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Student name: Salah Hewidi

Msc project (interim report) Course: EN 541

Supervisor:

Abstract:

Shell and tube type heat exchangers are widely used in process industries, for economic reasons; there is a need for a new optimization approach for shell and tube type heat exchanger design and operation. The objective function is to achieve a minimal total annual cost of heat exchangers, Pressure drop and heat transfer are interdependent, and both of them strongly influence capital and operating costs of any heat transfer system. In designing a heat exchanger, it is necessary to determine the optimal dimensions of the exchanger with the given conditions of the equipment operation. The goal is to obtain the most economically optimal design. An economic assessment allows a comparable estimation of various alternatives. The total annual cost consisting of fixed and variable costs of the heat exchanger were selected as a criterion that summarizes different factors of influence into one objective function. Major cost components of a heat exchange system are capital, operating. A thermal-hydraulic model for shell and tube heat exchangers has been derived. It represents the relationship between heat transfer, pressure drop and exchanger area, and gives the possibility to predict heat transfer coefficients from pressure drops. It is used in the optimal design of shell and tube heat exchangers.

Contents . Nomenclature 1. Introduction 2. Background theory 2.1 Heat exchanger 2.2 Shell and tube heat exchanger 2.3 Heat exchanger performance 2.4 Heat exchanger performance improvement 2.5 The case study

3. Data procedures for heat exchanger optimization 4. Calculation and results 5. Conclusions 6. Future work 7. Reference: 8. Appendix

Nomenclature

A b c Cp d D G h hf j k L m M nd nn nt np Pr p P R Re T u U Heat transfer area, m spacing between bafflers, mm clearance between tubes, mm heat capacity per unit mass at constant pressure, j/kgk diameter of tubes, mm diameter of shell, mm effectiveness of heat transfer, dimensionless mass flow rate, kg/sm film heat transfer coefficient, w/mk fouling factor, w/mk heat transfer factor, dimensionless thermal conductivity, w/mk length of tube per pass, m number of rows of tubes accommodated in half the shell, dimensionless mass flow rate, kg/s maximum number of tubes on inside diameter of shell, dimensionless equivalent number of tubes for two nozzles, dimensionless total number of tubes, dimensionless equivalent number of tubes for two passes divider, dimensionless prandtl number, dimensionless tube pitch, mm power, w heat capacity ratio, dimensionless Reynolds number, dimensionless temperature, C mean linear velocity, m/s overall heat transfer coefficient, w/mk

x

p

thickness of tube wall, mm pressure drop, N/m dynamic viscosity of fluid, Ns/m density of fluid, kg/m

Subscripts C e H i o s t referring to cooler fluid referring to equivalent referring to hotter fluid referring to inside referring to outside referring to shell referring to tube

1. Introduction

Shell and tube heat exchangers the most commonly used in process industries because of their relatively simple manufacturing and their adaptability to different operating conditions. The principle of operation is simple enough: Two fluids of different temperatures are brought into close contact but are prevented from mixing by a physical barrier. The temperature of the two fluids will tend to equalize. By arranging counter-current flow it is possible for the temperature at the outlet of each fluid to approach the temperature at the inlet of the other. The heat contents are simply exchanged from one fluid to the other and vice versa. No energy is added or removed. High primary energy consumption is typical of the chemical and process industries. Each production is tied up with requirements for profitability and process efficiency. Shell and tube heat exchangers distinguishes itself by low-pressure drops with high flow velocities; the capital requirement of it, as well as the associated flow (i.e. the combined power and capital) cost requirement due to pressure drops of the pumped streams in a unit can be very expensive. In addition, the dependence of total cost to capital or current requirements is highly affected by commercial policies of the company Optimization of shell and tube heat exchangers from an economic point of view involves both capital and operating costs, those which gain importance because of the current and future share of the market of this heat exchanger type in various industries. Unfortunately, the known commercial design procedures and tools do not consist of optimization strategies. However they are presented as simplified expressions describing interactions between heat transfer and pressure drop which can be used to optimize the design of these kinds of heat exchangers. The objective is to illustrate the use of the transfer method for optimum size on basis of minimum annual cost of a 1 2 shell and tube heat exchanger used by Jowfe oil Technology Company at Libya, required to cool an organic liquid by using water flowing through the shell as coolant [13].

