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A Green Engineering Approach to Improving Fish Processing Industry In Pidie Jaya And Bireun Regencies (TERAPAN Teknologi Ramah

h Lingkungan untuk Industri Proses Perikanan)

PROPOSED TREATMENT FOR REMOVING WATER IMPURITIES FROM DRILLING WELL


(CASE OF E.COLI IN DRILLING WELL WATER AT PIDIE JAYA REGENCY)

TeukuMukhriza IceFactoryCoordinator TERAPANPROGRAM

I. INTRODUCTION The quality of ice block highly depends on water source used in production. It is required; thereby, in order to ensure that water source complies with water standard for ice production. The ice factory will use water source from drilling well which will be built in this program. Based on laboratory test of water source from adjacent location, an impurity has been found namely E. coli. The test was conducted at health laboratory of Aceh Province on 29 July 2011. Table 1. Laboratory test of water source near the location MICROBIOLOGICAL TEST RESULT Allowed Maximum Content Parameter Unit Health Ministry Regulation RI No. 492/Menkes/Per/TV.2010 4 5 6 Amount per 100 ml sample 0

Lab No. 1 1 (2325)

Location and sample type 2 N = 05o 15' 30,0'' E = 096o 15' 15,0'' Drilling Well Water (100 m)

Date taken/Time Date tested/Tim e 3

TEST RESULT MPN MPN E. Coli/ Coliform/ 100 ml 100 ml 7 18* 8 26* TPC /ml 9 Remark

10 (*) Not Fulfilled Requirement According to: Health Ministry Regulation RI No. 492/Menkes/ Per/TV.2010 On Standard Quality of Potable Water

28/07/2011 a. Potable 29/07/2011 Water 08oo Western E. Coli or Indonesia fecal coli Time b. Water that enters distribution system

From the table above it can be seen that water impurity is e-coli which is detected above normal rate. Thus the proposed water treatment below will concern how to remove e-coli from water distribution system. Storage tank contains water from drilling well with capacity 30,000 liter. Water is then pumped to ice can filler from storage tank. Treatment is suggested to be conducted in piping line between storage tanks to ice can filler provided that ultraviolet light is an option. If we choose to kill ecoli by chlorine, it has to be entered in storage tank. Water distribution scheme is described in Figure 1.

Storage tank Input 2 lt/sec (7200 lt/hr) 30.000 lt

Output 1 lt/sec to ice can filler

Treatment UV light

Drilling well Chlorination treatment

submersible pump Figure 1. Water Distribution System and Possible Water Treatment .

II. THE TREATMENT 1. Ultraviolet Light Ultraviolet lamps of water purification, with much greater radiation intensity than that of sunlight, produce UV-C or "germicidal UV". Almost all UV lamps' output is concentrated in 254 nanometers (nm) region in order to take full advantage of the germicidal properties in this wavelength. Most ultraviolet purification systems are combined with various forms of filtration, as UV light is only capable of killing microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, molds, algae, yeast, and oocysts like cryptosporidium and giardia. UV light generally has no impact on chlorine, VOCs, heavy metals, and other chemical contaminants. The Operation Ultraviolet purification uses a UV light source (lamp) which is enclosed in a protective transparent sleeve (usually quartz). The lamp is mounted such that water passing through a flow chamber is exposed to UV-C light rays. When harmful microbes are exposed to UV rays, their nucleic acid absorbs UV energy, which then disrupts DNA structure of the organism. The cell is rendered sterile and can be no longer reproductive. The cell is now considered dead and no longer as a threat.

Figure 2. Typical UV light water treatment Source : http://www.fao.org/docrep/X5624E/x5624e05.htm

The Advantages The technology offers elimination of a broad range of biological contaminants from their water supply. Recent testing has also shown that UV can be effective at destroying certain VOC's, although it is not specifically recommended for VOC reduction.

