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Figure 1 Figure 1 shows a lipopolysaccharides chemical structure that was component of cell wall of gram-negative bacteria. How gram-negative bacteria increase the production of this chemical? (1 mark)

(i) (ii)


A patient of his middle 60s died in hospital after 2 hours taking high dose of antibiotic prescribed by a doctor. The patient presented with low blood pressure prior to his death due to shock and fever. Patient entered hospital in a day before his death and was diagnosed to be infected by Vibrio cholera. Why doctor should not prescribe the high dose of antibiotic to this patient? How does this bacteria cause death to this patient even though he was on medication? (1 mark, 4 marks) Shigella was responsible for a substantial portion of foodborne outbreaks on cruise ships. This bacterium can cause food poisoning to passengers of cruise ships due to sanitation violations related to food handling and communicable disease. (i) (ii) Explain this type of outbreak that caused by Shigella. (3 marks)

Suggest one way to avoid this outbreak on a cruise ships by infected food handlers. (1 mark)

Figure 2 c) Figure 2 shows appearance of Enterobius vermicularis which is a type of parasite called a nematode or roundworm that is transmitted via a transmission route. How does this parasite enter and cause the infection to the patients? (5 marks)

Final Examination 2011 2. Staphylococcus aureus is present in vaginal flora. When these bacteria multiply profusely they secrete exotoxins, which are absorbed into the bloodstream. There the toxins induce fever, a red rash on trunk and low blood pressure. The low blood pressure brings on shock. Decreased use of high-absorbency tampons or other devices used in vagina for long periods of time reduces the possibility of this disease. Which disease matches the above description? (3 marks)

Reseat Examination 2013

3. Viruses gain access to host cells because they have attachment sites for receptors on the host cell. Visible signs of viral infections are called cytopathic effects.Relate the following virus to their cytopathic effect: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) Poliovirus Adenovirus Measles virus Polyomavirus Human Inmmunodeficiency Virus (HIV) (5 marks)

Modified Final Examination 2011 4. Microorganisms express numerous survival and virulence factors to overcome hostile in vivo conditions. (a) Describe in general how does bacteria undergo bacterial survival mechanisms to overcome physiological barriers of host. (6 marks) Name three bacteria that produce a hydrophilic extracellular capsule. (6 marks)

(b) (c)

Name three antiphagocytic factors produced by bacteria to avoid phagocytosis by host. (3 marks) State the function of the following enzyme: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) Hemolysins Coagulases Streptokinase Hyaluronidase Collagenase (10 marks)