2. Background Theory

Heat Transfer Concepts Heat is a form of energy that is transferred from one body to another body flows due to difference in temperature, the heat transfers from the hotter body to the colder one. This will continue until the temperatures of the bodies are the same (thermal equilibrium). The transfer of heat occurs via one or any combination of the three modes of heat transfer conduction, convection and radiation. Generally, the radiation heat transfer is of little importance for heat exchangers operating at low temperatures. Heat Flow through a Pipe The heat transfer through a pipe is dependent on the thickness of the pipe layer. The thickness of the pipe can be defined by the radius of layers i.e. Din, and Dout the thermal conductivity of layer is, K The fluid within the pipe is at temperature Tin, and the heat transfer coefficient from fluid to the wall is h in. The temperature and heat transfer coefficient for the fluid outside the pipe are Tout and h out. By using Fouriers law of conduction and Newtons law of cooling, it can be shown that for a steady state heat transfer [6]:

din

dout

2.1 Heat exchanger. Heat Exchanger many engineering applications involve a process of heat exchange its built for efficient heat transfer from one fluid to another. Some examples of application are intercoolers, preheaters, boilers, condensers in chemical processing, and air conditioning [6].

2.1.1 Types and classification of heat exchanger: 1. Recuperative type: In which fluids exchange heat from hot fluid to the cold fluid. 2. Regenerative type: in which hot and cold fluids works alternatively as a sink or source for heat flow through a matrix. 3. Direct type: in which fluids direct contact in the same space. The recuperative type of heat exchanger which is the most common in practice can be classified according to one of the following types Parallel-flow, Counter-flow, and Cross-flow as in fig (2) [3].

Th

Tc

Tc

Th

Figure (2) Heat exchanger classification 2.2 Shell and tube Heat exchanger The most common type of heat exchanger used in industry contains a number of parallel tubes enclosed in a shell and is thus called a shell and tube heat.

The shell and tube heat exchanger consists of a cylinder (shell) to pack in a large number of tubes. The inner fluid flow through several of tubes, the outer fluid flow through the shell and forced be buffers, which provided to support the tubes, and direct the fluid flow and increase the turbulence, consequently improve the convection heat transfer [7].

Tube outlet Shell inlet

Baffles

Shell outlet

Tube inlet

Figure (3) Shell and tube heat exchanger 2.2.1 Type of shell tube exchanger 1. Fixed tube plate. 2. U tube. 3. Internal floating head without clamp ring. 4. Internal floating head with clamp ring. 5. External floating head packed gland. 6. Kettle reboiler with U tube bundle [7]. 2.2.2 Tube arrangements The tubes are usually arranged in equilateral triangular or square pattern as shown in figure (4) [7]

di do

Flow P C P

2.2.3 Tube passes The fluid in the tube is usually directed to flow back and forth in a number of passes to increase the length of the flow path. The arrangement of the pass partition for 2, 4, and 6 tubes are shown in figure (5) [7].

Figure (5) Tube passes 2.2.4 Baffles Baffles are used in the shell to direct the fluid stream across the tube, to increase the fluid velocity and so improve the rate of transfer. The most commonly used type of baffle shown in figure (6) [7].

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2.3 Heat exchanger performance: 2.3.1 Heat Exchanger Effectiveness Heat Exchanger Effectiveness is defined as the ratio of the actual rate of heat transfer Q to the maximum theoretically possible of heat transfer Qmax [4]

2.3.2 The Number of Transfer Units The number of transfer units (NTU) is a measure of a heat exchanger's ability to transfer heat by consider of heat exchanger size factor [4].