UV water treatment also brings many advantages over other forms of water treatment for microbiological contaminants. Most importantly, it does not introduce any chemicals to the water, it produces no by products, and it does not alter the taste, pH, or other properties of the water. Accordingly, in addition to production of safe drinking water, it is not harmful to our plumbing and septic system. The Disadvantages The technology has several limitations: requires electrical connection (usually a standard plug-in) and requires pre-filtration to maintain effectiveness - sediment and other contaminants can create a "Shadow" which prevents the UV rays from reaching the harmful microorganisms. In addition, the technology shows effective implementation only on home usage which has low water flow. This UV technology decreases its capability in high water flow due to lower contact time of UV light. Proper dosage to kill different impurities in water line system is also questionable. The Cost The table below show estimation cost for ultraviolet treatment system. Table 2. Ultraviolet Treatment Cost Estimation No 1 2 3 4 5 Equipment UV light 85 W for 2 L/s Sand filter Pump Installation Annual maintenance TOTAL Unit 4 1 2 Unit Price (IDR) 7,500,000 25,000,000 3,000,000 20,000,000 Total Price (IDR) 30,000,000 25,000,000 6,000,000 20,000,000 15,000,000 96,000,000

2. Chlorination Calcium hypochloride is a widely used chlorine compound that is highly effective against bacteria, algae, slime, fungi and other harmful and objectionable microorganisms. Since calcium hypochlorite as a solution is a very efficient killer of virtually any bacteria, algae and other objectionable microorganisms, it is used as a standard for comparison testing of other sanitizing chemicals. Chlorine-based disinfection has a long history: the first time when bleach was used to disinfect water was in 1897 to combat a typhoid outbreak in Maidstone, Kent (UK). Water chlorination has played a role in extending life expectancy from 45 years in the early 1900s to 76 years today (World Health Organization). The use of chlorine and filtration to purify drinking water was cited by Life Magazine (1997) as probably the most significant public health advance of the millennium. The Advantages Chlorine acts as a powerful disinfectant when used either on its own, as sodium hypochlorite (bleach) or as calcium hypochlorite. Added to water in minute quantities, it quickly kills bacteria and other microbes. Chlorine has the major advantage of ensuring clean water right up to the tap. Chlorination is by far the most common method used globally to disinfect wastewater. It kills pathogens, and prevents their accumulation in fish, shellfish and other aquatic organisms. It also destroys a variety of bacteria, viruses and protozoa, including Salmonella, Shigella and Vibrio cholerae. The Disadvantages Several limitation of calcium hypochlorite are listed below : Calcium hypochlorite is not stable and must be stored in air-tight drums and light proof containers It is difficult to control the rate of addition of hypochlorites in proportion to water flow. Hypochlorites raise the pH in water. The Implementation Chlorine is a strong oxidizing material that can work under conditions of low pH and oxidize quickly. It is required 0.8 to 1 mg/L to kill e-coli. The calcium hypochlorite should be mixed with water to form a solution with a constant strength. This is carried out with specific automatic feed system such as dosing pump. Injection rate can be adjusted by regulating the number of strokes on the dosing pump. Diagram of injection can be seen in the picture below.

Dosing pump

Water pump

Calcium hypochlorite

Figure 3 Injection system of calcium hypochlorite Source: BPPT (2011) The Cost The table below show estimation cost for chlorination treatment system. Table 3. Cost Estimation of Calcium Hypochlorite Treatment No 1 2 3 4 5 Equipment Dosing pump Agitator Calcium hypochlorite Installation Annual maintenance TOTAL Unit 1 1 60 kg Unit Price (IDR) 17,500,000 10,000,000 1,500,000 15,000,000 Total Price (IDR) 17,500,000 10,000,000 1,500,000 15,000,000 5,000,000 49,000,000

III. RECOMMENDATION Having discussed with environmental specialist (Dr. Ir. Yunardi) and carried out literature research, it is recommended that chlorination as an option to remove impurity namely e-coli in water distribution of ice factory that will be built in Pidie Jaya Regency. The technology requires fewer budgets and easier maintenance. Chlorination has also been common practice for water treatment in Indonesia while UV light is a brand new technology in Indonesia. The limitation of UV light will also lie on the thickness of water film flow. In greater water flow, UV light is not able to remove e-coli effectively. Thickness of the water film should not exceed 7.5 cm. Regular inspection and maintenance should be paid on this technologies due to the lamp will decrease its ability in long term use.

References: Anonymous (2011), Ultraviolet Water Purification UV, http://www.home-water-purifiers-and-filters.com Anomymous, Water Quality Monitoring, Standards And Treatment Chapter 2, FAO, Http://www.fao.org/docrep/X5624E/x5624e05.htm Lechevallier and Au (2004), Water treatment and pathogen control, World Health Organization SNI 6775:2008, Tata cara pengoperasian dan pemeliharaan unit paket Instalasi Pengolahan Air, Badan Standardisasi Nasional BPPT (2011), Seri Buku Air Minum, www.kelair.bppt.go.id/Publikasi/BukuAirMinum/