform a range of activities. While plant and animal cells are similar, the plant cell has, in addition to the cell membrane, another boundary that separates it from its external environment. This is called the cell wall. As most plant cells carry out photosynthesis - the synthesis of organic substances they contain chloroplasts. In plant cells, vacuoles also tend to be larger in size and smaller in number than those found in animal cells. Onion Skin Cell

Cheek Squamous Epithelial Cells

Typical Plant Cell

Typical Animal Cell

In the laboratory, you have learned how to prepare a microscope slide of human cheek cells as well as the epidermal cells of onions. a) The differences you can observe between the two types of cells in term of the following: Shape Onion cells have a regular shape while cheek cells have an irregular shape. Presence or absence of cell Onion cells have a cell wall while cheek cells do not. wall

Presence or absence of vacuoles Onion cells have a large vacuole while vacuoles in cheek cells, if present, are small.

b) Can you observe chloroplasts in the epidermal cells of onions? Explain your answer. No chloroplasts can be observed in the epidermal cells of onions because epidermal cells do not carry out photosynthesis.

[Biology Form 4] Cell Division

>>> Pakej Pembelajaran & Penilaian Online <<< Have you ever wondered how it is possible for our human body to go through growth and development? What happens when cells in our body are damaged? The answer lies in cell division. New cells replace old and damaged ones, and increase in number and size that lead to our growth. The cell division that contributes to the replacement of cells as well as tissue growth and repair is known as mitosis.

Mitosis involves the division of one cell into two new cells that are genetically identical to their parent cell. How is this likeness formed?

The DNA existing within the chromosomes of a cell's nucleus can make an exact copy of itself. This means that all chromosomes within the nucleus duplicate (or replicate) themselves. That is why when the cytoplasm divides later, each of the two daughter cells has exact copies of the original chromosomes and DNA! Note: During the division, the cell splits the copied chromosomes equally to make sure that each daughter cell has a full set. Refer to the following diagram, which depicts the series of stages, known as the cell cycle, undergone by a cell that is about to divide. Basically, the cell grows, copies (or duplicate) its chromosomes, and then divides to form two new and identical cells.

[Biology Form 4] Cell Structure & Organisation

>>> Pakej Pembelajaran & Penilaian Online <<< 1. Study the diagrams below. Identify the structures organelles (A J) and complete the following table. or

Name of organelle / structure A Rough endoplasmic reticulum Mitochondrion


Consequence if absent No transportation of proteins Energy cannot be produced Have irregular shape (eg. Animal cell) Lipid and glycerol cannot be transport No cell division, all cell activities stop.

Transporting proteins

Site for energy production Give fixed shape to the cell

Cell wall

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

Transport lipid and glyserol


Control cell activities, contains genetic material. Storing nutrients (sugar and amino acid) in its sap. Food storage, medium for metabolic reaction


Cannot store nutrients


No site for metabolic reaction No selective barrier No enzymes being released Photosynthesis cannot occur

Plasma membrane

Controlling entry and exit of substances Releases enzymes outside the cell. Carries out photosynthesis Storing and transporting lipids. Produces glycoprotein, polysaccharide and secretory enzyme.



Golgi apparatus

2. Give two differences between animal and plant cell Any two differences: Cell wall, Vacuole, Centriole, Storage granule, Chloroplast

3. a) What is cell specialization? Cell changes in structure or function in order to carry out a specific function. b) How are cells organised into a multicellular organism? Cell --> Tissue --> Organ --> System --> Organism c) Give an example of each type of cell organization in human. Epithelium Cell --> Epithelium Tissue --> Stomach --> Digestive System

[Biology Form 4] Meiosis

>>> Pakej Pembelajaran & Penilaian Online <<< In biology, meiosis (mass) is a process of reductional division in which the number of chromosomes per cell is halved. In animals, meiosis always results in the formation of gametes, while in other organisms it can give rise to spores. As with mitosis, before meiosis begins, the DNA in the original cell is replicated during S-phase of the cell cycle. Two cell divisions separate the replicated chromosomes into four haploid gametes or spores.

Meiosis is essential for sexual reproduction and therefore occurs in all eukaryotes (including single-celled organisms) that reproduce sexually. A few eukaryotes, notably the Bdelloid rotifers, have lost the ability to carry out meiosis and have acquired the ability to reproduce by parthenogenesis. Meiosis does not occur in archaea or bacteria, which reproduce via asexual processes such as binary fission. During meiosis, the genome of a diploid germ cell, which is composed of long segments of DNA packaged into chromosomes, undergoes DNA replication followed by two rounds of division, resulting in four haploid cells. Each of these cells contain one complete set of chromosomes, or half of the genetic content of the original cell. If meiosis produces gametes, these cells must fuse during fertilization to create a new diploid cell, or zygote before any new growth can occur. Thus, the division mechanism of meiosis is a reciprocal process to the joining of two genomes that occurs at fertilization. Because the chromosomes of each parent undergo genetic recombination during meiosis, each gamete, and thus each zygote, will have a unique genetic blueprint encoded in its DNA. Together, meiosis and fertilization constitute sexuality in the eukaryotes, and generate genetically distinct individuals in populations. In all plants, and in many protists, meiosis results in the formation of haploid cells that can divide vegetatively without undergoing fertilization, referred to as spores. In these groups, gametes are produced by mitosis.