2.4 Heat exchanger performance improvement To get the most out of a heat exchanger means saving money, particularly if the process is built for a long-term operations. Some ways to improve the performance of a heat exchanger:1. Heat transfer area . 2. Fluid flow velocity . 3. Temperature gradient [4]. 2.4.1 Heat transfer area As the equation (1), the heat transfer area is directly proportional to the heat transfer rate. As the heat transfer area increases, heat transfer rate increases. 2.4.2 Fluid flow rate velocity As the cooling fluid velocity increases, the cooling fluid is able to dissipate heat more effectively.

11

2.4.3 Temperature gradient Temperature gradient is an important factor of heat transfer. It is the driving force for heat transfer. If we can introduce fluids with larger temperature difference into the heat exchanger, the heat transfer rate (Q) will be higher [4] .

2.5 The case study. To optimize the size of a 1 2 shell and tube heat exchanger required to cool 20 kg/s of an organic liquid from 70c to 50c using water flowing through the shell as coolant. The water enters at 20c and leaves at a temperature not exceed 50c. The steel tubes used of 20SWG thickness having an outside diameter of 19 mm. the tube have a length of 2.4 and are laid out on a 25mm triangle pitch. The shell contains 25 per cent cut segmental baffles space 15.25mm apart [13].

Chemical reactor N1

Chemical reactor N2

Water pump

12

x L Shell

di Tubes C p Di

do

Figure (8) Exchanger dimension describe Data of heat exchanger an on Jowfe Oil Company [13] b = 152.4 mm c = 6 mm , d o =19 mm , p = 25 mm , De = 17.27 mm , L =2.4 mm , x=2 mm

, d i =15 mm , d m = 17 mm , k = 45 W/mk

, At = 8.835 10 -5 nt mm

Cp = 1675 j/kgk

k = 0.1731 W/mk Pr = 4.35 Shell side Water specification in appendix (1)

13

To optimize the heat exchanger calculations proceeded as follow: 1- One of the factors which effective on the performance of the exchanger is heat transfer area accordingly, to optimize the exchanger five inside shell diameters selected Ds (0.25, 0.3, 0.35, 0.4,and 0.45 m) based the exchanger used by the company. 2- Tube side heat transfer calculations as in appendix (1). 3- Shell side heat transfer calculations as in appendix (1) 4- Overall heat transfer calculations as in appendix (1). 5- plot the actual and the required heat transfer coefficient vs. the heat transfer area for each value of the water outlet temperature Tc(outlet), from these curves read off the values of area at the point where the actual and the required overall heat transfer coefficients U are the same, at each value of Tc(outlet) 6- plot the values of the temperatures Tc(outlet) which actual and required U are the same vs. the area, and read off the values of the water outlet temperature Tc(outlet) which correspond to the heat transfer areas of the 1-2 shell and tube heat exchangers with standard shell inside diameters. 7- The pressure drop, pressure drop and power calculations an in appendix (1). 8- Estimation the fixed capital cost for the equipment from figure. [11] 9- Power consuming cost calculated basis of the electrical power cost rate 0.15/kW 10- Plot the total power cost for 5 years operating vs. the operating hours per day to select the optimum heat exchanger according to the daily operating hours.

14

4.1 tube side coefficient: Table (1) shows an example of the results obtained for the heat transfer in the tube side (complete results shown on table (1) appendix (2). the principles of the study are as follow: 1- As the inside shell diameter increase the number of the tubes increases consequently the heat transfer area increase. 2- From the results the Reynolds number is > 2100 the flow is therefore well into the turbulent region for all options. 3- Since the mass flow rate of the organic liquid is constant, therefore as the number of the tubes increases the (Re) decreases.

Table (1) Tube side heat transfer calculations (organic liquid) Options selected Ds ( inside shell diameter(m)) nt (corrected no. of tubes) At (the cross sectional flow area(m)) u s (the mean linear velocity(m/s)) G h (the mass flow rate(kg/sm)) Re (Reynolds number) j h (heat transfer factor) hi (inside film heat transfer coefficients(w/mk)) As (the cross sectional flow area for the shell stream(m)) A (heat transfer area(m)) 1 0.25 60 0.00529875 4.284307732 3774.475112 125815.8371 0.002578794 6117.773381 0.009144 6.7854

15

4.2 Shell side coefficient: Table (2) shows an example of the results obtained for the heat transfer in the shell side. (Complete results shown on table (2) appendix (2)). The principles of the study are as follow: 1- For different outlet temperatures the mass flow rate of water decreases as the outlet temperatures increases. 2- As the outlet temperature, and the inside shell diameter increases, the flow forward to the laminar flow.

Table 2 Shell side heat transfer calculations (water) Tc(outlet(C)) mc (mass flow rate(kg/s)) Tc(mean(C) Cp(heat capacity of water(j/kgk)) (dynamic viscosity of water) k c (thermal conductivity of water(w/mk)) Pr (Prandtl number) (Gc)s (mass flow rate (kg/ms) for Di = .25 (Re)s (Reynolds number) for Di = .25 53690.26573 2919.290908 26 26.69399606 23 4183.212825 0.000939019 0.6146288 6.391035246

( j h )s (hi )s

(heat transfer factor) for Di = .25 (film heat transfer coefficient(w/mk)) for Di = .25 9253.91388 0.002611284

16

4.3 Overall coefficient Table (3) shows an example of the results obtained for the overall heat transfer in the heat exchanger, (complete results shown on table (3) appendix (2)). By Comparing between the required and actual overall heat transfer coefficient for each inside shell diameter and the tube outlet temperature, the results plot on figure (9).

Table 3 Overall heat transfer calculations Tc(outlet(C)) mc*Cp E (effectiveness of heat transfer) R (heat capacity ratio NTU ( number of transfer units) UiAi (w/k) Ui(overall heat transfer coefficient (w/mk)) required for Di = .25 actual for Di = .25 Ai (area (m) where required U = actual U) 3159.725293 2341.972084 9.3 26 111666.6667 0.4 0.3 0.64 21440

17

4600 4100 3600 3100 2600 2100 1600 1100 600 0.00 5.00

Actual U at Tc(outlet)=26 Actual U at Tc(outlet)=44 Required U at Tc(outlet)=32 Required U at Tc(outlet)=50

9.3

10.00

12.9

15.00

Area

17.7

20.00

23.9

25.00

30.00

From these curves read off the values of area at the point where the actual and the required overall heat transfer coefficients U are the same and compare with the outlet water temperature as shown in figure (10)

25 Area of exchanger 20 15 10 5 26 31 36 41 46 Cooling water tempetature

A=19.6,Di=.4 A=14.7,Di=.35 A=10.4,Di=.3

- It's clearly from fig (10) that as outlet water temperature arise the heat exchanger needs bigger. - To find for the optimum heat exchanger power consuming must be calculate.

18

4.4 Pressure drop and power Complete results shown on table (4) appendix (2). The principles of the study are as follow: 1- As the inside shell diameter increase the pressure drop in the exchanger reduced consequently the power required to pumping the fluids though the exchanger reduced 2- As the heat exchanger area increased fixed capital cost for the heat exchanger and pumps increase. 3- As the heat exchanger area increased the variable (operating) cost decreases. 4- the best results is the summation of all capital and operating costs for 5 years operating and find the lower overall cost figure (11).

35000 33000 31000 29000 27000 25000 23000 21000 19000 17000 15000

total power cost for 5 years operating ()

8 9 101112131415161718192021222324

operating hours per day(h)

19

4.5 Specification for optimum exchanger Data for the optimum 1-2 Shell and tube heat exchanger, selected on basis of minimum annul cost, are summarized in table (4)

Table 4 specification for optimum exchanger Inside diameter of shell Di Total number of tubes nt Heat transfer area A Flow rate of water through the shell mc Outlet temperature of water Tc 0.4 m 174 19.677 m 8.092 kg/s 40C

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5. Conclusions

The most economical design of heat exchangers, depends upon an optimum balance between the heat transfer area and the energy consumption arising because from the pressure drop of streams on both sides of the exchanger. It was found that the 0.4 m inside shell diameter exchanger, gave the economical design for 5 years operating 24hrs a day. Exchangers with 0.25, and .45 m inside shell diameter rejected because it's not met the operation conditions. Because the owner using the outlet water for cleaning purpose not recycling, which mean no extra energy added to the cycle, and the higher outlet water temperature 40C will be a benefit for the cleaning.