Meiosis uses many of the same biochemical mechanisms employed during mitosis to accomplish the redistribution of chromosomes. There are several features unique to meiosis, most importantly the pairing and genetic recombination between homologous chromosomes. Meiosis comes from the root -meio, meaning less.

Meiosis In Humans
>>> Pakej Pembelajaran & Penilaian Online <<< In females, meiosis occurs in cells known as oogonia (singular: oogonium). Each oogonium that initiates meiosis will divide twice to form a single oocyte and two polar bodies. However, before these divisions occur, these cells stop at the diplotene stage of meiosis I and lay dormant within a protective shell of somatic cells called the follicle. Follicles begin growth at a steady pace in a process known as folliculogenesis, and a small number enter the menstrual cycle. Menstruated oocytes continue meiosis I and arrest at meiosis II until fertilization. The process of meiosis in females occurs during oogenesis, and differs from the typical meiosis in that it features a long period of meiotic arrest known as the Dictyate stage and lacks the assistance of centrosomes. In males, meiosis occurs in precursor cells known as spermatogonia that divide twice to become sperm. These cells continuously divide without arrest in the seminiferous tubules of the testicles. Sperm is produced at a steady pace. The process of meiosis in males occurs during spermatogenesis.

Meiosis - The Significance & Nondisjunction

>>> Pakej Pembelajaran & Penilaian Online <<< Meiosis facilitates stable sexual reproduction. Without the halving of ploidy, or chromosome count, fertilization would result in zygotes that have twice the number of chromosomes as the zygotes from the previous generation. Successive generations would have an exponential increase in chromosome count.

In organisms that are normally diploid, polyploidy, the state of having three or more sets of chromosomes, results in extreme developmental abnormalities or lethality. Polyploidy is poorly tolerated in most animal species. Plants, however, regularly produce fertile, viable polyploids. Polyploidy has been implicated as an important mechanism in plant speciation. Most importantly, recombination and independent assortment homologous chromosomes allow for a greater diversity genotypes in the population. This produces genetic variation gametes that promote genetic and phenotypic variation in population of offspring. of of in a

The normal separation of chromosomes in meiosis I or sister chromatids in meiosis II is termed disjunction. When the separation is not normal, it is called nondisjunction. This results in the production of gametes which have either too many of too few of a particular chromosome, and is a common mechanism for trisomy or monosomy. Nondisjunction can occur in the meiosis I or meiosis II, phases of cellular reproduction, or during mitosis. This is a cause of several medical conditions in humans (such as): Down Syndrome - trisomy of chromosome 21 Patau Syndrome - trisomy of chromosome 13 Edward Syndrome - trisomy of chromosome 18 Klinefelter Syndrome - extra X chromosomes in males ie XXY, XXXY, XXXXY Turner Syndrome - lacking of one X chromosome in females - ie XO Triple X syndrome - an extra X chromosome in females XYY Syndrome - an extra Y chromosome in males

>>> Pakej Pembelajaran & Penilaian Online <<< Mitosis is the process in which a eukaryotic cell separates the chromosomes in its cell nucleus into two identical sets in two daughter nuclei. It is generally followed immediately by cytokinesis, which divides the nuclei, cytoplasm, organelles and cell membrane into two daughter cells containing roughly equal shares of these cellular components. Mitosis and cytokinesis together define the mitotic (M) phase of the cell cycle - the division of the mother cell into two daughter cells, genetically identical to each other and to their parent cell. Mitosis occurs exclusively in eukaryotic cells, but occurs in different ways in different species. For example, animals undergo an "open" mitosis, where the nuclear envelope breaks down before the chromosomes separate, while fungi such as Aspergillus nidulans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast) undergo a "closed" mitosis, where chromosomes divide within an intact cell nucleus. Prokaryotic cells, which lack a nucleus, divide by a process called binary fission. The process of mitosis is complex and highly regulated. The sequence of events is divided into phases, corresponding to the

completion of one set of activities and the start of the next. These stages are prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase. During the process of mitosis the pairs of chromosomes condense and attach to fibers that pull the sister chromatids to opposite sides of the cell. The cell then divides in cytokinesis, to produce two identical daughter cells. Because cytokinesis usually occurs in conjunction with mitosis, "mitosis" is often used interchangeably with "mitotic phase". However, there are many cells where mitosis and cytokinesis occur separately, forming single cells with multiple nuclei. This occurs most notably among the fungi and slime moulds, but is found in various different groups. Even in animals, cytokinesis and mitosis may occur independently, for instance during certain stages of fruit fly embryonic development. Errors in mitosis can either kill a cell through apoptosis or cause mutations that may lead to cancer.

Mitosis divides the chromosomes in a cell nucleus.