21

6. Future work

According to the study on this project, it is necessary to enhance the overall surface heat transfer rate. This may achieved by lowering the convective resistance by increasing the convective heat transfer coefficient or from the lowering the conductive resistance by increasing the surface area, the latter can be achieved by extending the surface area through the addition of fins. Future work will be to study the fins and how it will improve the heat exchanger which is optimized on this part of project. Gantt chart for future task Project part one Task description 1 Supervisor meeting 2 Library search for useful books 3 Internet search for useful website 4 Available source study 5 Data submissions 6 Calculation 7 Result analysis 8 Report writing 9 Report submission January 04 July04 August 04 Septemer04

w1 w2 w3 w4 w1 w2 W3 w4 w1 w2 w3 w4 w1 w2 w3 w4

Planning Actual

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

October 04 November 04 December 04 January 05 Project part two w1 w2 w3 w4 w1 w2 w3 w4 w1 w2 w3 w4 w1 w2 w3 w4 Task description Supervisor meeting Library search for useful books Internet search for useful website Available source study Data submissions Calculation Result analysis Report writing Report submission

w = weeks 4 hr daily study

22

7. Reference:

1. James P. Hartnett, Tomas F. Irvine, Advances in heat transfer, vol.15, Academic press, 1982. 2. J. P. Holman, Heat transfer, ed.7, McGraw-Hill, 1992 3. Christopher long, Essential heat transfer, Longman, 1999 4. Donald R. Pitts, Leighton E. Sissom, Theory and problems of heat transfer, ed 2, schaums outline series, McGraw-Hill, 1997. 5. Jesse S. Doolittle, Francis J. Hale, Thermodynamics for engineers, John Wiley & sons, 1984. 6. T. D. Eastop, A. Mcconkey, Applied thermodynamics for engineering technologists, ed 5, Longman, 1993. 7. R. K. Sinnott, Chemical engineering, Vol. 6, ed. 3, Butterworth Heinemann, 1999. 8. Howard F. rase, Chemical reactors design for process plants, Vol. 1, principles and techniques, John Wiley & sons, 1977 9. Zhang Zhnegguo, Experimental study on heat transfer enhancement of a helically baffled heat exchanger combined with three-dimensional finned tubes, Science direct , Applied thermal engineering, vol.24, issue 14-15, February 2004 10. B. Khalifeh Soltan, M. Saffar-AvvalMinimizing ,capital and operating costs of shell and tube condensers using optimum baffle spacing Science direct , Applied thermal engineering, June 2004 11. Thomas Aichera, Holger Martin RayleighBenard convection in vertical shell and tube heat exchangers ,Science direct, Chemical Engineering and Processing Volume 38, Issues 4-6 , September 1999, 12. Equipment costs. www.matche.com. 13. Data source, operation manger, Jowfe Oil Technology Libya

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Appendix 1(equations used for calculation) In this appendix show all equations used to optimize the exchanger:1- Physical data of Water [7]. = 0.1/ [2.14819{(TK -281.635) + [8087.4+ (TK 281.635)] 2 } - 120] ...........................(1) = 1200.92 0.015739TK + 0.0010824(TK) ...(2) ...(3)

1

k =0.34+0.0009278 TK

...(4)

2- Data procedures for heat exchanger optimization 2.1- The heat flow rate Q (w), given by: [2]

2.3- The total numbers of tubes nt for several 1-2 shell and tube heat exchangers each with a standard shell inside diameter, given by: [7] nt = m(2nd - m ) ...............(7)

nd =

Di - 1 ...(8) p

m = .577n d + .423 (9) 2.4- The Reynolds number Re, given by: [5]

Re =

Gd i ...(10) m

2.5- Heat transfer factor jh, given by: [2] 2.5.1- For tube side Re greater than 10000 j h =

0.027 Re 0.2

.........................(11)

24

j h (c p )h G h prh2 3

0.351 Re 0.45

.............(12)

2.6- The film heat transfer coefficient hi, given by: [2] 2.6.1- For tube inside ji = 2.6.2- For shell side Where: 2.6.3- Pr is the Prandtl number = .(13)

ji =

j h (c p )c Gc prc

2 3

.(14)

cpm k

(15)

2.7- The cross sectional flow area As for shell side, given by: [7]

As =

( pt - d o )bDi

pt

.(16)

2.8- The heat transfer area At based on the inside diameter of the tubes, given by: [7] At = p .d i L.nt ..(17) 2.9- Actual overall heat transfer U, given by: [6]

di d i ln d d 1 1 o = + i + U i hi hs d o 2k + 1 (18) hf

2.10- The effectiveness of heat transfer e , search for (mc p )min given by: [2]

e=

c h (Th,i - Th ,o )

c min (Th ,i - Tc ,i )

cc (Tc ,o - Tc ,i )

.(19)

R=

(mc ) (mc )

p min

.(20)

p max

2.12- The number of transfer units NTU, read of from the graph of e vs. NTU for each value of e and R. 2.13- The required overall heat transfer coefficient U. since UA is the multiplication of NTU by the (mc p )min , [7]

25

U=

..(21)

2.14- The pressure drop p for the tube and shell sides, given by: [7]

l Dp = 8 j f d i ru 2 2 (22)

For tube side multiply by the number of the passes for this case 2 passes. 2.15- The electric power consumption to pumping the fluids, given by: [11]

Dp m P(w ) = ..(23) r

2.16- Annual electric power consumption, given by: [11] Pa = P(operating hours ) ..(24)

26

Appendix 2 (results) This is full results obtained by use of the speared sheet (excel program) as on the attached disc. Table 1 Tube side heat transfer calculations (organic liquid) Option selected

(Di)s( inside shell diameter(m)) Nd(max. number of tubes on inside diameter of shell) m(number of rows of tubes ) nT(max. number of tubes) nN(equivalent no. of tubes from two nozzles) Np(equivalent no. of tubes from two pass arrangement) nT(corrected no. of tubes) At(the cross sectional flow area(m)) u(the mean linear velocity(m/s)) GH(the mass flow rate(kg/sm)) Re(Reynolds number) jH(heat transfer factor) hi(inside film heat transfer coefficients(w/mk)) As(the cross sectional flow area for the shell stream(m)) A (heat transfer area(m)) 1 0.25 9 5.616 70 5 5.616 60 0.00529 4.28430 3774.47 125815.8 0.00257 6117.77 0.00914 6.7854 2 0.3 11 6.77 104 6 6.77 92 0.00812 2.79411 2461.61 82053.8 0.00280 4345.94 0.01097 10.4042 3 0.35 13 7.924 144 7 7.924 130 0.01148 1.97737 1742.06 58068.8 0.00301 3295.79 0.01280 14.7017 4 0.4 15 9.078 190 8 9.078 174 0.01536 1.47734 1301.54 43384.7 0.00319 2610.20 0.01463 19.6776 5 0.45 17 10.232 244 9 10.232 224 0.01978 1.14758 1011.02 33700.6 0.00335 2132.63 0.01645 25.3321

Tc(outlet(C)) mC(mass flow rate(kg/s)) TC(mean(C)) Cp(heat capacity of water(j/kgk)) (dynamic viscosity of water) kC (thermal conductivity of water (w/mk)) Pr(Prandtl number) (Gc)s(mass flow rate (kg/ms)) for Di = .25 for Di = .30 for Di = .35 for Di = .40 for Di = .45 (Re)s(Reynolds number) for Di = .25 for Di = .30 for Di = .35 for Di = .40 for Di = .45 (Jh)s(heat transfer factor) for Di = .25 for Di = .30 for Di = .35 0.00261 0.00283 0.00303 0.00345 0.00375 0.00402 0.00402 0.00437 0.00468 0.00445 0.00483 0.00518 0.00479 0.00520 0.00557 53690.2 44741.8 38350.1 33556.4 29827.9 28758.7 23965.6 20541.9 17974.2 15977.0 20481.6 17068.0 14629.7 12801.0 11378.7 16367.5 13639.6 11691.0 10229.7 9093.06 13917.9 11598.2 9941.3 8698.70 7732.18 26 26.69399 23 4183.212 0.000939 0.614628 6.391035 2919.290 2432.742 2085.207 1824.556 1621.828 32 13.3501 26 4182.21 0.00087 0.61741 5.93888 1459.99 1216.66 1042.85 912.496 811.107 38 8.90164 29 4181.49 0.00082 0.62019 5.53432 973.496 811.246 695.354 608.435 540.831 44 6.67693 32 4181.05 0.00077 0.62297 5.17086 730.198 608.498 521.570 456.374 405.665 50 5.34175 35 4180.90 0.00072 0.62576 4.84312 584.181 486.817 417.272 365.113 324.545

27

for Di = .40 for Di = .45 Hs(film heat transfer coefficient(w/mk) for Di = .25 for Di = .30 for Di = .35 for Di = .40 for Di = .45

Tc(outlet(C)) Mc*Cp E (effectiveness of heat transfer) R (heat capacity ratio) NTU ( number of transfer units) UiAi Ui(overall heat transfer coefficient (w/mk)) required for Di = .25 actual for Di = .25 required for Di = .30 actual for Di = .30 required for Di = .35 actual for Di = .35 required for Di = .40 actual for Di = .40 required for Di = .45 actual for Di = .45 Ai (area (m) where required U = actual U) 26 111666.6 0.4 0.3 0.64 21440 3159.725 2341.972 2060.690 2293.635 1458.334 2250.560 1089.560 2211.622 846.3549 2176.039 9.3 32 55833.3 0.4 0.6 0.7 23450 3455.95 1883.23 2253.88 1838.43 1595.05 1798.75 1191.70 1763.07 925.700 1730.631 12.9 38 37222.2 0.4 0.9 0.78 26130 3850.91 1581.44 2511.46 1542.66 1777.34 1508.36 1327.90 1477.56 1031.49 1449.59 17.7 44 27916.6 0.48 0.83333 1 27916.6 4114.22 1360.67 2683.19 1327.6 1898.87 1298.33 1418.69 1272.04 1102.02 1248.15 23.9 50 22333.3 0.6 0.66666 1.38 30820 4542.10 1190.14 2962.24 1161.97 2096.35 1137.02 1566.24 1114.58 1216.63 1094.17

28

(Di)s( inside shell diameter(m)) Re (Reynolds number) Jh (heat transfer factor) p (pressure drop(N/m) tube side theoretical power(w)/hr 0.3 82053.81 0.002907 42791.74 971.4355 28 24 4182.849 20.02224 1824.715 0.000917 902.7565 34346.68 0.030241 17.37116 122049.2 2706.93 3678.365 43.88% 0.35 58068.85 0.003182 22641.95 514.0057 34.2 27.1 4181.92 11.28264 881.3462 0.000856 899.6443 17790.55 0.034335 20.26636 37846.31 474.639 988.6447 43.16% 0.4 43384.77 0.003434 13257.83 300.9723 39.8 29.9 4181.336 8.09272 553.1441 0.000805 896.8334 11864.09 0.037128 23.16155 18480.66 166.7632 467.7354 42%

Tc(outlet(C))

Tc(mean) (Cp)c Mc Gs (mass flow rate (dynamic viscosity of water) c Re (Reynolds number) Jf (heat transfer factor) Di/De p Shell side theoretical power(w)/hr total power consumption(w/hr) Heat exchanger efficiency

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